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Bazzoli, Ilario (2013) Production and economic traits of purebreed and crossbred animals in diary herds of mountain areas. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Beef production from dairy herds represents an alternative source to improve the farm profitability. The use of beef semen to mate cattle not destined to breed replacement represent an interesting source of income for dairy farmers particularly due to the greater price and value of crossbreed calves respect purebred calves at sale. Unfortunately this practice has been decreasing in the last years in the more specialized herds of the Po valley mainly due to fertility and longevity problems of the high productivity dairy cattle. However, on the mountain area, were farms are characterized by less productivity but high longevity and fertility of their cattle, the low replacement rate permitted each year the use of beef sire to mate a considerable number of cattle not destined to breed replacement.
In the Trentino area (North of Italy) every week the breeding federation collected calves from associated dairy herds and the best of these for beef traits, following weaning at specialized farms, were fattened at local associated fattening farms. After fattening, young bulls and heifers are slaughtered at the same abattoir and the meat are sold at the central butchers and to the entire cooperative wire markets of the Province. This meat is sold with a certified mark that guarantee birth, fattening and slaughtering of the animals in the same area. Moreover, weekly, the breeding Federation of Trento province collected cull cows from associated dairy herds too and these cattle are sold to an associated abattoir.
The aim of the present thesis were to study production and economic traits from the whole beef output from dairy herds in mountain area; the first contribute of the thesis analyzed production and economic traits of slaughtered cull cows while the second and the third contributes analyzed production and selling traits of calves at sale (average 24 days of age). Finally the last contribute studied production and economic traits of young bulls and heifers at slaughter respect the purchase beginning value of calf.
Results of first contribute evidenced that the value of cull cows at slaughter represents a significant source of income for the dairy farm and the large differences among different breeds for cull cow value suggests its possible inclusion in the selection objectives of these breeds. Holstein-Friesian cows were younger at slaughter, yielded lighter carcasses and received a lower price and total value than Brown Swiss cows while dual purpose breeds were older, heavier and received a greater price and value at slaughter than both dairy breeds.
Results from the study that analyzed calves traits had evidenced that the dual-purpose purebred calves received, on average, greater price and value at sale than purebred dairy calves. Furthermore, among crossbreed calves, the progeny from Belgian Blue sire and Simmental dam evidenced the greatest live weight and selling values. Moreover, results evidenced that the majority of purebred calves from dairy dams were most likely destined for veal production while many dual-purpose calves were most likely destined for beef production as well as the vast majority of beef crossbreed calves.
Results from the final contribute evidenced that crossbred young bulls and beef heifers from Belgian Blue sires and Simmental dam achieved the highest carcass weight and the best daily gain and carcass value. The best economic revenue was achieved by Simmental bulls among purebred animals, and by Belgian Blue sire x Holstein Friesian dams, among crossbreed animals. This is mainly related to less purchase value of calves at the beginning of the fattening period.
Results might be useful for the farmers as guideline to quantify an alternative source of income and to improve the farm profitability obtained from beef production in dairy herds.

Abstract (italiano)

La produzione di carne da parte degli allevamenti di vacche da latte rappresenta un’interessante opportunità per gli allevatori come strategia per l’incremento della redditività aziendale. L’impiego del toro da carne per la fecondazione di bovine da latte non destinate a produrre la rimonta aziendale permette di ottenere un indubbio guadagno dalla vendita dei vitelli meticci se paragonata alla vendita dei vitelli puri. Purtroppo, tale pratica è quasi scomparsa nelle stalle specializzate ad alta produttività di pianura a causa di un’elevata quota di rimonta dovuta principalmente a problemi di fertilità e longevità delle bovine da latte.
Nelle aree di montagna, caratterizzate da una dimensione aziendale medio-piccola, la pratica dell’uso del toro da carne sulle vacche da latte rappresenta ancor oggi la normalità poiché il livello produttivo medio aziendale associato ad una buona fertilità e longevità delle razze bovine allevate permette di mantenere una bassa quota di rimonta e quindi di poter destinare tutte le bovine eccedenti la rimonta ad essere fecondate con razze specializzate da carne in modo da massimizzare il profitto ottenibile dalla vendita dei vitelli baliotti.
