Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Bianchin, Marta (2008) From emotion to decision: role played by the prefrontal cortex. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

Documento PDF

Abstract (english)

The aim of the present work was to investigate role of OFC in startle modulation and emotion processing, and to clarify emotion influence on decision making. Moreover, we were interested in risk anticipation process, that is an important cognitive/emotional component of decision making, and how personality trait influence risky choices and economic decisions. The present studies highlighted that pOFC lesions cause specific deficit on unpleasant stimuli processing. This could be at the basis of participants "myopia" for negative feedback (such as monetary losses), which caused the inability of patients with OFC lesion to adjust their behavior through the retrieval of appropriate emotional events (such as punishments). This inability is typically associated with a tendency to impulsive behavior and inefficient planning. Moreover studies on decision making highlighted the key role of emotion in taking economic and risky decision, both in feedback processing (economic outcomes) and in retrieval processes of stored information. Data about personality trait showed that interindividual differences, in trait anxiety and sensation seeking, are very important in planning and decision of everyday life.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Angrilli, Alessandro
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 20 > Scuole per il 20simo ciclo > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOBIOLOGIA
Data di deposito della tesi:31 January 2008
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 January 2008
Key Words:emotion, startle reflex, prefrontal cortex, decision making, event-related potentials, risk anticipation, feedback processing, trait anxiety, sensation seeking
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:637
Depositato il:14 Nov 2008
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. Adolphs R. Social cognition and the human brain. Trends Cogn Sci 1999; 3 (12): 469-79. Cerca con Google

2. Adolphs R. Recognizing emotion from facial expressions: psychological and neurological mechanism. Behav Cogn Neurosci Rev 2002;1:21-61. Cerca con Google

3. Adolphs R, Damasio H, Tranel D, and Damasio AR. Cortical system for the recognition of emotion in facial expression. J Neurosci 1996 Dec 1;16(23):7678-87. Cerca con Google

4. Adolphs R, Tranel D, Damasio H, and Damasio AR. Impaired recognition of emotion in facial expressions following bilateral damage to the human amygdala. Neuron 1994 Dec 15; 372 (6507): 669-72. Cerca con Google

5. Albert M, and Ayers JJB. One-trial simultaneous and backward excitatory fear conditioning in rats: Lick suppression, freezing, and rearing to CS compounds and their elements. Anim Learn Behav 1997; 25: 210-20. Cerca con Google

6. Amiez C, Joseph JP, Procyk E. Anterior cingulate error-related activity is modulated by predicted reward. Eur J Neurosci 2005; 21: 3447-52. Cerca con Google

7. Anderson SW, Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, Damasio AR. Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nat Neurosci 1999; 2: 1032-7. Cerca con Google

8. Anderson SW, and Tranel D. Neuropsychological consequences of dysfunction in human dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In: Grafman J, ed. Handbook of Neuropsychology. New York: Elsevier; 2002. p. 145-56. Cerca con Google

9. An X, Bandler R, Öngür D, Price JL. Prefrontal cortical projections to longitudinal column in the midbrain periacqueductal gray in macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol 1998; 401: 455-79. Cerca con Google

10. Andersen RA, Asanuma C, and Coean WM. Callosal and prefrontal associational projecting cell populations in area 7A of the macaque monkey: a study using retrogradely transported fluorescent dyes. J Comp Neurol 1985; 232: 443-55. Cerca con Google

11. Anderson SW, Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, Damasio AR. Impairment of social and moral behaviour related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex. Nat Neurosci 1999 Nov; 2 (11): 1032-7. Cerca con Google

12. Angrilli A. PSAAL: a LabVlEW 3 program for data acquisition and analysis in psychophysiological experiments. Behav Res Meth Instr Comput 1995; 27: 367-74. Cerca con Google

13. Angrilli A, Bianchin M, Radaelli R, Bertagnoni G, Pertile M. Reduced startle reflex and eversive noise perception in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesions. Neuropsychologia 2007; in press. Cerca con Google

14. Angrilli A, Mauri A, Palomba D, Flor H, Birbaumer N, Sartori G, and Di Paola F. Startle reflex and emotion modulation impairment after a right amygdala lesion. Brain 1996; 119: 1991-2000. Cerca con Google

15. Angrilli, A., Palomba, D., Cantagallo, A., Maietti, A., Stegagno, L. Emotional impairment after right orbitofrontal lesion in a patient without cognitive deficits. NeuroReport 1999; 10(8): 1741-6. Cerca con Google

16. Anthony BJ. In the blink of an eye: implication of reflex modification for information processing. In: Ackles PK, Jennings JR, Coles MGH, eds. Advances in psychophysiology. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press; 1985. p. 167-218. Cerca con Google

17. Anthony BJ, Graham FK. Blink reflex modification by selective attention: evidence for the modulation of 'automatic' processing. Biol Psychol 1985 Aug; 21(1):43-59. Cerca con Google

18. Arnett J. Sensation seeking: a new conceptualization and a new scale. Pers Indiv Differ 1994; 16: 289-96. Cerca con Google

19. Bailey P, and Sweet WH. Effects on respiration, blood pressure and gastric motility of stimulation of orbital surface of frontal lobe. J Neuropsychol 1940; 3: 276-81. Cerca con Google

20. Barbas, H., Saha, S., Rempel-Clower, N., Ghashghaei, T. Serial Pathways from primate prefrontal cortex to autonomic areas may influence emotional expression. BMC Neurosci 2003; 4: 25. Cerca con Google

21. Bard PA, and Rioch DM. a study of 4 cats deprived of neocortex and additional portions of forebrain. Bull Johns Hopkins Hosp 1937; 60: 201-50. Cerca con Google

22. Bard PA. Diencephalic mechanisms of the expression of rage with special reference to sympathetic nervous system. Am J Physiol 1928; 84: 490-515. Cerca con Google

23. Barlow DH, Chorpita BF, and Turovsky J. Fear, panic, anxiety, and disorders of emotion. Nebraska Symp Motiv 1996; 43: 251-328. Cerca con Google

24. Baron-Cohen S. Mindblindedness: an essay on autism and theory of mind. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press; 1995. Cerca con Google

25. Baron-Cohen S, Ring H, Moriarty J, Schmitz B, Costa D, Ell P. Recognition of mental state terms. Clinical findings in children with autism and a functional neuroimaging study of normal adults. Br J Psychiatry 1994; 165: 640-9. Cerca con Google

26. Bear MF, Connors BW, Paradiso MA, eds. Neuroscience. Exploring the brain. USA: Williams and Wilkins; 1996. Cerca con Google

27. Beauducel A, Strobel A, and Brocke B. Psychometrische Eigenschaften und Normen einer deutschsprachigen Fassung der Sensation Seeking-Skalen, Form V. Diagnostica 2003; 49(2): 61-72. Cerca con Google

28. Bechara A. Neurology of social cognition. Brain 2002; 125: 1696-708. Cerca con Google

29. Bechara A, and Damasio AR. The somatic marker hypothesis: a neural theory of economic decision. Game Econ Behav 2005; 52: 336-72. Cerca con Google

30. Bechara A, Damasio AR, Damasio H, Anderson SW. Intensity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex. Cognition 1994; 50: 7-15. Cerca con Google

31. Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AR, Lee GP. Different contributions of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. J Neurosci 1999; 19: 5473-81. Cerca con Google

32. Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AR. Emotion, decision-making and the orbitofrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 2000b Mar; 10 (3): 295-307. Cerca con Google

33. Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AR. Role of the amygdala in decision-making. Ann NY Acad Sci 2003; 985: 356-69. Cerca con Google

34. Bechara A, Damasio H, Damasio AR, and Lee GP. Different contribution of the human amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex to decision-making. J Neurosci 1999 Jul 1; 19(13):5473-81. Cerca con Google

35. Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, and Damasio AR. Deciding advantageously before knowing the advantageous strategy. Science 1997 Feb 28; 275:1293-5. Cerca con Google

36. Bechara A, Damasio H, Tranel D, Anderson SW. Dissociation of working memory from decision making within human prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 1998 Jan 1; 18(1): 428-37. Cerca con Google

