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Ferrari, Efrem (2014) Methodological issues in implementing a sustainable forest management plan in remote mountain areas - The Karakorum (Pakistan). [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Based on a practical case-study, the Central Karakorum National Park - Gilgit-Baltistan - Pakistan, the aim of the thesis is to present a methodological framework for promoting the sustainable forest management in mountain areas characterized by remoteness, difficulties of access and where few data are available.
Forest resources of Karakorum Mountains assume an essential role for the livelihoods of local communities, heavily dependent on wood for heating, cooking and construction purposes. However, uncontrolled and long lasting anthropogenic pressures (as grazing, high firewood necessities, increase in population) have slowly but continuously degraded forest resources, posing threats to their conservation. Paradoxically, this has been exacerbated by mismanagement, lack of forest inventories and lack of community involvement, consequence of a strong top-down and centralized governance of natural resources.
The development of a sustainable and participatory forest management plan based on sound scientific data can be therefore considered both a priority and an innovative approach. Even if the whole work was completed in a single protected area, the issues under investigation, the problems encountered and the methodologies applied to solve them are similar in many other mountains of developing countries.
To reach this objective, the research has been divided into three main areas of investigation.
The first relates to the spatial quantification of resources availability and involved the development of a land cover map of the Park area and an assessment of Park’s forests in terms of above ground biomass and current annual increment. This was achieved using satellite images and field plots.
The second investigation included activities aimed at assessing local communities’ livelihood options and their use of forest resources. We organized focus groups in 24 villages of 9 valleys with the double objective of collecting information and stimulate discussion about management plan issues.
Finally, to increase locals’ capacity in forest management related activities, two reforestation initiatives, which included all steps from seeds collection to seeding and seedlings protection from browsing, were organized.
In the last chapter of the thesis the preliminary Central Karakorum National Park management indications are summarized

Abstract (italiano)

Questa tesi, partendo da un caso studio focalizzato sul Parco Nazionale del Karakorum Centrale – Provincia del Gilgit Baltistan – Pakistan, è finalizzata all’individuazione di un quadro metodologico per promuovere la gestione forestale sostenibile in aree montane remote, caratterizzate da un estremo isolamento imputabile a difficoltà di accesso e comunicazione, e da mancanza di informazioni su stato e disponibilità delle risorse forestali.
Le foreste montane del Karakorum rivestono un ruolo essenziale nel garantire la sopravvivenza delle comunità locali, fortemente dipendenti dal legname sia per fini energetici (riscaldamento, cucina) che strutturali (ponti, edifici). Inoltre, la persistente ed incontrollata pressione antropica, esacerbata dall’aumento demografico, il pascolo indiscriminato ed alti consumi pro-capite, hanno provocato una forte degradazione degli ecosistemi forestali, fino a renderne la conservazione precaria.
Paradossalmente, questi processi sono stati ulteriormente aggravati dalla mancanza di una gestione selvicolturale razionale, dalla mancanza di inventari quantitativi e qualitativi e da un generale scarso coinvolgimento delle comunità locali nella gestione. Il quadro normativo forestale, infatti, prevede tutt’ora un forte controllo, centralizzato, dell’amministrazione pubblica, con ridotta partecipazione delle comunità sia a livello di pianificazione che di gestione.
In un contesto siffatto, quindi, lo sviluppo di una gestione forestale sostenibile e partecipativa, basata su concreti dati scientifici, rappresenta sia una priorità che un approccio innovativo. E, pur consapevoli che questo studio è riferito esclusivamente ad una ben specifica area protetta, le tematiche affrontate, le problematiche riscontrate e le soluzioni metodologiche prospettate possono costituire argomento di interesse e di riflessione per molte altre realtà montane di paesi in via di sviluppo.
Per evidenziare l’aspetto metodologico del progetto, lo svolgimento della ricerca è stato ripartito in tre distinti filoni tematici di investigazione.
Il primo riguarda le attività mirate ad ottenere una stima quantitativa e spaziale della disponibilità di risorse forestali: a tal fine, è stata tratta da immagini satellitari una cartografia di uso del suolo con particolare attenzione alla componente forestale. Inoltre, sempre utilizzando tecniche di telerilevamento, si è stimata la biomassa epigea e l’incremento corrente.
Il secondo tema di indagine è focalizzato sulle comunità locali, con particolare attenzione all’utilizzo da parte loro delle risorse forestali e naturali. Tramite l’organizzazione di focus groups in 24 villaggi di 9 valli, sono state analizzate le pratiche di gestione ed i consumi di legna pro-capite.
Infine in due valli campione sono state realizzate due riforestazioni, per esemplificare in concreto una prassi di buona gestione forestale. In entrambe le occasioni tutti i passaggi necessari al loro corretto svolgimento, dalla raccolta del seme alla protezione dei semenzali tramite recinzioni elettrificate, sono stati svolti con la determinante collaborazione delle comunità locali. Occasione preziosa e significativa per stimolare il coinvolgimento dei locali anche in merito a tematiche riguardanti la pianificazione gestionale.
L’ultimo capitolo della tesi contiene un riassunto delle prime linee di gestione forestale individuate per il Parco Nazionale del Karakorum Centrale. Indicazioni queste che possono essere considerate le conclusioni dello studio

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Anfodillo, Tommaso
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 26 > Scuole 26 > TERRITORIO, AMBIENTE, RISORSE E SALUTE
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2014
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Gennaio 2014
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Sustainable Forest Management, Landsat, Remote sensing, Forest Inventory, Community Forest Management, Karakorum, Pakistan
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/05 Assestamento forestale e selvicoltura
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Codice ID:6441
Depositato il:13 Nov 2014 09:47
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