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Frisone, Viviana (2014) Eocene siliceous sponges (porifera: hexactinellida, demospongea) from eastern Lessini mountains (northen italy). [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

2 case studies of Eocene siliceous sponges from Eastern Lessini Mountains are reported.
Case study 1— Bartonian Mt. Duello isolated spicules (Verona).
This study documents exceptionally preserved isolated opaline spicules, unique for the Middle Eocene (Bartonian) of Italy. Interpretation of morphological types of spicules by comparison with living species lead to their attribution to 5 orders (Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Haplosclerida, Poecilosclerida, “Lithistida”), 7 families (Geodiidae, Placospongiidae, Tethyidae, Petrosiidae, Acarnidae, ?Corallistidae, Theonellidae) and 5 genera (Geodia, Erylus, Placospongia, Chondrilla, Petrosia, ?Zyzzya ). All the described genera are first reported from the Eocene of Europe. This study expands the geographical range of these taxa and fills a chronological gap in their fossil record. The spicules are often fragmented and bear signs of corrosion. They show 2 types of preservation: glassy and translucent. X-ray powder diffraction analysis confirms that both types are opal-CT with probable presence of original opal-A. Despite of that, at SEM, the texture of freshly broken surfaces is different. Milky spicules show a porous structure with incipient lepispheres. This feature, together with surface corrosion and the constant presence of the zeolite heulandite/clinoptilolite, point to a certain degree of diagenetic transformation. Macro and micro facies analysis define the sedimentary environment as a rocky shore succession, deepening upward within the photic zone. The spicule-rich sandy grainstone represents the deepest facies and was deposited in middle-outer carbonate ramp environment, in part in a fairly high energy environment close to storm wave base, within the photic zone.
Case study 2 –Lutetian sponge fauna from Chiampo Valley (Vicenza).
The fauna consists of non-compressed bodily preserved sponges. More than 900 specimens housed in Italian Museums were studied. The original siliceous skeleton is dissolved and substituted by calcite. There is evidence of presence of sulfate reducing bacteria. Observations of both complete specimens and thin sections lead to taxonomical attributions of 32 species (15 Hexactinellida, 17 Demospongea). Among these taxa, the institution of 10 new species is proposed: Stauractinella eocenica, Rigonia plicata, Hexactinella clampi, Camerospongia tuberculata, Camerospongia visentini, Toulminia italica, Coronispongia confossa, Cavispongia scarpae, Corallistes multiosculata, Bolidium bertii. 24 genera are described, 2 of which new (Rigonia and Coronispongia). The specimens were photographed before sectioning , and 3-D models of fossils were produced. Delicate sponge attachments were documented. The presence of both attachments to soft and hard substrate indicate a mixed bottom. Juvenile sponges were recorded too. The sponge fauna is presumably parautochthonous. The taxonomical study shears a new light on the scarce fossil record of Eocene siliceous sponges. Petrographic investigations of the sponges and the embedding sediment contributed to clarify the sequence of taphonomic events and the sedimentary environment

Abstract (italiano)

Sono riportati 2 casi studio di spugne silicee eoceniche dei Monti Lessini orientali.
Caso di studio 1 — spicole isolate bartoniane del Monte Duello (Verona)
Questo studio documenta la presenza di spicole isolate opaline, eccezionalmente conservate che costituiscono un unicum per l’Eocene (Bartoniano) dell’Italia. L’interpretazione della morfologia dei tipi di spicole tramite il confronto con specie viventi ha portato all’attribuzione a 5 ordini (Astrophorida, Hadromerida, Haplosclerida, Poecilosclerida, “Lithistida”), 7 famiglie (Geodiidae, Placospongiidae, Tethyidae, Petrosiidae, Acarnidae, ?Corallistidae, Theonellidae) and 5 generi (Geodia, Erylus, Placospongia, Chondrilla, Petrosia, ?Zyzzya ). Tutti i generi descritti sono segnalati per la prima volta per l’Eocene dell’Europa. Il presente studio espande il range geografico di questi taxa e riempie un gap cronologico nel loro record fossile. Le spicole sono spesso frammentate e portano segni di corrosione. Esse mostrano 2 tipi di conservazione: una vitrea e una lattea. Le analisi alla diffrazione delle polveri ai raggi X confermano che entrambi i tipi sono formati da opale-CT con la probabile presenza di opale-A. Malgrado ciò, al SEM, la struttura delle superfici rotte di fresco, è differente. Le spicole lattiginose hanno una struttura porosa con lepisfere incipienti. Questa caratteristica, assieme alla corrosione della superficie e la costante presenza della zeolite heulandite/clinoptilolite, suggerisce un certo grado di trasformazione diagenetica. Macro e micro analisi di facies definiscono l’ambiente sedimentario come una successione di costa rocciosa, deepening upward, all’interno della zona fotica. Il grainstone sabbioso ricco di spicole rappresenta la facies più profonda e si è depositato in un ambiente di rampa mediana-esterna, in un ambiente di energia piuttosto alta vicino alla base d’onda di cattivo tempo, all’interno della zona fotica.
Caso studio 2— Fauna a spugne luteziano della Valle del Chiampo (Vicenza).
La fauna consiste in spugne intere non compresse. Sono stati studiati più di 900 esemplari conservati in Musei italiani. Lo scheletro siliceo originale si è dissolto ed è stato sostituito da calcite. C’è evidenza della presenza di batteri solfo-riduttori. L’osservazione sia di esemplari completi sia di sezioni sottili ha portato all’attribuzione di 32 specie (15 Hexactinellida, 17 Demospongea). Tra queste, è proposta l’istituzione di 10 nuove specie: Stauractinella eocenica, Rigonia plicata, Hexactinella clampi, Camerospongia tuberculata, Camerospongia visentini, Toulminia italica, Coronispongia confossa, Cavispongia scarpae, Corallistes multiosculata, Bolidium bertii. Sono inoltre descritti 24 generi, 2 dei quali nuovi per la Scienza: Rigonia e Coronispongia. Gli esemplari sono stati fotografati prima di essere sezionati e sono stati prodotti modelli 3-D. Sono stati inoltre documentate delicate strutture di ancoraggio al substrato. La presenza di strutture di ancoraggio sia di substrato molle che di substrato duro indicano un fondale di tipo misto. Sono state pure documentate spugne allo stato giovanile. La fauna a spugne è presumibilmente parautoctona. Questo studio tassonomico porta nuova luce sullo scarso record fossile delle spugne eoceniche. Le ricerche petrografiche sugli esemplari di spugne e sul sedimento inglobante ha contribuito a chiarire la sequenza di eventi tafonomici e l’ambiente sedimentario

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Preto, Nereo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 26 > Scuole 26 > SCIENZE DELLA TERRA
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2014
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Gennaio 2014
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Siliceous sponges, Porifera, Hexactinellida, Demospongea, Eocene, Lutetian, Bartonian, Lessini Mts., Mt. Duello, Chiampo
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 04 - Scienze della terra > GEO/02 Geologia stratigrafica e sedimentologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Geoscienze
Codice ID:6454
Depositato il:13 Nov 2014 12:04
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