37. Bechara A, Dolan S, Hindes A. Decision-making and addiction. II: Myopia for the future or hypersensitivity to reward? Neuropsychologia 2002; 40: 1690-705. Cerca con Google

38. Bechara A, Tranel D, Damasio H, Adolphs R, Rockland C, and Damasio AR. Double dissociation of conditioning and declarative knowledge relative to the amygdala and hippocampus in humans. Science 1995 Aug 25; 269:1115-8. Cerca con Google

39. Bechara A, Tranel D, Damasio H, Damasio AR. Failure to respond autonomically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 1996; 6: 215-25. Cerca con Google

40. Bechara A, Tranel D, Damasio H. Characterization of the decision-making deficits of patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex lesion. Brain 2000a Nov; 123 (11): 2189-202. Cerca con Google

41. Bennet A, Stirling J. Vulnerability factors in the anxiety disorders. Br JMed Psychol 1998; 71(3): 311-21. Cerca con Google

42. Berg P, and Scherg M. A multiple source approach to the correction of eye artifacts. Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1994; 90: 229-41. Cerca con Google

43. Berlin HA, Rolls ET, and Kischka U. Impulsivity, time perception, emotion and reinforcement sensitivity in patients with orbitofrontal cortex lesion. Brain 2004; 127:1108-26. Cerca con Google

44. Birbaumer N. Slow Cortical Potentials: plasticity, operant control, and behavioural effects. Neuroscientist 1999; 5(2): 74-8. Cerca con Google

45. Blair RJR, and Cipolotti L. Impaired social response reversal. A case of “acquired sociopathy” Brain 2000; 123: 1122-41. Cerca con Google

46. Blanchard DC, and Blanchard RJ, innate and conditioned reactions to threat in rats with amygdaloid lesions. J Comp Psysiol Psychol 1972; 81: 281-90. Cerca con Google

47. Blessing WW. Anatomy of the lower brainstem. In: The lower brainstem and bodily homeostasis. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1997. p. 29-99. Cerca con Google

48. Blumenthal TD, Cuthbert BN, Filion DL, Hacley S, Lipp OV, and Van Boxtel A. Committee report: guidelines for human startle eyeblink electromyographic studies. Psychophysiology 2005; 42:1-15. Cerca con Google

49. Bradley MM, Codispoti M, Cuthbert BN, Lang PJ. Emotion and Motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion 2001; 1(3):276-98. Cerca con Google

50. Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN, Lang PJ. Startle reflex modification: emotion or attention? Psychophysiology 1990; 27: 513-23. Cerca con Google

51. Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN, Lang PJ. Startle and emotion: lateral acoustic probes and the bilateral blink. Psychophysiology 1991; 28: 285-95. Cerca con Google

52. Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN, Lang PJ. Pictures as prepulse: attention and emotion in startle modification. Psychophysiology 1993 Sep; 30(5):541-5. Cerca con Google

53. Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN, Lang PJ. Lateralized startle probes in the study of emotion. Psychophysiology 1996; 33: 156-61. Cerca con Google

54. Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN, and Lang PJ. Affect and the startle reflex. In Dawson ME, Schell AM, and BÃhmelt (Eds.) Startle modification: implication for neuroscience, cognitive science, and clinical science. New York: Cambridge University Press; 1999. p. 157-86. Cerca con Google

55. Bradley MM, Greenwald MK, Petry M, Lang PJ. Remebering pictures: pleasure and arousal in memory. J Exp Psychol Learn Mem Cogn 1992; 18: 379-90. Cerca con Google

56. Bradley MM, Lang PJ. Measuring emotion: the Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential. J Behav Ther Exp Psyc 1994 Mar; 25(1):49-59. Cerca con Google

57. Bradley MM, Zack J, Lang PJ. Cries, screams, and shouts of joy: affective responses to environmental sounds (abstract). Psychophysiology 1994; 31: S29. Cerca con Google

58. Breiter HC, Etcoff NL, Wahlen PJ, Kennedy WA, Rauch SL, Buckner RL, Strauss MM, Hyman SE, Rosen BR. Response and habituation of the human amygdala during visual processing of facial expression. Neuron 1996 Nov; 17 (5): 875-87. Cerca con Google

59. Breiter HC, Aharon I, Kahneman D, Dale A, Shizgal P. Functional imaging of neural responses to expectancy and experience of monetary gains and losses. Neuron 2001; 30: 619-39. Cerca con Google

60. Broadbent D, and Broadbent M. Anxiety and attentional bias: state and trait. Cogn Emot 1988; 2: 165-83. Cerca con Google

61. Brothers L. Neurophysiology of the perception of intentions by primates. In: Gazzaniga MS, ed. The cognitive neurosciences. Cambridge (MA): MIT Press; 1995. p. 1107-15. Cerca con Google

62. Brothers L, ed. Friday’s footprint: how society shapes the human mind. New York: Oxford University Press; 1997. Cerca con Google

63. Brothers L, Ring B, and Kling A. Response of neurons in the macaque amygdala to complex social stimuli. Behav Brain Res 1990; 41: 199-213. Cerca con Google

64. Brown JS, Kalish HI, Farber IE. Conditioned fear as revealed by magnitude of startle response to an auditory stimulus. J Exp Psychol 1951; 32: 317-28. Cerca con Google

65. Buchanan, T.W., Tranel, D., & Adolphs, R. (2004). Anteromedial Temporal Lobe Damage Blocks Startle Modulation by Fear and Disgust. Behav Neurosci 2004; 118 (2): 429-37. Cerca con Google

66. Bull JA. An interaction between appetitive Pavlovian CSs and instrumental avoidance responding. Learn Motiv 1970; 1: 18-26. Cerca con Google

67. Burges PW, Wood RL. Neuropsychology of behaviour disorders following brain injury. In: Wood RL, ed. Neurobehavioural sequelae of traumatic brain injury. New York: Taylorand Francis; 1990. p. 110-33. Cerca con Google

68. Bush G, Luu P, and Posner MI. Cognitive and emotional influences in anterior cingulate cortex. Trends Cognit Sci 2000 Jun; 4 (6): 215-22. Cerca con Google

69. Butler G, and Mathews A. Anticipatory anxiety and risk perception. Cog Ther Res 1987; 11: 551-65. Cerca con Google

70. Cacioppo JT, Gardner WL. Emotion. Annu Rev Psychol 1999; 50: 191-214. Cerca con Google

71. Calder AJ, Lawrence AD, and Young AW. Neuropsychology of fear and loadthing. Nature Rev Neurosci 2001; 2: 352-63. Cerca con Google

72. Calder AJ, Young AW, Rowland D, Perret DI, Hodges JR, Etcoff NL. Facial emotion recognition after bilateral amygdala damage: differentially severe impairment of fear. Con Neuropsychol 1996; 13 (5): 699-745. Cerca con Google

73. Carmichael ST, and Price JL. Architectonic subdivision of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in the macaque monkey. J Comp Neurol 1994; 346: 366-402. Cerca con Google

74. Carmichael ST, and Price JL. Limbic connections of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex in macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol 1995; 363: 615-69. Cerca con Google

75. Centre for the study of Emotion and Attention. The International Affective Picture System: Digitized photographs. Gainsville, FL: University of Florida, The Centre for Research in Psychophysiology; 1999. Cerca con Google

76. Chua P, Krams M, Toni I, Passingham R, Dolan R. A functional anatomy of anticipatory anxiety. Neuroimage 1999; 9: 563-71. Cerca con Google

77. Clark L, Manes F, Antoun N, Sahakian BJ, and Robbins TW. The contribution of lesion laterality and lesion volume to decision-making impairment following frontal lobe damage. Neuropsychologia 2003; 41: 1474-83. Cerca con Google

78. Colby A, Kohlberg L. The measurement of moral judgement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1987. Cerca con Google

79. Comeau N, Stewart SH, Loba P. The relations of trait anxiety, anxiety sensitivity, and sensation seeking to adolescents’ motivations for alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use. Addict Behav 2001; 26: 803-25. Cerca con Google

