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Russo, Nicola (2014) Preventive Cardiology and Rehabilitation. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (english)

Background: Despite the favourable effects of new therapeutic approaches during the acute phase of cardiac diseases and consequent favourable short-term outcomes, post-acute management and long term prognosis still remain unsatisfactory. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a multidisciplinary treatment with established beneficial effects for the vast majority of cardiac patients and universally considered an important aspect of secondary prevention. Although it has been shown to reduce both morbidity and mortality and it is a class I recommendation in the guidelines, its use remains still rather limited in Europe and in the rest of the world.
Aim: The aim of this PhD research was to examine some aspects still little known, or unknown at all, in this field. In particular, the research aimed to evaluate safety and efficacy of a structured, exercise-based, CR in specific cohorts of patients: after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, and early after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in high risk subjects.
Methods: All patients (78 TAVI, mean age 82.1±3.6 years, 42 LVAD, 63.4 ± 7.4 years, and 376 AMI, 64.4±12.3 years) were referred to the Institute Codivilla-Putti (in Cortina d’Ampezzo, BL, Italy) for a two week, in-hospital, CR training and comprehensive risk factors interventions early after the acute event (within two weeks TAVI and AMI, within two months after LVAD implantation).
TAVI patients were compared with 80 consecutive peer patients who were admitted for CR in the same period after surgical aortic valve replacement (sAVR) and LVAD patients compared with 47 coeval chronic heart failure (CHF) patients who were admitted for CR in the same period after an acute heart failure event. In LVAD cohort, cardiac autonomic function was evaluated by means of heart rate variability.
AMI patients were divided into 2 groups according to a 40% left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) cut-off at enrolment, in order to evaluate the influence of a reduced LVEF on the rehabilitative process; furthermore, in 326 patients a glucometabolic characterization was obtained by means of a standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) in patients without known diabetes.
In all patients the training protocol consisted of a low-medium intensity exercise protocol developed in three sets of exercises, 6 days per week: 30 min of respiratory workout, followed by an aerobic session on a cyclette (or on an arm ergometer in those patients who were not able to cycle) in the morning and, in the afternoon, 30 min of callisthenic exercises. Each session was supervised by a physician and a physiotherapist and all patients were ECG monitored by a telemetry system.
Functional capacity was assessed by a six min walking test (6MWT) on admission, and a second test at discharge; when possible, a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was also performed. The Barthel Index (BI) was used as an autonomy index in TAVI and LVAD cohorts. In AMI patients rate of death, hospitalizations, smoke cessation, physical activity and adherence to pharmacological treatment were recorded at follow up (up to 5 years, median 2 years).
Results: Despite the high risk profile of the population, the drop out rate was quite low (1.3% of TAVI, 1.1% of AMI and 11.9% of LVAD patients had to be transferred due to non fatal complications). All the subjects who completed the program had enhanced independence, mobility and functional capacity (mean BI increment was 9.9±12.6, p<0.01 and 11.9±10.5, p<0.01, in TAVI and LVAD patients respectively; mean 6MWT gain was 60.4±46.4 mt, p<0.01, 83.2±36.0 mt, p<0.05, 70.7±55.7 mt, p<0.01, in TAVI, LVAD and AMI patients, respectively).
Analysing the specific cohorts, a smaller proportion of TAVI patients, compared with sAVR, was able to complete at least a 6MWT (82% vs 92%) or a CPET (61% vs 95%) but, in those who did, the distance walked at 6MWT at discharge did not significantly differ between the groups (272.7±108 vs. 294.2±101 mt, p=0.42), neither did the exercise capacity assessed by CPET (peak-VO2 12.5±3.6 vs. 13.9±2.7 ml/kg/min, p=0.16).
At the end of the program, physical performance in LVAD patients was still generally poor, but not dissimilar from that found in CHF patients (peak-VO2 reached at CPET was 12.5±3.0 vs. 13.6±2.9 ml/kg/min, p=0.20).
Evaluating AMI patients, subjects with LVEF<40% achieved significantly lower peak-VO2 at CPET than the controls (15.2±3.9 vs. 18.2±5.2 ml/kg/min, p<0.01). After OGTT administration, a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was found (54%). As expected, exercise capacity was poorer in diabetic and pre-diabetic patients when compared with normoglicemic (peak-VO2 at CPET 15.3±4.1 vs 17.9±4.8 vs 19.4±5.5 ml/kg/min, p<0.01). At follow up 73% of the subjects reported to exercise regularly, 77% of the smokers definitively quitted and a high adherence to the therapy was registered. Cardiac and all cause mortality resulted 5.0% and 8.0 % at 1 year and 8.0 % and 13.0 % at 5 years, respectively and resulted higher in older people and in those with lower LVEF.
