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Ferranti, Cinzia (2013) Studio etnografico di una comunitĂ  professionale blended: il ruolo delle tecnologie formative nella prospettiva della Activity Theory. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Several educational models characterizing communities as environments that foster learning processes, have been formulated in recent years. In the literature we can find different constructs: the community of learning, the community of practice and the professional community. Most studies based on these constructs focus on the process of peer-education, on ways to participate, on the reification, and on the discursive processes allowing the participants to negotiate meanings or actions within the community.
However, a better understanding of a community's salient features can be achieved by investigating it with a systemic approach. For this reason, we have adopted the Activity Theory perspective of Engeström, expanding the scope of the analysis from the community itself to a broader "activity system". From this perspective, communication technologies play an important role; their evolution allows to move some or all activities of these communities into online spaces. In such learning environments, members can share documents or descriptions of professional practices, discuss real-world issues related to their activities, seek various forms of consensus and alignment; and debate to better assess and determine how to act on the field. Therefore, we have conducted an ethnographic study of a blended professional community, which employs face-to-face and virtual tools and environments, in addition to communication technologies currently well established but completely new to the subjects under examination.
The main goal of this investigation is to elucidate the role of educational technologies with the eventual goal of understanding the community’s professional and organizational culture. The project, viewed as an opportunity to provide change for participants (Engeström, 2008), strove also to gain insight concerning their activity system, the effects that learning in real work contexts can have, and into interactions among members.
Consequently, the main goal of this investigation is to understand the community’s professional and organizational culture, in order to analyze the role of educational technologies towards the development of the community itself as well as in their real work context.
The community was established and developed from a blended learning project involving 74 professionals working on animal health and food safety in the Veneto regional health system. Members includes physicians, veterinarians, safety technicians, biologists, chemists and nutritionists. Their educational objective is to improve the regional public health system ability to manage emergencies related to food risks. At the same time, the intervention was aimed to foster closer cooperation among practitioners and services involved in animal health and food hygiene, to ensure a better protection of public health. The project, viewed as an opportunity to provide change for participants (Engeström, 2008), strove also to gain insight concerning their activity system.
To summarize, the aim of this investigation is to investigate the community from two point of views. Firstly, from inside, to reconstruct the community features. Secondly, from outside, through the extended perspective given by a complex network of actors and the system contradictions emerged in the description of the individuals' activity system. In addition to community analysis, we have elucidated how educational technologies can modify professionals's established practices and allow them to design new communicational structures to solve the major contradictions of the system. Finally, we proposed an innovative model of educational intervention historically and culturally based on the results of ethnographic study

Abstract (italiano)

Negli ultimi anni sono stati teorizzati molti modelli educativi legati ad una concezione di comunità intesa come ambiente capace di favorire processi di apprendimento. In letteratura si trovano diversi costrutti definiti come: comunità d’apprendimento o di discenti, comunità di pratica e comunità professionale. La maggior parte degli studi basati su di essi concentra l’attenzione sui processi di peer-education, sulle dinamiche di partecipazione, sul concetto di reificazione e sulle le pratiche discorsive che consentono di negoziare significati o azioni all’interno della comunità stessa.
Una comprensione migliore delle caratteristiche di una comunitĂ  Ăš perĂČ raggiungibile se la comunitĂ  viene indagata attraverso un approccio sistemico. Per tale motivo abbiamo adottato la prospettiva della Activity Theory di Engeström, ampliando l’unitĂ  d’analisi dalla comunitĂ , al piĂč ampio “sistema d’attività”. In questo senso ricoprono un ruolo particolare le tecnologie: l’evoluzione delle tecnologie della comunicazione ha permesso infatti di spostare in parte o totalmente l’attivitĂ  di tali comunitĂ  in spazi online, a, nei quali i membri possono condividere documenti o singole descrizioni di pratiche professionali, confrontarsi sui problemi reali legati alle loro attivitĂ , cercare forme di consenso e di allineamento, confrontarsi collettivamente per meglio valutare e decidere sul campo. Da tale angolazione abbiamo perciĂČ condotto uno studio etnografico di una comunitĂ  professionale blended, la quale si avvale di ambienti e strumenti sia face to face che virtuali, tecnologie della comunicazione ormai consolidate, ma del tutto nuove per i soggetti esaminati.
L’obiettivo principale dell’ indagine ù stato quindi quello di comprendere la cultura professionale e organizzativa della comunità, con il fine di analizzare il ruolo delle tecnologie della formazione nei processi di sviluppo della comunità stessa e nel loro reale contesto di lavoro.
La comunitĂ  Ăš nata e si Ăš sviluppata a partire da un intervento formativo blended, coinvolgendo un gruppo di 74 professionisti della Regione del Veneto, che si occupano di sanitĂ  animale e igiene alimentare. Si tratta di medici, medici veterinari, tecnici della prevenzione, biologi, chimici e nutrizionisti per i quali l’intervento formativo ha avuto l’iniziale obiettivo di migliorare l'efficacia il sistema regionale di gestione delle emergenze legate al rischio alimentare. Allo stesso tempo l’intervento mirava a favorire una maggiore collaborazione tra i professionisti e tra i servizi che si occupano di sanitĂ  animale e igiene degli alimenti, per garantire una migliore tutela della salute del cittadino. L’intervento formativo ha rappresentato un’opportunitĂ  di cambiamento (Engeström, 2008), che ha fornito l’occasione per acquisire elementi utili per rappresentare il “sistema d’attività” della comunitĂ  in esame.
In sintesi le finalitĂ  dello studio si sono perseguite investigando la comunitĂ  da due punti di vista: quello interno, che ha consentito di delinearne gli elementi strutturali e quello esterno, attraverso una prospettiva piĂč estesa, data dalla rappresentazione della complessa rete di attori e di contraddizioni emerse nella descrizione del “sistema d’attività” in cui la comunitĂ  stessa agisce. A complemento dell’analisi della comunitĂ  abbiamo delineato le modalitĂ  con cui le tecnologie della formazione possano modificare le pratiche dei professionisti e consentano di progettare nuovi sistemi di comunicazione per risolvere le principali contraddizioni di sistema emerse. Infine, abbiamo proposto un innovativo modello di intervento formativo storicamente e culturalmente fondato sugli esiti dello studio etnografico

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Petrucco, Corrado
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE PEDAGOGICHE, DELL'EDUCAZIONE E DELLA FORMAZIONE
Data di deposito della tesi:31 Gennaio 2013
Anno di Pubblicazione:30 Gennaio 2013
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):comunitĂ  porfessionale, tecnologie formative, etnografia blended, formazione degli adulti/ professional community, educational technologies, adult education
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PED/04 Pedagogia sperimentale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:5888
Depositato il:15 Ott 2013 09:27
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