80. Crawley JN. Neuropharmacologic specificity of a simple animal model for the behavioural actions of benzodiazepines. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1981; 15: 695-9. Cerca con Google

81. Critchley HD, Mathias CJ, Dolan RJ. Neural activity in the human brain relating to uncertainty and arousal during anticipation. Neuron 2001; 29: 537-45. Cerca con Google

82. Critchley HD, Mathias CJ, Josephs O, O’Doherty J, Zanini S, Dewar BK, Cipolotti L, Shallice T, and Dolan RJ. Human cingulate cortex and autonomic control: converging neuroimaging and clinical evidence. Brain 2003; 126: 2139 - 52. Cerca con Google

83. Cronin C. Sensation seeking among mountain climbers. Pers Indiv Differ 1991; 17: 35-67. Cerca con Google

84. Cuthbert BN, Bradley MM, Lang PJ. Probing picture perception: activation and emotion. Psychophysiology 1996; 33: 103-11. Cerca con Google

85. Cuthbert BN, Schupp HT, Bradley MM, Birbaumer N, Lang PJ. Brain potentials in affective picture processing: covariation with autonomic arousal and affective report. Biol Psychol 2000; 52: 95-111 Cerca con Google

86. Damasio AR. Descartes’ error: emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Grosset/Putnam; 1994. Cerca con Google

87. Damasio AR. Looking for Spinoza: joy, sorrow, and the feeling brain. New York: Harcourt & Co.; 2003. Cerca con Google

88. Damasio AR. The feeling of what happens: body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co.; 1999. Cerca con Google

89. Damasio AR. Toward a neurobiology of emotion and feeling: operational concepts and hypotheses. Neurosci 1995; 1: 19-25. Cerca con Google

90. Damasio H, and Damasio AR. Lesion analysis in neuropsychology. New York: Oxford University Press; 1989. Cerca con Google

91. Damasio H, Grabowski T, Frank R, Galaburda AM, Damasio AR. The return of Phineas Gage: clues about the brain from the skull of a famous patient. Science 1994 May 20; 264 (5162): 1102-5. Cerca con Google

92. Damasio AR, Tranel D, Damasio H. Individuals with sociopathic behavior caused by frontal damage fail to respond autonomically to social stimuli. Behav Brain Res 1990; 41: 81-94. Cerca con Google

93. Damasio AR, and Van Hoesen GW. Emotional disturbance associated with focal lesion of the limbic frontal lobe. In: Heilman K, and Satz P, eds. Neuropsychology of human emotion. New York: Guilford Press; 1983. p. 85-100. Cerca con Google

94. Darwin C, ed. The expression of emotions in man and animals. Chicago: Chicago University Press; 1872/1965. Cerca con Google

95. Davis H, and Kreuter C. Conditioned suppression of an avoidance response by a stimulus paired with food. J Exp Anal Behav 1972; 17: 277-85. Cerca con Google

96. Davis, M. The role of the amygdala in fear and anxiety. Ann Rev Neurosci 1992a; 15: 353-75. Cerca con Google

97. Davis, M. The role of the amygdala in fear-potentiated startle: implications for animal models of anxiety. Trends Pharm Sci 1992b; 13: 35-41. Cerca con Google

98. Davis M. Sensitization of the acoustic startle reflex by footshock. Behav Neurosci 1989; 103: 495-503. Cerca con Google

99. Davis M. The neuropsychological basis of acoustic startle modulation: research on fear motivation and sensory gating. In: Lang PJ, Simons RF, Balaban MT, eds. Attention and orienting: sensory and motivational processes. Mahawah, NJ: Erlbaum; 1997. p. 69-96. Cerca con Google

100. Davis M, Hitchcock J, Rosen J. Anxiety and the amygdala: pharmacological and anatomical analysis of the fear potentiated startle paradigm. In: Bpwer GH, ed. Psychology of learning and motivation, vol 21. New York: Academic Press; 1987. p. 263-305. Cerca con Google

101. Davis, M., Hitchcock, J.M., Rosen, J.B. Neural mechanism of fear conditioning measured with the acoustic startle reflex. In Madden, IV J., Neurobiology of learning, emotion and affect. New York: Raven Press; 1991. p 67-95. Cerca con Google

102. Daw ND, O’Doherty JP, Dayan P, Seymour B, Dolan RJ. Cortical substrates for exploratory decision in human. Nature 2006 June; 441: 876-9. Cerca con Google

103. Depaulis A, Bandler R, ed. The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter: functional, anatomical, and neurochemical organization. New York: Plenum Press; 1991. Cerca con Google

104. Dickinson A, Dearing MF. Appetitive-aversive interactions processes. In: Dickinson A, Boakes RA, eds. Mechanisms of learning and motivation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1979. p. 203-31. Cerca con Google

105. Dickinson A, and Pearce JM. Inhibitory interactions between appetitive and aversive stimuli. Psycholl Bull 1977; 84: 690-711. Cerca con Google

106. Dickman SJ. Impulsivity and information processing. In: McCown WG, Johnson JL, and Shure, eds. The impulsive client: theory, research, and treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association;1993. p. 151-184. Cerca con Google

107. Dimitrov M, Grafman J, Hollnagel C. The effects of frontal lobe damage on everyday problem solving. Cortex 1996; 32: 357-66. Cerca con Google

108. Diorio D, Viau V, and Meaney MJ. The role of the medial prefrontal cortex (cingulate gyrus) in the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal responses to stress. J Neurosci 1993; 13: 3839-47. Cerca con Google

109. Dowden SL, Allen GJ. Relationship between anxiety sensitivity, hyperventilation, and emotional reactivity to displays of facial emotions. J Anxiety Disord 1997; 11: 63-75. Cerca con Google

110. Drevets WC, and Raichle ME.PET imaging studie on human emotional disorders. In: Gazzaniga MS, ed. The cognitive neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1995. Cerca con Google

111. Drevets WC, and Raichle ME. Reciprocal suppression of regional cerebral blood flow during emotional versus higher cognitive processes: implication for interaction between emotion and cognition. Cogn Emot 1998; 12 (3): 353-85. Cerca con Google

112. Ehrlichman H, Brown S, Zhu J, Warrenburg S. Startle reflex modulation during exposure to pleasant and unpleasant odors. Psychophysiology 1995; 32: 150-4. Cerca con Google

113. Ekman P, ed. Darwin and facial expression: a century of research in review. New York: Academic Press; 1973. Cerca con Google

114. Elliott R, Dolan RJ, Frith CD. Dissociable functions in the medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex: Evidence from human neuroimaging studies. Cereb Cortex 2000; 10: 308 -17. Cerca con Google

115. Elliot R, Frith CD, and Dolan RJ. Differential neural response to positive and negative feedback in planning and guessing tasks. Neuropsycholgia 1997; 35: 1395-404. Cerca con Google

116. Elliot R, Rees G, Dolan RJ. Ventromedial prefrontal cortex mediates guessing. Neuropsychologia 1999; 37: 403-11. Cerca con Google

117. Endler NS, and Kocovski NL. State and trait anxiety revisited. J Anxiety Disord 2001;15(3): 231-45. Cerca con Google

118. Ernst M, and Paulus MP. Neurobiology of decision making: a selective review from a neurocognitive and clinical perspective. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 58: 597-604. Cerca con Google

119. Ernst R, Bolla K, Mouratidis M, Contoreggi C, Matochik JA, Kurian V, Cadet JL, Kimes AS, London ED. Decision-making in a risk-taking task: a PET study. Neuropsychopharmacology 2002; 26: 682-91. Cerca con Google

120. Eslinger PJ, Damasio AR. Severe disturbance of higher cognition after bilateral frontal lobe ablation: patient EVR. Neurology 1985 Dec; 35 (12): 1731-41. Cerca con Google

121. Falls WA, Davis M. Lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala block conditioned exitation, but not conditioned inhibition of fear as measured with the fear-potentiated startele effect. Behav Neurosci 1995; 109: 379-87. Cerca con Google

