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Messina, Irene (2013) Correlati Neurali dell'Interferenza Proattiva con Parole Emozionali: Implicazioni per i Modelli della Regolazione Emozionale. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Emotion regulation is a key concept in psychopathology and psychotherapy theoretical models (Aldao et al., 2012; Greemberg & Pascual-Leone, 2006). It has been taken into consideration as an important issue in the debates about the possibilities and limits of neuroimaging techniques application in studying complex clinical phenomena (Westen & Gabbard, 2002; Kandel, 2007).
In neuroscience, emotion regulation has been described in terms of cognitive control of emotional responses, in line with the dual-process models based on the difference between controlled and automatic processes (Barrett et al, 2004).
In the first chapter, a meta-analysis of fMRI studies on neural correlates of emotion regulation is described with the aim to summarize the data from the literature, and, in the second place, to compare adaptive and non-adaptive forms of emotion regulation. The results confirm the previous literature that has shown the increase of prefrontal areas activation and the decrease of limbic areas activation in carrying out voluntary strategies of emotion regulation (Ochsner et al., 2008; Diekhof et al., 2011). However, the comparison between adaptive and non-adaptive emotion regulation strategies did not show relevant differences. These results are discussed taking into account the studies’ methodological limits and the intervention of processes that go beyond the categorization of the dual-process models.
Dual-process model of emotion regulation has been applied in describing psychotherapy effects. In this case, it has been hypothesized a change in emotion regulation brain areas as effect of psychotherapy intervention (De Rubeis et al., 2008). With the aim to verify this hypothesis, in the second chapter the results of a second meta-analysis of longitudinal studies on neural effects of psychotherapy is exposed. In line with the results, only a partial confirmation to the dual-process model was provided, whereas it was shown the intervention of semantic attribution processes, dependent on temporal areas (Binder et al., 2009), and self-related information processes, depending on the cortical midline structures (Northoff et al., 2006).
In order to enrich the dual process models of emotion regulation, a neuroimaging study, described in the third chapter, had the aim to explain the implication of attentional processes not attributable to cognitive control. With this aim, the neural correlates of proactive interference (the interference of responses that were previously correct but no longer are) have been investigated. Proactive interference resolution require the control of the internal informational environment, as opposed to resisting the effects of salient or prepotent stimuli of external origin in the elaboration of response, and it is related with semantic categories of the experimental stimuli, which in this experiment included emotional or neutral categories. The result of this study have shown that the emotional content of the experimental stimuli interacts with the increase of proactive interference affecting the modulation of cerebral areas part of the semantic system, (Binder et al., 2001), of the attentional ventral network, involved in forms of attention dependent on the behavioural relevance of stimuli, more than on voluntary attention (Corbetta et al., 2008), and the default system associated with internal directed attention (Raichle et al., 2001).
In the fourth chapter, an analysis of individual differences is described, which showed the association between individual differences in spontaneous avoidance and the modulation of temporal semantic areas.
Finally, at the conclusion of the present dissertation, some clinical and conceptual remarks related to the empirical data are discussed.

Abstract (italiano)

Il tema della regolazione emozionale, centrale nei principali modelli della psicopatologia (Aldao et al., 2012) e della psicoterapia (Greemberg & Pascual-Leone, 2006), è stato interessato dai recenti tentativi di integrazione tra la psicologia clinica e le neuroscienze (Westen & Gabbard, 2002a; Kandel, 2007), inserendosi a pieno titolo all’interno del dibattito contemporaneo sulle possibilità e i limiti forniti dalle nuove tecnologie di neuroimmagine per lo studio di fenomeni clinici complessi.