In provincia di Trento la federazione degli allevatori ritira e vende settimanalmente i vitelli dalle stalle dei soci ad un’età media di circa 24 giorni. I soggetti che presentano le migliori potenzialità per quanto riguarda la produzione della carne sono dapprima ceduti ad aziende specializzate per lo svezzamento e poi trasferiti presso centri specializzati d’ingrasso. Alla fine del ciclo d’ingrasso tali soggetti sono macellati e la carne è venduta all’interno di una filiera controllata distribuita capillarmente a livello provinciale per cui l’animale nasce, è allevato e macellato nella stessa area di produzione; il tutto garantito da marchio di certificazione.
Oltre a seguire vitelli e ingrasso degli stessi la Federazione allevatori di Trento ritira settimanalmente dagli allevamenti da latte dei soci e vende ad un unico macello, a cui è associata, tutte le bovine a fine carriera.
Gli obiettivi della presente tesi di dottorato sono stati quelli di valutare dal punto di vista produttivo ed economico l’intera filiera di produzione della carne in ambiente montano. Il primo contributo ha studiato le fonti di variazione che influenzano l’età, il peso, il prezzo e il valore commerciale di vacche a fine carriera in fase di macellazione. Nel secondo contributo sono state analizzate le fonti di variazione che influenzano età, peso vivo, e valore dei vitelli raccolti a circa 24 giorni di vita dalla Federazione allevatori di Trento e nel terzo contributo è stata valutata l’influenza della destinazione del vitello (carne bianca o vitellone) e della razza sui caratteri produttivi ed economici degli animali. Infine, nel quarto contributo, sono stati analizzati i caratteri legati al peso e al valore finale di vitelloni e manze da carne in fase di macellazione.
I risultati del primo contributo hanno evidenziato l’importanza economica delle vacche da riforma e hanno mostrato significative differenze fra le razze analizzate. Le vacche di razza Frisona Italiana hanno mostrato delle performance in termini di peso e valore alla macellazione peggiori della Bruna Italiana, mentre le razze a duplice attitudine (Pezzata Rossa) hanno mostrato una maggiore redditività alla vendita.
I risultati derivanti dall’analisi delle performance produttive ed economiche dei vitelli raccolti settimanalmente dalla Federazione Allevatori di Trento hanno evidenziato maggiori pesi alla vendita e valori commerciali per i vitelli provenienti da razze a duplice attitudine rispetto alle razze specializzate da latte. I vitelli ottenuti dall’incrocio fra toro da carne (Blue Belga) e vacche a duplice attitudine (Pezzata Rossa) sono risultati i migliori sia in termini di peso vivo che di prezzo e valore alla vendita. La maggior parte dei vitelli maschi derivanti da razze specializzate da latte sono destinati alla produzione del vitello a carne bianca mentre i vitelli derivanti dall’incrocio con il toro da carne sono maggiormente destinati alla produzione del vitellone da carne.
I risultati del contributo finale hanno permesso di caratterizzare i pesi e i valori commerciali di vitelloni e manze da carne ingrassati all’interno della Provincia di Trento. I vitelloni e le manze derivanti dall’incrocio fra toro Blue Belga e vacca Pezzata Rossa hanno evidenziato le migliori performance produttive (peso della carcassa e accrescimento medio giornaliero) ed economiche alla macellazione. Tuttavia i migliori risultati economici sono stati evidenziati dai vitelloni e manze da carne derivanti dalla combinazione fra Blue Belga e Frisona Italiana e dai vitelloni derivanti dalla Pezzata Rossa; questo risultato è legato alla ridotta valutazione economica dei vitelli che derivano dall’incrocio con la razza Frisona Italiana.
I risultati saranno utili per gli allevatori come linea guida per massimizzare il reddito proveniente dalla vendita di vitelli, dell’ingrasso degli stessi e dalla vendita delle vacche a fine carriera come fonte di integrazione del reddito aziendale.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:De Marchi, Massimo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE ANIMALI > GENETICA, BIODIVERSITA', BIOSTATISTICA E BIOTECNOLOGIE
Data di deposito della tesi:30 Gennaio 2013
Anno di Pubblicazione:30 Gennaio 2013
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):incrocio/crossbreeding allevamenti da latte/dairy herd
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/17 Zootecnica generale e miglioramento genetico
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:5770
Depositato il:15 Ott 2013 12:26
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