122. Fanselow MS, DeCola JP, De Oca BM, Landeira-Fernandez J. Ventral and dorsolateral regions of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) control different stages of defensive behavior: dorsolateral PAG lesions enhance thedefensive freezing produced by massed and immediate shock. Aggressive Behav 1994; 21: 63-77. Cerca con Google

123. Fellows KL, Farah MJ. Different underlying impairments in decision-making following ventromedial and dorsolateral frontal lobe damage in humans. Cereb Cortex 2005a Jan; 15: 58-63. Cerca con Google

124. Fellows LK, Farah MJ. Dissociable elements of human foresight: a role for the ventromedial frontal lobes in framing the future, but not in discounting future rewards. Neuropsychologia 2005b;43:1214-21. Cerca con Google

125. Fendt M, Kock M, Schnitzel H. Amygdaloid noradrenaline in involved in the sensitization of the acoustic startle response in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 1994; 48: 307-14. Cerca con Google

126. File SE. The use of social interaction as a method for detecting anxiolytic activity of chlordiazepoxide-like drugs. J Neurosci Methods 1980; 2: 219-38. Cerca con Google

127. Filion DL, Dawson ME, Schell AM. The psychological significance of human startle eyeblink modification: a review. Biol Psychol 1998;47:1-43. Cerca con Google

128. Floden D, Alexander MP, Kubu CS, Katz D, Stuss DT. Impulsivity and risk-taking in focal frontal lobe damage. Neuropsychologia 2007; in press. Cerca con Google

129. Fowler CJ, von Knorring L, and Oreland L. Platelet monoamine oxidase activity in sensation seekers. Psichiat Res 1980; 3: 273-9. Cerca con Google

130. Fredrikson M, Furmark T, Olsson MT, Fisher H, Anderson J, Langstrom B. functional neuroanatomical correlates of electrodermal activity: a positron emission tomographic study. Psychophysiology 1998; 35: 179-85. Cerca con Google

131. Fukui H, Murai T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, and Hanakawa T. Functional activity related to risk anticipation during performance of the Iowa Gambling Task. NeuroImage 2005; 24: 253-9. Cerca con Google

132. Funayama, E.S., Grillon, C., Davis, M., & Phelps, E.A. A Double Dissociation in the Affective Modulation of Startle in Humans: Effects of Unilateral Temporal Lobectomy. J Cogn Neurosci 2001; 13(6): 721-9. Cerca con Google

133. Fuster JM, ed. Memory in the cerebral cortex - an empirical approach to neural networks in the human and non human primate. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1995. Cerca con Google

134. Fuster JM, ed. The prefrontal cortex-anatomy physiology, and neuropsychology of the frontal lobe, 3rd ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott - Raven; 1997. Cerca con Google

135. Fuster JM. The prefrontal cortex - an update: time is of the essence. Neuron 2001 May; 30, 319-33. Cerca con Google

136. Galeazzi A, D’Incerti L, Franceschina E. Sensation seeking scale VI: standardizzazione italiana per giovani dai 14 ai 20 anni. TPM 2003; 10(4): 131-40. Cerca con Google

137. Gallagher M, Graham PW, Holland PC. The amygdala central nucleus and appetitive Pavlovian conditioning: lesions impair one class of conditioned behavior. J Neurosci 1990 Jun; 10 (6): 1906-11. Cerca con Google

138. Garpenstrand H, Annas P, Ekblom J, Oreland L, Fredrickson M. Human fear conditioning is related to dopaminergic and serotoninergic biological markers. Behav Neurosci 2001; 115: 358-64. Cerca con Google

139. Gasper K, and Clore GL. The persistent use pf negative affect by anxious individuals to estimate risk. J Pers Soc Psychol 1998; 74: 1350-63. Cerca con Google

140. Gehring WJ, and Willoughby AR. The medial frontal cortex and the rapid processing of monetary gain and losses. Science 2007 March 22; 295: 2279-82. Cerca con Google

141. Gewirtz, J.C., Falls, W.A., Davis, M. Normal conditioned inhibition and extinction of freezing and fear-potentiated startle following electrolytic lesions of medial prefrontal cortex in rats. Behav Neurosci 1997; 111 (4): 712-26. Cerca con Google

142. Gilchrist H, Povey R, Dickinson A, and Povey R. The sensation seeking scale: its use in a study of the characteristics of people choosing “adventures holidays”. Pers Indiv Differ 1995; 28: 513-6. Cerca con Google

143. Glicksohn J, and Bozna M. Developing a personality profile of the bomb-disposal expert: the role of sensation seeking and field dependence-independence. Pers Indiv Differ 2000; 28: 85-92. Cerca con Google

144. Goel V, Gold B, Kapur S, Houle S. Neuroanatomical correlates of human reasoning. J Cogn Neuroci 1998 May; 10 (3): 293-302. Cerca con Google

145. Goma-i-Freixanet M. Prosocial and antisocial aspects of personality. Pers Indiv Differ 1995; 19: 125-34. Cerca con Google

146. Grachev ID, Apkarian AV. Anxiety in healthy humans is associated with orbital frontal chemistry. Mol Psychiatry 2000; 5: 482-8. Cerca con Google

147. Grafman J. Alternative frameworks for the conceptualization of prefrontal lobe functions. In: Boller F, Grafman J, eds. Handbook of neuropsychology, Vol. 9. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1994. p. 187-202. Cerca con Google

148. Grafman J, Schwab K, Warden D, Pridgen BS, Brown HR, Salazar AM. Frontal lobe injuries, violence and aggression: a report of the Vietnam head injury study. Neurology 1996; 46: 1231-8. Cerca con Google

149. Graham FK. Distinguishing among orienting, defense, and startle reflexes. In: Kimmel HD, Van Olst EH, Orlebeke JF, eds. The orienting reflex in humans. An international conference sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1979. p. 137-67. Cerca con Google

150. Gray JA, ed. The psychology of fear and stress. 2nd ed. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press; 1987. Cerca con Google

151. Gray JA, and McNaughton N. The neuropsychology of anxiety: reprise. Nebraska Symp Motiv 1996; 43: 61-134. Cerca con Google

152. Greenwald MK, Cook EW III, Lang PJ. Affective judgment and psychophysiological response: dimensional covariation in the evaluation of pictorial stimuli. J Psychophysiol 1989; 3: 51-64. Cerca con Google

153. Grillon C, Davis M. Acoustic startle and anticipatory anxiety in humans: effects of monaural right and left ear stimulation. Biol Psychiatry 1995; 38: 68-70. Cerca con Google

154. Haerich P. Startle reflex modification: effects of attention vary with emotional valence. Psychol Sci 1994; 5: 407-10. Cerca con Google

155. Hajcak G, Moser JS, Holroyd GB, Simons RF. The feedback-related negativity reflects the binary evaluation of good versus bad outcomes. Biol Psychol 2006; 71: 148-54. Cerca con Google

156. Hajcak G, Moser JS, Holroyd GB, Simons RF. Brain potentials associated woth expected and unexpected good and bad outcomes. Psychophysiology 2005; 42: 161-70. Cerca con Google

157. Hall RE, Livingstone RB, and Bloor CM. Orbital cortical influences on cardiovascular dynamics and myocardial structure in conscious monkeys. J Neurosurg 1977; 46: 638-74. Cerca con Google

158. Hamm AO , Greenwald MK, Bradley MM, Lang PJ. Emotional learning, hedonic change, and the startle probe. J Abnorm Psychol 1993; 102: 453-65. Cerca con Google

159. Hamm AO, Cuthbert BN, Globisch J, Vaitl D. Fear and startle reflex: blink modulation and autonomic response pattern in animal and mutilation fearful subjects. Psychophysiology 1997; 34: 97-107. Cerca con Google

160. Hardy SGP, and Holmes DE. Prefrontal stimulus-produced hypotension in rat. Exp Brain Res 1988; 73: 249-55. Cerca con Google

161. Hariri AR, Mattay VS, Tessitore A, Kolachana B, Fera F, Goldman D, Egan MF, Weinberger DR. Serotonin transporter genetic variation and the response of the human amygdala. Science 2002; 297: 400-3. Cerca con Google