Nelle neuroscienze, la regolazione emozionale è descritta in termini di controllo cognitivo della risposta emozionale, in linea ai modelli dual-process che categorizzano i processi mentali in controllati e automatici (Barrett et al., 2004). Nel primo capitolo del presente elaborato viene esposto un lavoro di meta-analisi degli studi fMRI sui correlati neurali della regolazione emozionale, che ha avuto lo scopo di riassumere i risultati esistenti in letteratura e, in secondo luogo, di mettere a confronto strategie di regolazione emozionale considerate più o meno adattive. Dai risultati si conferma la letteratura precedente che riporta l’aumento dell’attivazione di aree prefrontali e la diminuzione dell’attivazione di aree limbiche nella messa in atto di strategie di regolazione volontaria (Ochsner & Gross, 2008; Diekhof et al., 2011). Tuttavia, dal confronto tra strategie di regolazione considerate adattive e strategie considerate meno adattive, non vengono rilevati dati utili a documentare l’esistenza di differenze nel valore adattivo delle diverse strategie. Tali risultati sono discussi in relazione ai limiti metodologici dei disegni sperimentali utilizzati e al possibile coinvolgimento di ulteriori processi che sfuggono alla categorizzazione del modello dual-process.
Il modello dual-process della regolazione emozionale ha trovato applicazione anche nella descrizione degli effetti cerebrali delle psicoterapie (De Rubeis et al., 2008), dove è stato ipotizzata una modifica del funzionamento delle aree della regolazione emozionale come effetto degli interventi psicoterapeutici. Con l’obiettivo di verificare questa ipotesi, nel secondo capitolo vengono esposti i risultati di una seconda meta-analisi degli studi longitudinali che hanno valutato gli effetti a livello neurale delle psicoterapie. Dai risultati si ha una conferma soltanto parziale del modello dual-process della regolazione emozionale, mentre si mette in evidenza l’intervento di processi semantici, dipendenti da aree temporali (Binder et al., 2009), e di processi di elaborazione di informazioni relazionate al sé, dipendenti da aree della linea corticale mediale (Northoff et al., 2006).
In vista di un ampliamento dei modelli dual-process della regolazione emozionale, nel terzo capitolo viene presentato uno studio di neuroimmagine che ha avuto lo scopo di descrivere l’implicazione di processi attenzionali differenti dal controllo cognitivo volontario, nell’evitamento di materiale emozionale che sorge spontaneamente nell’individuo. A tal fine sono stati investigati i correlati neurali dell’interferenza proattiva (un tipo di interferenza che si genera quando degli elementi che erano utili per lo svolgimento di un compito precedente, non lo sono più per il compito attuale) la cui risoluzione richiede la gestione di informazioni di origine interna ed è connessa a fattori semantici degli stimoli utilizzati, che in questo caso erano parole appartenenti a categorie semantiche emozionali o neutre. I risultati dello studio mostrano come il contenuto emozionale degli stimoli interagisca con la presenza di interferenza nella modulazione di aree cerebrali riconducibili al sistema semantico (Binder et al., 2009), alla rete attenzionale ventrale, implicata nelle forme di attenzione dipendenti dalla rilevanza comportamentale degli stimoli, più che dall’attenzione volontaria (Corbetta et al., 2008), e al sistema neurale di default, associato a forme di attenzione dirette verso l’interno (Raichle et al., 2001).
Nel quarto capitolo, si presenta un approfondimento dello studio sull’interferenza proattiva che ha mostrato l’associazione di differenze individuali nella tendenza all’evitamento spontaneo e la modulazione delle de-attivazioni riscontrate come effetto del compito di interferenza proattiva con parole emozionali.
Infine, a conclusione del presente elaborato verranno proposte alcune possibili ricadute sia cliniche che scientifiche dei dati empirici presentati.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Sambin, Marco
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOLOGIA SOCIALE E DELLA PERSONALITA'
Data di deposito della tesi:31 Gennaio 2013
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 Gennaio 2013
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):neuroimmagine/neuroimaging regolazione emozionale/emotion regulation psicoterapia/psychotherapy interferenza proattiva/proactive interference
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/07 Psicologia dinamica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:5920
Depositato il:15 Ott 2013 15:04
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