Conclusions: Patients who underwent TAVI and LVAD implantation are characterized by a long-term deconditioning status. In this perspective, benefit is not automatically achieved through high-technology interventions and pharmacological management alone. This study have shown that a short-term, supervised, exercise-based CR is feasible, safe and effective in elderly patients after TAVI, as well as after traditional surgery, and after LVAD implantation. An early CR programme enhances independence, mobility and functional capacity and should be encouraged in these subjects.
An early and intensive CR, based on physical activity and counselling, resulted to be safe and effective also in high risk patients after AMI, both in the short and in the long period. Indeed, a significant improvement in functional capacity in the short term - independent from the basal ventricular function or glucometabolic status - and a high adherence to therapy and to lifestyle modifications in the long term were achieved. Despite the high risk profile of these patients, this produced a favourable effect on cardiac and total mortality.

Abstract (italian)

Introduzione: Nonostante gli effetti favorevoli di nuovi approcci terapeutici durante la fase acuta delle malattie cardiache e conseguente prognosi più favorevole nel breve termine, la gestione della fase post-acuta di tali patologie e la prognosi a lungo termine rimane ancora insoddisfacente. La Riabilitazione Cardiologica (RC) è un trattamento multidisciplinare con chiari effetti benefici nella stragrande maggioranza dei pazienti cardiologici ed universalmente considerata un aspetto importante della prevenzione secondaria. Sebbene si sia dimostrata in grado di ridurre morbidità e mortalità e sia ormai un trattamento raccomandato in I classe nelle linee guida, il suo uso rimane ancora piuttosto limitato in Europa e nel resto del mondo.
Scopo: Lo scopo del presente programma di ricerca è stato esaminare alcuni aspetti ancora pochi noti, se non del tutto sconosciuti, in questo campo. In particolare, la presente ricerca ha avuto lo scopo di valutare sicurezza ed efficacia di una RC strutturata, basata sull’esercizio fisico, in specifiche coorti di pazienti: dopo impianto di valvola aortica transcatetere (TAVI), dopo impianto di assistenza ventricolare sinistra (LVAD), e subito dopo infarto miocardico acuto (AMI) in soggetti ad alto rischio.
Metodi: Tutti i pazienti (78 TAVI, età media 82.1±3.6 anni, 42 LVAD, 63.4 ± 7.4 anni, e 376 AMI, 64.4±12.3 anni) sono stati inviati presso l’Istituto Codivilla-Putti (Cortina d’Ampezzo, BL, Italia) per un periodo di riabilitazione cardiologica degenziale di due settimane, basato sull’allenamento fisico ed interventi sui fattori di rischio cardiovascolare, subito dopo l’evento acuto (entro due settimane dopo TAVI ed AMI, entro due mesi dopo impianto di LVAD).
I pazienti TAVI sono stati confrontati con 80 pazienti di pari caratteristiche che nello stesso periodo giungevano in riabilitazione dopo sostituzione valvolare aortica per via tradizionale (sAVR); i pazienti LVAD sono stati confrontati con 47 pazienti di pari età affetti da scompenso cardiaco cronico (CHF) che giungevano nello stesso periodo dopo una riacutizzazione di scompenso. Nella coorte dei LVAD è stata inoltre valutata la funzione autonomica mediante lo studio dell’ heart rate variability.
Per valutare gli effetti di una depressione della frazione d’eiezione del ventricolo sinistro (LVEF) sul processo riabilitativo, i pazienti AMI sono stati divisi in 2 gruppi in base alla LVEF (cut-off 40%). Inoltre, in 326 pazienti, è stata ottenuta una caratterizzazione glumetabolica mediante una curva da carico di glucosio standard (OGTT) somministrata ai soggetti senza diabete noto.
Tutti i pazienti sono stati sottoposti ad un ciclo di ricondizionamento fisico con esercizi prevalentemente aerobici, distribuiti in 3 sessioni quotidiane per 6 giorni alla settimana (30 minuti di ginnastica respiratoria, seguiti da una sessione sulla cyclette, o su un arm-ergometro in coloro che non erano in grado di pedalare, nel pomeriggio 30 minuti di esercizi callistenici), sotto stretto monitoraggio telemetrico e diretta supervisione medica e fisioterapica.
La capacità funzionale è stata valutata mediante six min walking test (6MWT) all’ingresso e alla dimissione e un test cardiopolmonare (CPET). Nelle coorti TAVI e LVAD è stata usata la scala di Barthel (Barthel Index, BI) per valutare il grado di autonomia. Nei pazienti AMI è stato registrato al follow up (fino a 5 anni, mediana 2 anni) l’incidenza di morte, nuove ospedalizzazioni, cessazione del fumo, attività fisica ed aderenza alla terapia.