162. Harro J, and Vasar E. Cholecystochinin-induced anxiety: how is reflected in studies on exploratory behavior? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 1991; 15: 473-7. Cerca con Google

163. Hawk LW, Cook EW. Affective modulation of tactile startle. Psychophysiology 1997; 34: 23-31. Cerca con Google

164. Herbert BM, Pollatos O, Schandry R. Interoceptive and emotion processing: an EEG study. Int J Psychophysiol 2007; 65: 214-27. Cerca con Google

165. Hockey GRJ, Mauly AJ, Clough PJ, Bdzola L. Effects of negative mood state on risk in everyday decision maiking. Cogn Emot 2000; 14 (4): 823-55. Cerca con Google

166. Hornak J, Bramham J, Rolls ET, Morris RG, O’Doherty J, Bullock PR, and Polkey CE. Changes in emotion after circumscribed surgical lesions of the orbitofrontal and cingulated cortices. Brain 2003;126:1671-712. Cerca con Google

167. Horvath P, and Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking, risk appraisal, and risky behaviour. Pers Indiv Differ 1993; 14: 41-52. Cerca con Google

168. Huttenlocher PR, and Dabholkar AS. Regional differences in synaptogenesis in human cerebral cortex. J Comp. Neurol. 1997; 387: 167-78. Cerca con Google

169. Huttenlocher PR. Morphometric study of human cerebral cortex development. Neuropsychologia 1990; 28: 517-27. Cerca con Google

170. Isen AM. Positive affect and decision making. In: Goldstein WM, Hogarth RM, eds. Research on judgment and decision making. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1997. Cerca con Google

171. Isen AM, Means B, Patrick R, Nowicky, G. Some factors influencing decision making strategy and risk taking. In: Clark MS, Fiske ST, eds. Affect and cognition. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Erlbraum; 1982. p 243-261. Cerca con Google

172. Jacobson R. Disorders of fcal recognition, social behavior and affect after combined bilateral amygdalotomy and subcaudate tractomy - a clinical and experimental study. Psychol Med 1986; 16: 439-50. Cerca con Google

173. James W. What is an emotion? Mind 1884; 9: 188-205. Cerca con Google

174. Jerison HJ. Evolution of the brain. In: Zaidel DW, ed. Neuropsychology. San Diego: Academic Press, Inc; 1994. p. 53-81. Cerca con Google

175. Kahneman D. In: Kahneman D, Diener E, Schwarz N, eds. Well being: the founfation of hedonic psychology. New York: Russel Sage Foundation; 1999. p. 3-25. Cerca con Google

176. Kahneman D, Twersky A. Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica 1979 Mar; 47 (2): 263-92. Cerca con Google

177. Kakade S, and Dayan P. Dopamine: generalization and bonuses. Neural Netw 2002; 15: 549-59. Cerca con Google

178. Kalenscher T, Ohman T, Güntürkün O. the neuroscience of impulsive and self-controlled decisions. J Int Psychophysiol 2006; 62: 203-11. Cerca con Google

179. Kettle, J.W.L., Andrewes, D.G. & Allen, N.B. Lateralization of the Startle Reflex Circuit in Humans: An Examination With Monaural Probes Following Unilateral Temporal Lobe Resection. Behav Neurosci 2006; 120 (1): 24-39. Cerca con Google

180. Kling A. Effects of amygdalectomy on social-affective behavior in non-human primates. In: Eleftheriou BE, ed. The neurobiology of the amygdala. New York: Plenum Press; 1972. p. 511-36. Cerca con Google

181. Kluver H, and Bucy PC. Physic blindness and other symptoms following bilateral temporal lobectomy. Am J Physiol 1937; 119: 254-84. Cerca con Google

182. Kofler M, Müller J, Reggiani L, Valls-Solé J. Influence of gender on auditory startle responses. Brain Res 2001 Dec 7; 921: 206-10. Cerca con Google

183. Knutson B, Adams CM, Fong GW, Hommer D. Anticipation of increasing monetary reward selectively recruits nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci 2001a; 15 (21): 16, RC159. Cerca con Google

184. Knutson B, Fong GW, Adams CM, Varner JL, Hommer D. Dissociation of reward anticipation and outcome with event-related fMRI. NeuroReport 2001b; 12: 3683-7. Cerca con Google

185. Knutson B, Westdorp A, Kaiser E, and Hommer D. FMRI visualization of brain activity during a monetary incentive delay task. Neuroimage 2000; 12: 20-7. Cerca con Google

186. Kock M, Schmid A, Schnitzler HU. Pleasure-attenuation of the startle response is distrupted by 6-hydroxydopamine lesion of the nucleus accumbens. Neuroreport 1996; 7: 1442-6. Cerca con Google

187. Kock M, Schnitzler HU. The acoustic startle response in rats - circuits mediating evocation, inhibition and potentiation. Behav Brain Res 1997; 89: 35-49. Cerca con Google

188. Kok A. Event-related-potential (ERP) reflections of mental resources: a review and synthesis. Biol Psychol 1997; 45: 19-56. Cerca con Google

189. Konorski J, ed. Integrative activity of the brain: an interdisciplinary approach. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1967. Cerca con Google

190. Krawczyk, D.C. Contributions of the prefrontal cortex to the neural basis of human decision making. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2002; 26 (6): 631-64. Cerca con Google

191. Kringelbach ML, Rolls ET. The functional neuroanatomy of the human orbitofrontal cortex: evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychology. Prog Neurobiol 2004;72:341-72. Cerca con Google

192. Lacroix L, Spinelli S, Heidbreder CA, and Feldon J. Differential role of the medial and lateral prefrontal cortices in fear and anxiety. Behav Neurosci 2000; 114 (6): 1119-30. Cerca con Google

193. Landis C, Hunt WA. The startle pattern. New York: Ferrar; 1939. Cerca con Google

194. Lane RD, Fink GR, Chau PM, Dolan RJ. Neural activation during selective attention to subjective emotional responses. NeuroReport 1997a; 8: 3969-72. Cerca con Google

195. Lane RD, Reiman EM, Bradley MM, Lang PJ, Ahern GL, Davidson RJ, Schwartz GE. Neuroanatomical correlates of pleasant and unpleasant emotion. Neuropsychologia 1997b; 35: 1437-44. Cerca con Google

196. Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN. Emotion, attention, and the startle reflex. Psychol Rev 1990; 97: 377-98. Cerca con Google

197. Lang PJ, Bradley MM, Cuthbert BN. Emotion, motivation, and anxiety: brain mechanisms and pshychophysiology. Biol Psychiatry 1998; 44: 1248-63. Cerca con Google

198. Lang PJ, Bradley MM, and Cuthbert BN. International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-6. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida; 2005. Cerca con Google

199. Lang PJ, Greenwald MK, Bradley MM, Hamm AO. Looking at pictures: affective, facial, visceral, and behavioral reactions. Psychophysiology 1993; 30: 261-73. Cerca con Google

200. Lang PJ. Anxiety: toward a psychophysiological definition. In: Akiskal HS, Webb WL, eds. Psychiatric diagnosis: exploration of biological predictors. New York: Spectrum; 1978. p. 365-89. Cerca con Google

201. Lange C, and James W, edss. The emotions. New York: Harner Publishing Co.; 1967. Cerca con Google

202. LeDoux JE. Emotion. In: Plum F, ed. Handbook of physiology: section I. The nervous system: Vol 5. Higher function of the brain. Bethesda, MD: American Physiological Society; 1987. p. 419-59. Cerca con Google

203. LeDoux JE. Emotion and the amygdala. In: Aggleton PJ, ed. The amygdala: neurobiological aspects of emotion, memory, and mental dysfunction. New York: Wiley-Liss; 1992. p. 339-51. Cerca con Google

