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Gori, Yuri (2014) Stable isotope dendrochronology in stressed trees: insights into plant-pest interactions and physiological functions during tree life. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Although the links between plant physiological processes and stable isotopes in tree rings are well known, few studies have carried out stable isotope analyses in stressed plants.
The general objective of this thesis is to develop new tools able to identify the short- and long-term responses of plants to fungal attack and insect feeding. I propose a new methodology, which uses stable isotope values as indicators of physiological responses and which was tested on infected and defoliated Norway spruce trees sampled in the south-eastern Alps.
The thesis is divided into four main sections.
In the first section, I present a model designed to accurately estimate environmental proxies for Picea abies, which would serve as the basis for further analyses. This model required calibration and assessment of the effects of climate on the stable isotope signature in different wood components. For this purpose, I developed a simple model to reconstruct mean annual temperature in the south-eastern Alps. I found that δ18O and δ2H values in whole wood were the best signallers of climate.
The second section is aimed at clarifying the influence of environmental conditions on Norway spruce suffering from long-term infection by the white-rot fungus Heterobasidion parviporum. I found that at low elevations, where climatic conditions are unsuitable, H. parviporum was seemingly more aggressive, causing plants to decline more rapidly, decreasing the ability of host trees to cope with drought and, in some cases, arresting cambial activity.
In the third section, I propose using stable isotope ratios as a physiological indicator of Norway spruce affected by H. parviporum over a long period of time and put this forward as a novel way for providing insights into plant–pathogen relationships. I obtained evidence that stomatal conductance increases in Picea abies affected by H. parviporum.
The fourth section focuses on stable isotope ratios and tree-ring chronologies to investigate the short- and long-term effects of defoliation of Picea abies caused by Cephalcia arvensis. I found that drought stress prior to insect attack may have caused the trees to mobilise reserves, making them more susceptible to Cephalcia attack as a result of increased soluble sugars and amino acids

Abstract (italiano)

Nonostante numerosi studi dimostrano una stretta relazione tra i meccanismi fisiologici delle piante e gli isotopi stabili presenti all’interno del legno dei loro anelli, ben poche sono le ricerche svolte in questo settore.
L’obiettivo generale di questa tesi è stato di esplorare e sviluppare nuovi metodi che permettano di identificare le risposte fisiologiche di piante stressate per la presenza di funghi patogeni o per la defogliazione causata da insetti. Il metodo che propongo con la presente tesi prevede l’analisi degli accrescimenti annuali (dendrocronologia) e degli isotopi stabili negli anelli del legno.
La tesi è suddivisa in quattro sessioni.
Nella prima sviluppo un metodo per stimare alcuni parametri climatici dai valori isotopici di Picea abies. Il metodo ha richiesto la calibrazione del clima sulla base delle cronologie isotopiche dell’ossigeno, del carbonio, e dell’idrogeno in differenti matrici del legno (legno intero, cellulosa e gruppi metilici della lignina). Il modello elaborato è stato in grado di ricostruire la temperatura media-annua nel sud-est delle Alpi. Il modello ha inoltre individuato le migliori componenti del legno e le migliori proxy isotopiche per la ricostruzione climatica.
La seconda parte ha lo scopo di studiare gli effetti dell’ambiente sull’abete rosso infetto da Heterobasidion parviporum per un lungo periodo. Nella conclusione di questo lavoro ipotizzo una maggiore aggressività del fungo alle quote più basse; in questo ambiente il fungo agisce molto più velocemente, portando spesso le piante all’arresto dell’accrescimento radiale e ad una maggiore sofferenza nei periodi secchi. Inoltre si è potuto stimare il periodo di inizio delle infezioni croniche e la perdita di accrescimento che hanno subito le piante infettate.
Nella terza parte dimostro che l’uso degli isotopi stabili può essere usato per evidenziare risposte fisiologiche dell’abete rosso infetto da H. parviporum. Ho avanzato l’ipotesi che a seguito dell’attacco del patogeno le piante di abete rosso a bassa quota possano aver accresciuto la conduttanza stomatica.
Nella quarta parte le analisi degli isotopi stabili e degli accrescimenti legnosi sono stati applicati per identificare eventuali risposte fisiologiche indotte da Cephalcia arvensis in piante di abete rosso ripetutamente defogliate. Nelle conclusioni di tale lavoro viene ipotizzato che le piante, a causa di periodi aridi precedenti l’attacco dell’insetto, hanno attinto alle sostanze di riserva rendendosi così suscettibili agli attacchi dell’insetto a causa della conseguente maggiore concentrazione di zuccheri e amminoacidi negli aghi.
In generale si può affermare che l’applicazione congiunta di queste due tecniche costituisce un valido strumento di investigazione scientifica su tematiche eco-fisiologiche riguardati i processi di resilienza delle specie arboree a passati eventi di danni biotici o abiotici

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Battisti, Andrea
Correlatore:Camin, Federica - La Porta, Nicola
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE DELLE PRODUZIONI VEGETALI > PROTEZIONE DELLE COLTURE
Data di deposito della tesi:24 Gennaio 2014
Anno di Pubblicazione:24 Gennaio 2014
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Cephalcia, dendrochronology, Heterobasidion, isotope, forest pathology, pest, tree-ring
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/11 Entomologia generale e applicata
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:6349
Depositato il:14 Nov 2014 10:57
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