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Congès, G. - Leguilloux, M. (2012) La gestion des troupeaux transhumants dans la Crau d'Arles (Bouches-du-Rhone, France) à l'èpoque romaine données archéologiques et archéozoologiques. In: LA LANA NELLA CISALPINA ROMANA. Economia e Società. Studi in onore di Stefania Pesavento Mattioli. Atti del Convegno (Padova-Verona, 18-20 maggio 2011). Antenor Quaderni (27). Padova University Press, Padova, pp. 311-322. ISBN 978-8897385-30-1

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Abstract (inglese)

In the plain of La Crau, between Arles and Marseille, sheep rearing and transhumance during antiquity were known through texts of Strabo and Pliny. But recent surveys and excavations proved their existence: more than one hundred sheepfolds have been discovered over a 10 000 hectares area. Most of them were used between the 1st and the 3rd c. AD. The maximum density is reached during the 2nd c. Then, after the middle of the 3rd c., the majority of these buildings are abandoned; some of them are occupied until the first half of the 5th c.
Almost all these sheepfolds are built on the same shape. They are long rectangular buildings 40 to 65 m long and 8 to 10 m wide, with a point oriented towards the North.
The management of the livestock is demonstrated by the archaeozoological study. Sheep bones represent 79% of the total. The mortality diagram is specific: 33% are foetal and very young sheep bones from lambs died during the winter; 47% of the bones are from old animals aged more than 7 years that were slaughtered before the departure towards the summer pastures. These practices are characteristic of transhumance: shepherds did not want to carry old animals along the trails. Another indication of these moves are the 10% donkey and horse bones. These animals were used to carry goods and men during the transhumance journey and during the daily moves.

Abstract (italiano)

Dans le territoire de la cité d'€™Arles, la plaine de la Crau s'€™est formée par l'accumulation de galets. Cette zone impropre à la culture était dévolue à  l'€™élevage de moutons à grande échelle sur 55 000 hectares. Les prospections effectuées dans les zones non détruites par l'™agriculture moderne ont permis de repérer 271 structures liées à  l'€™élevage dont 116 grandes bergeries. Les premières bergeries sont datées de la fin du Ier siècle avant notre ère et les constructions se sont poursuivies jusqu’au IVe siècle de notre ère.
Les ossements trouvées dans les dépotoirs des bergeries proviennent dâ€'un nombre limité d'espèces et appartiennent majoritairement aux ovins, indiquant un élevage sélectif de moutons. Par ailleurs une forte proportion d'ossement d'’nes montre que ces animaux étaient utilisés pour le portage et les déplacements dans cette vaste plaine.

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Tipo di EPrint:Contributo in Libro
Anno di Pubblicazione:Ottobre 2012
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Congès, Leguilloux, Lana, Cisalpina romana, transhumance, bergerie, faune
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 10 - Scienze dell'antichità, filologico-letterarie e storico-artistiche > L-ANT/07 Archeologia classica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Beni Culturali: archeologia, storia dell'arte, del cinema e della musica
Codice ID:6009
Depositato il:27 Feb 2013 11:59
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