204. LeDoux JE. Emotion: clues from the brain. Ann Rev Psychol 1995; 46: 209-35. Cerca con Google

205. LeDoux JF. Information flow from sensation to emotion plasticity in the neural computation of stimulus values. In: Gabriel M, Moore J, eds. Learning and computational neuroscience: foundation of adaptive networks. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books/MIT Press; 1990. p. 3-52. Cerca con Google

206. Leith KP, and Baumeister RF. Why do bad moods increase self-defeating behavior? Emotion and self-regulation. J Pers Soc Psychol 1996; 71: 1250-67. Cerca con Google

207. Leonard CM, Rolls ET, Wilson FAW, and Baylis CG. Neurons in the amygdala of the monkey with responses selective for faces. Behav Brain Res 1985; 15: 159-76. Cerca con Google

208. Lerner JS, and Keltner D. Beyond valence: toward a model of emotion-specific influences on judgment and choice. Cogn Emot 2000; 14: 473-93. Cerca con Google

209. Levenson MR. Risk taking and personality. Pers Indiv Differ 1990; 58: 1073-80. Cerca con Google

210. Liotti M, Mayberg HS, Brannan SK, McGinnis S, Jerabek P, Fox PT. Differential limbic- cortical correlates of sadness and anxiety in healthy subjects: Implications for affective disorders. Biol Psychiatry 2000; 48: 30 -42. Cerca con Google

211. Lissek S, Baas JMP, Pine DS, Orme K, Dvir S, Rosenberger E, and Grillon C. Sensation seeking and the aversive motivational system. Emotion 2005; 5(4): 396-407. Cerca con Google

212. Lissek S, and Powers AS. Sensation seeking and startle modulation by physically threatening images. Biol Psychol 2003; 63: 179-97. Cerca con Google

213. Loewenstein GF, Weber EU, Hsee CK, Welch N. Risk as feelings. Psychol Bull 2001; 127 (2): 267-86. Cerca con Google

214. Logue AW, ed. Self-control: waiting for tomorrow for what you want today. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall; 1995. Cerca con Google

215. MacLeod C, and Cohen IL. Anxiety and the interpretation of ambiguity: a text comprehension study. J Abnorm Psychol 1993; 102: 238-47. Cerca con Google

216. Maner JK, Kenrick DT, Becker DV, Robertson TE, Hofer B, Neurberg SL, Delton AW, Butner J, Schaller M. Functional projection: how fundamental social motives can bias interpersonal perception. J Pers Soc Psychol 2005; 88 (1): 63-78. Cerca con Google

217. Maner JK, Richey A, Cromer K, Mallot M, Lejuez CW, Joiner TE, Schmidt NB. Dispositional anxiety and risk-avoidant decision-making. Pers Indiv Diff 2007; 42: 665-75. Cerca con Google

218. Manes F, Sahakian BJ, Clark L, Rogers R, Antoun N, Aitken M, and Robbins T. Decision making processes following damage to the prefrontal cortex. Brain 2002; 125 (3): 624-39. Cerca con Google

219. Matthews G, Pitcaithly D, Mann RLE. Mood, neuroticism, and the encoding of affective words. Cogn Ther Res 1995; 19 /5): 563-87. Cerca con Google

220. Mavaddad N, Kirkpatrick PJ, Rogers RD, and Sahakian BJ. Deficits in decision making in patients with aneurysms of the anterior communicating artery. Brain 2000; 123 (10): 2109-17. Cerca con Google

221. McLean PD. Some psychiatric implications of studies on frontotemporal portion of limbic system (visceral brain). Electroencephalogr Clin Neurophysiol 1952; 4: 407-18. Cerca con Google

222. McLean PD. The triune brain, emotion, and scientific bias. In Schmitt FO, ed. The neurosciences: second study program. New York: Rockefeller University Press; 1970. p 336-49. Cerca con Google

223. Mehrabian A, Russel JA, eds. An approach to environmental psychology. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press; 1974. Cerca con Google

224. Mellers B. Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychol Bull 2000; 126: 910-924. Cerca con Google

225. Meunier M, Bachevalier J, Murray EA, Malkova L, and Mishkin M. Effects of aspiration vs neurotoxic lesions of the amygdala on emotional reactivity in rhesus monkeys. Soc Neurosci Abstr 1996; 13: 5418-32. Cerca con Google

226. Miller L. Cognitive risk-taking after frontal or temporal lobectomy I. the synthesis of fragmented visual information. Neuropsychologia. 1985; 23 (3): 359-69. Cerca con Google

227. Miller EK, and Cohen JD. An integrative theory of prefrontal cortex function. Annu Rev Neurosci 2001; 24: 167-202. Cerca con Google

228. Miller LA. Impulsivity, risk-taking, and the ability to synthesize fragmented information after frontal lobectomy. Neuropsychologia 1992 Jan; 30 (1): 69-79. Cerca con Google

229. Miltner W, Matjak M, Braun C, Diekmann H. Emotional qualities of odors and their influence on the startle reflex in humans. Psychophysiology 1994; 31: 107-10. Cerca con Google

230. Miller L, Milner B. Cognitive risk-taking after frontal or temporal lobectomy II. The synthesis of phonemic and semantic information. Neuropsychologia. 1985; 23 (3): 371-9. Cerca con Google

231. Mini A, Palomba D, Angrilli A, and Bravi S. Emotional information processing and visual evoked brain potential. Percept Motor Skill 1996; 83: 143-52. Cerca con Google

232. Mogenson GJ. Limbic motor integration. In: Epstein A, Morrison AR, eds. Progress in psychobiology and physiological psychology. New York: Academic Press; 1987. p. 117-70 Cerca con Google

233. Mogg K, Bradley BP. Some methodological issues in assessing attentional biases for threatening faces in anxiety: a replication study using a modified version of the probe detection task. Behav Res Ther 1999; 37: 595-604. Cerca con Google

234. Morris JS, Degelder B, Weiskrantz L, Dolan RJ. Differential extrageniculostriate and amygdala responses to presentation of emotional faces in a cortically blind field. Brain 2001 Jun; 124 (6): 1241-52. Cerca con Google

235. Morris JS, Frith CD, Perret DI, Rowland D, Young AW, Calder AJ, Dolan RJ. A differential neural responses in the human amygdala to fearful and happy facial expressions. Nature 1996 Oct 31; 383 (6603): 812-5. Cerca con Google

236. Morris JS, Öhman A, and Dolan PJ. Conscious and unconcscious emotional learning in the human amygdala. Nature 1998 Jun 4; 393 (6684): 397-498. Cerca con Google

237. Murray EA, Gaffan EA, and Flint RW. Anterior rhinal cortex and amygdala: dissociation of their contributions to memory and food preference in rhesus monkeys. Behav Neurosci 1996; 110: 30-42. Cerca con Google

238. Nauta WJH. The problem of the frontal lobe: a reinterpretation. J Psychiat Res 1971; 8: 167-87. Cerca con Google

239. Nauta WJH. The problem of the frontal lobes: a reinterpretation. J Psychiat Res 1971; 8, 167-87. Cerca con Google

240. Neasfey, E. Prefrontal cortical control of the autonomic nervous system: anatomical and physiological observations. Prog Brain Res 1990; 85: 147-66. Cerca con Google

241. Nygren TE, Isen AM, Taylor PJ, Dublin J. The influence of positive affect on the decision rule in risk situations: focus on the outcome (and especially avoidance of loss) rather than probability. Org Behav Hum Decis Process 1996; 66 (1): 59-72. Cerca con Google

242. Nitschke JB, Heller W, Palmieri PA, Miller GA. Contrasting patterns of brain activity in anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. Psychophysiology 1999; 36: 628-37. Cerca con Google

243. Öngür D, An X, Price JL. Prefrontal cortical projections to the hypothalamus in macaque monkeys. J Comp Neurol 1998; 401: 480-505. Cerca con Google

244. Öngür D, and Price JL. The organization of networks within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex of rats, monkey and humans. Cereb Cortex 2000 Mar; 10: 206-19. Cerca con Google

245. Oostenveld R, and Praamstra P. The five percent electrode system for high-resolution EEG and ERP measurements. Clin Neurophysiol 2001;112: 713-9. Cerca con Google