Risultati: Nonostante l’alto profilo di rischio della popolazione, il tasso di abbandono dal programma è risultato piuttosto basso (nell’ 1.3% dei pazienti TAVI, 1.1% degli AMI e 11.9% dei LVAD si è reso necessario il trasferimento all’ospedale per acuti per complicazioni non fatali). Tutti i soggetti che hanno completato il programma hanno migliorato la propria indipendenza, mobilità e capacità funzionale (incremento medio del BI 9.9±12.6, p<0.01 e 11.9±10.5, p<0.01, nei pazienti TAVI e LVAD rispettivamente; guadagno medio al 6MWT 60.4±46.4 mt, p<0.01, 83.2±36.0 mt, p<0.05, 70.7±55.7 mt, p<0.01, nei pazienti TAVI, LVAD and AMI, rispettivamente).
Analizzando le specifiche coorti, una percentuale più bassa di pazienti TAVI rispetto a quelli del gruppo sAVR sono stati in grado di completare almeno un 6MWT (82% vs 92%) o un CPET (61% vs 95%) ma, in coloro che vi sono riusciti, non vi erano differenze significative tra i due gruppi in termini di distanza percorsa al 6MWT alla dimissione (272.7±108 vs 294.2±101 mt, p=0.42) e capacità funzionale al CPET (VO2 al picco 12.5±3.6 vs 13.9±2.7 ml/kg/min, p=0.16).
Al termine del programma la performance fisica nei pazienti LVAD era generalmente scarsa, ma non dissimile da quella dei pazienti CHF (VO2 al picco al CPET 12.5±3.0 vs 13.6±2.9 ml/kg/min, p=0.20).
Tra i pazienti AMI, coloro con LVEF<40% hanno raggiunto al CPET un VO2 al picco dell’esercizio significativamente più basso rispetto ai controlli (15.2±3.9 vs 18.2±5.2 ml/kg/min, p<0.01). Dopo somministrazione dell’OGTT è stata riscontrata un’alta prevalenza di alterazioni del metabolismo glucidico non precedente note (54%). Come atteso la capacità fisica era inferiore nei diabetici e nei prediabetici in confronto ai normoglicemici (al CPET VO2 al picco 15.3±4.1 vs 17.9±4.8 vs 19.4±5.5 ml/kg/min, p<0.01). Al follow up 73% dei soggetti hanno riferito di svolgere un’attività fisica regolare, 77% dei fumatori hanno definitivamente smesso ed è stata registrata un’alta aderenza alla terapia. La mortalità cardiaca e per tutte le cause è risultata 5.0% e 8.0% ad 1 anno, 8.0% e 13.0% a 5 anni, rispettivamente, ed è risultata più elevata nei soggetti più anziani ed in quelli con ridotta LVEF.
Conclusioni: I pazienti che sono andati incontro ad intervento di TAVI e LVAD sono caratterizzati da un notevole grado di decondizionamento fisico. In tale prospettiva non si può automaticamente raggiungere un beneficio con il solo intervento ad alta tecnologia o con il trattamento farmacologico. Un breve periodo di RC, con supervisione medica, si è dimostrato fattibile, sicuro ed efficace in pazienti anziani dopo TAVI, così come dopo chirurgia aortica tradizionale, e dopo impianto di LVAD. Un programma precoce di RC aumenta l’indipendenza, la mobilità e la capacità funzionale ed andrebbe sicuramente incoraggiato in questi soggetti.
Una RC intensiva e precoce basata sull’attività fisica e sul counselling è risultata sicura ed efficace anche in soggetti ad alto rischio dopo AMI, sia nel breve che nel lungo termine. Infatti è stato raggiunto un significativo miglioramento della capacità funzionale nel breve periodo - indipendentemente dalla funzione ventricolare sinistra residua o dallo stato glucometabolico - ed un’elevata aderenza alla terapia e alle modifiche dello stile di vita proposte. Nonostante l’elevato profilo di rischio di tali pazienti, questo può aver prodotto un effetto favorevole sulla mortalità.

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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Iliceto, Sabino
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 25 > Scuole 25 > SCIENZE MEDICHE, CLINICHE E SPERIMENTALI > SCIENZE CARDIOVASCOLARI
Data di deposito della tesi:26 January 2014
Anno di Pubblicazione:26 January 2014
Key Words:riabilitazione cardiologica, cardiologia preventiva, capacità funzionale, test del cammino dei sei minuti, test cardiopolmonare, prognosi, impianto di valvola aortica transcatetere, assistenza ventricolare sinistra, infarto miocardico/ cardiac rehabilitation, preventive cardiology, exercise capacity, six minute walking test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, outcome, transcatheter aortic valve implantation, left ventricular assist device, myocardial infarction
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/11 Malattie dell'apparato cardiovascolare
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Cardiologiche, Toraciche e Vascolari
Codice ID:6372
Depositato il:04 Nov 2014 14:57
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