246. Osgood C, Suci G, Tannenbaum P, eds. The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois; 1957. Cerca con Google

247. O’Sullivan M, Guilford J. Four factor tests of social intelligence (behavioural cognition): manual of instruction and interpretations. Palo Alto (CA): Condulting Psychologists Press; 1976. Cerca con Google

248. Overskeid G. The slave of passion: experiencing problems and selecting solutions. Rev Gen Psychol 2000; 4 (3): 284-309. Cerca con Google

249. Pandya DN, and Yeteran EH. Architecture and connection of cortical association areas. In: Peters A, and Jones EG, eds. Cerebral Cortex. New York: Plenum Press; 1985. vol 4 p. 3-61. Cerca con Google

250. Papez JW. A proposed mechanism of emotion. Arch Neurol Psychiatry 1937; 38: 725-43. Cerca con Google

251. Patrick, C.J., Bradley, M.M., Lang, P.J. Emotion and psychopathy: startling new insights. J Abnorm Psychol 1993; 102 (1): 82-92. Cerca con Google

252. Paulus MP, Hozack N, Zauscher B, McDowell JE, Frank L, Brown GG, Braff DL. Prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortex networks underlie decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. Neuroimage 2001; 13: 91-100. Cerca con Google

253. Paus T. Primate anterior cingulate cortex: where motor control, drive and cognition interface. Nat Rev Neurosci 2001 Jun; 2 (6): 417-24. Cerca con Google

254. Paus T, Zijdenbos A, Worsley K, Collins DL, Blumenthal J, Giedd JN, Rapaport JL, and Evans AC. Structural maturation of neural pathways in children and adolescents: in vivo study. Science 1999; 283: 1908-11. Cerca con Google

255. Paulus M P, Feinstein JS, Simmons A, and Stein MB. Anterior cingulate activation in high trait anxious subjects is related to altered error processing during decision making. Biol Psychiatry 2004; 55(12): 1179-87. Cerca con Google

256. Paulus M P, Feinstein JS, Tapert SF, and Liu TT. Trend detection via temporal difference model predicts inferior prefrontal cortex activation during acquisition of advantageous action selection. Neuroimage 2004; 21: 733-43. Cerca con Google

257. Paulus MP, Hozack N, Zauscher B, McDowell JE, Frank L, Brown GG, Braff DL. Prefrontal, parietal, and temporal cortex networks underlie decision-making in the presence of uncertainty. NeuroImage 2001; 13: 91-100. Cerca con Google

258. Pellis, S.M., Hastings, E., Shimizu,T., Kamitakahara, H. , Komorowska, J., Forgie, M.L, & Kolb B. The Effects of Orbital Frontal Cortex Damage on the Modulation of Defensive Responses by Rats in Playful and Nonplayful Social Contexts. Behav Neurosci 2006; 120 (1): 72- 84. Cerca con Google

259. Pessoa L, McKenna M, Gutierrez E, and Ungerleider LG. Neural processing of emotional faces requires attentino. Proc Natl Acad Svi USA 2002; 99: 11458-63. Cerca con Google

260. Peters E, and Slovic P. The Springs of Action: Affective and Analytical Information Processing in Choice. Pers Soc Psych Bull 2000; 26 (12): 1465-75. Cerca con Google

261. Petrides M, and Pandya, edss. Comparative architectonic analysis of the human and the macaque frontal cortex. In: Boller F, and Grafman J, edss. Handbook of neuropsychology. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 1994. p 17-58. Cerca con Google

262. Ploghaus A, Narain C, Beckmann CF, Clare S, Bantick S, Wise R, Matthews PM, Rawlins NP, and Tracy I. Exacerbation of pain by anxiety is associated with activity in a hippocampal network. J Neurosci 2001; 21: 9896 -903. Cerca con Google

263. Poli S, Sarlo M, Bortoletto M, Buodo G, Palomba D. Stimulus-preceding negativity and hearth rate changes in anticipation of affective pictures. Int J Psychophysiol 2007; 65: 32-9. Cerca con Google

264. Preuss TM. Do rats have prefrontal cortex? The Rose-Woosley-Akert program reconsidered. J Comp Neurol 1995; 7: 1-24. Cerca con Google

265. Price BH, Daffner KR, Stowe RM, Mesulam MM. The compartmental learning disabilities of early frontal lobe damage. Brain 1990; 113: 1383-93. Cerca con Google

266. Price JL, Carmichael ST, and Drevets WC. Networks related to the orbital and the medial prefrontal cortex: a substrate for emotional behavior? Prog Brain Res 1996; 107: 523-36. Cerca con Google

267. Raine, A., Lencz, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L. & Colletti, P. Reduced prefrontal grey matter volume and reduced autonomic activity in antisocial personality disorder. Arc Gen Psychiat 2000; 57: 119-27. Cerca con Google

268. Ramnani, N., Owen, A.M. Anterior prefrontal cortex: insights into function from anatomy and neuroimaging. Nat Rev Neurosci 2004; 5: 184-94. Cerca con Google

269. Rauch SL, Savage CR, Alpert NM, Fischman AJ, Jenike MA. The functional neuroanatomy of anxiety: A study of three disorders using positron emission tomography and symptom provocation. Biol Psychiatry 1997; 42: 446 -52. Cerca con Google

270. Reavis R, and Overman WH. Adult sex differences on a decision-making task previously shown to depend on the orbital prefrontal cortex. Behav Neurosci 2001; 115(1): 196-206. Cerca con Google

271. Robbins TW, Eweritt BJ. Neurobehavioral mechanisms of reward and motivation. Curr Opin Neurobiol 1996; 6:228-36. Cerca con Google

272. Rogers RD, Owen AM, Middleton HC, Williams EJ, Pickard JD, Sahakian BJ, Robbins TW. Choosing between small, likely rewards and large, unlikely rewards activates inferior and orbital prefrontal cortex. J Neurosci 1999; 19: 9029-38. Cerca con Google

273. Rolls ET. The orbitofrontal cortex. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 1996; 351: 1433-43. Cerca con Google

274. Rolls, E.T. The brain and emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999. Cerca con Google

275. Rolls, E.T. The functions of the orbitofrontal cortex. Brain Cogn 2004; 55: 11- 29. Cerca con Google

276. Rolls ET, Hornack DW and McGrath J. emotion-related learning in patients with social and emotional changes associated with frontal lobe damage. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1994 Dec; 57 (12): 1518-24. Cerca con Google

277. Rolls ET, Hornak J, Wade D, McGrath J. Emotion-related learning in patients with social and emotional changes associated with frontal lobe damge. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiat 1994; 57: 1518-24. Cerca con Google

278. Rosen, J.B., Hitchcock, J.M., Sananes, C.B., Miserendio, M.J.D., Davis, M. A direct projection from the central nucleus of the amygdala to the acoustic startle pathway: anterograde and retrograde tracing studies. Behav Neurosci 1991; 105: 817- 25. Cerca con Google

279. Rosen, J.B., Hitchcock, J.M., Miserendino, M.J., Falls, W.A., Campeau, S., Davis, M. Lesions of the perirhinal cortex but not of the frontal, medial prefrontal, visual, or insular cortex block fear-potentiated startle using a visual conditioned stimulus. J Neurosci 1992; 12 (12): 4624-33. Cerca con Google

280. Rosenbloom T. Sensation seeking and risk taking in mortality salience. Pers Indiv Differ 2003; 35(8): 1809-19. Cerca con Google

281. Ross LE. Conditioned fear as a function of CS-UCS and probe stimulus intervals. J Exp Psychol 1961; 61: 265-73. Cerca con Google

282. Rosvold HE, Mirsky AF, Sarason I, Bransome ED, and Beck LH. A continuous performance test of brain damage. J Consult Psychol 1956; 20: 343-50. Cerca con Google

283. Russel JA. A circumplex model of affect. J Pers Soc Psychol 1980; 39: 1161-78. Cerca con Google

284. Saunders JC, McDonald S, and Richardson R. Loss of emotional experiences after traumatic brain injury: findings with the startle probe procedure. Neuropsycology 2006; 20 (2): 224-31. Cerca con Google

285. Saver JL, Damasio AR. Preserved access and processing of social knowledge in a patient with acquired sociopathy due to ventromedial frontal damage. Neuropsychologia 1991; 29 (12): 1241-9. Cerca con Google

286. Schalling D. Psychopathy-related personality variables and the psychophysiology of socialization. In: Hare RD, and Schalling D, eds. Psychopathic behavior: approaches to research. New York: Wiley; 1978. p. 85-105. Cerca con Google

287. Schindler BA, Ramchandani D, Matthews MK, Podell k. Competency and the frontal lobe. The impact of executive dysfunction on decisional capacity. Psychosomatics 1995 Jul-Aug; 36 (4): 400-4. Cerca con Google

288. Schlosberg H. The description of facial expression in terms of two dimension. J Exp Psychol 1952; 44: 229-37. Cerca con Google

289. Schmid A, Kock M, Schnitzler HU. Conditioned pleasure attenuates the startle response in rats. Neurobiol Learn Mem 1995; 64: 1-3. Cerca con Google

290. Schmitt WA, Brinkley CA, and Newman JP. Testing Damasio’s somatic marker hypothesis with psychopathic individuals: risk takers or risk averse? J Abnorm Psychol 1999; 108 (3): 538-43. Cerca con Google

291. Schultz W, Tremblay L, Hollerman JR. Reward processing in primate orbittofrontal cortex and basal ganglia. Cereb Cortex 2000; 10 (3): 272-83. Cerca con Google

292. Schwarz N, Bless H. happy and mindless, but sad and smart? The impact of affective states on analytic reasoning. In: Forgas JP, ed. Emotion and social judgment. London: Pergamon Press; 1991. p. 55-71. Cerca con Google

293. Scott SK, Young AW, Calder AJ, Hellawell DJ Aggleton PJ, Johnson M. Impaired auditory recognition of fear and anger following bilateral amygdala lesions. Nature 1997 Jan 16; 385 (6613) : 254-7. Cerca con Google

294. Séguin JR. Neurocognitive elements of antisocial behavior. Relevance of an orbitofrontal cortex account. Brain Cogn 2004 Jun; 55 (1): 185-97. Cerca con Google

295. Shulman GL, Corbetta M, Buckner RL, Fiez JA, Miezen FM, Raichle ME, and Petersen SE. common blood flow changes across visual tasks: II. Decreases in cerebral cortex. J Cogn Neurosci 1997; 9: 647-62. Cerca con Google

296. Simpson JRJ, Drevets WC, Snyder AZ, Gusnard DA, Raichle ME. Emotion-induced changes in human medial prefrontal cortex: II. During anticipatory anxiety. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001a; 98: 688 -93. Cerca con Google

297. Simpson JRJ, Snyder AZ, Gusnard DA, Raichle M. Emotion-induced changes in human medial prefrontal cortex: I. During cognitive task performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2001b; 98: 683-7. Cerca con Google

298. Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Holmes CJ, Jernigan TL, and Toga AW. In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nat Nurosci 1999; 2: 859-61. Cerca con Google

299. Spence KW, Runquist WN. Temporal effects of conditioned fear on the eyeblink reflex. J Exp Psychol 1958; 55: 613-6. Cerca con Google

300. Spielberg CD, ed. Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press; Rev edition 1983. Cerca con Google

301. Spielberger CD, ed. Anxiety and Behaviour, New York: Academic Press; 1966. Cerca con Google

302. Spielberger CD, and Smith LH. Anxiety (drive), stress, and serial-position effects in serial-verbal learning. J Exp Psychol 1996; 88:67-81. Cerca con Google

303. Stuss DT, and Benson DF. Neuropsychological studis of the frontal lobe. Psychol Bul 1984 Jan; 95 (1): 3-28. Cerca con Google

304. Stuss DT, and Benson DF, eds. The frontal lobes. New York: Rave Press;1986. Cerca con Google

305. Taylor SE. Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events: the mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychol Bull 1991 Jul; 110 (1): 67-85. Cerca con Google

306. Teasdale JD. Selective effects of emotion on information processing. In: Bradley AD, and Weiskrantz L, eds. Attention: selection, awareness, and control.: a tribute to Donald Broadbent. New York: Oxford University Press; 1993. p. 374-89. Cerca con Google

307. Tellegen A. Structures of mood and personality and their relevance to assessing anxiety, with an emphasis on self report. In: Tuma AH, Maser JD, eds. Anxiety and the anxiety disorders. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum; 1985. p. 681-706. Cerca con Google

308. Tranel, D, and Damasio, H. Neuroanatomical correlates of electrodermal skin conductanceresponses. Psychophysiology 1994; 31: 427-38. Cerca con Google

309. Tranel D, Adolphs R, Damasio H, and Damasio AR. A neural basis for retrieval of words for actions. Cog Neuropsychol 2001; 18: 655-70. Cerca con Google

310. Vrana SR. Emotional modulation of skin conductance and eyeblink responses to startle probe. Psychophysiology 1995 Jul;32(4):351-7. Cerca con Google

311. Wahlen PJ, Rauch SL, Etcoff NL, McInerney SC, Lee MB, Jenike MA. Masked presentations of emotional facial expressions modulate amygdala activity without explicit knowledge. J Neurosci 1998 Jan 1; 18 (1): 411-8. Cerca con Google

312. Walker DL, Davis M. Anxiogenic effects of high illumination level assessed with the acoustic startle paradigm. Biol Psychiatry 1997; 42: 461-71. Cerca con Google

313. Walsh RN, Cimmunigs RA. The open-field test: a critical review. Psychol Bull 1976; 83: 482-504. Cerca con Google

314. Weiskrantz L. Behavioral changes associated with ablation of the amygdaloid complex in monkeys. J Comp Physiol Psychol 1956; 49: 381-91. Cerca con Google

315. Wilken JA, Smith BD, Tola K, Mann M. Trait anxiety and prior exposure to non-stressful stimuli: effect on psychophysiological arousal and anxiety. Int J Psychophysiol 2000; 37: 233-42. Cerca con Google

316. Willinger U, Lenzinger E, Hornik K, Fischer G, Schonbeck G, Aschauer HN, Meszaros K. Anxiety as a predictor of relapse in detoxified alcoholdependent patients. Alcohol Alcohol 2002; 37: 609 -12. Cerca con Google

317. Wittmann M, and Paulus MP. Decision making, impulsivity and time perception. Trend Cogn Sci 2007; 12(1): 7-12. Cerca con Google

318. Yuen KSL, Lee TMC. Could mood state affect risk-taking decisions? J Aff Dis 2003; 75: 11-8. Cerca con Google

319. Young AW, Aggleton JP, Hellawell DJ, Johnson M, Broks P, Hanley JR. Facial expression processing after amygdalotomy. Brain 1995 Feb; 118 (1): 15-24. Cerca con Google

320. Zajonc RB. Feeling and thinking: preferences need no inferences. Am Psychol 1980; 35: 151-75. Cerca con Google

321. Zermatten A, Van der Linden M, d’Acremont M, Jerman F, and Bechara A. Impulsivity and decision making. J Nerv Ment Dis 2005; 193(10): 647-50. Cerca con Google

322. Zuckerman M. Dimensions of Sensation Seeking. J Consult Clin Psychol 1971; 36: 45-52. Cerca con Google

323. Zuckerman M. Sensation seeking: beyond the optimum level of arousal. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbraum; 1979. Cerca con Google

324. Zuckerman M. Behavioural expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1994. Cerca con Google

325. Zuckerman M. the psychological model for impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking: a comparative approach. Neuropsychobiol 1996; 34 (3): 125-9. Cerca con Google

326. Zuckerman M, Eysenck S, and Eysenck HJ. Sensation seeking in England and America: cross-cultural, age, and sex comparisons. J Consult Clin Psychol 1978; 46: 139-49. Cerca con Google

327. Zweig J. Are you wired for wealth? Money 2002: 75-83. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record