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Dalmaso, Mario (2014) Social modulators of social attention. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Social attention refers to the ability, which generally characterizes human beings as well as other animal species, to orient attentional resources in response to spatial cues provided by other individuals. These spatial cues are typically represented by gaze direction, head direction, and body orientation. This thesis focused mainly on the role that some social variables play in modulating this ability.
In Chapter 1, the concept of social attention and its relevance in regulating social interactions are discussed. After that, in Chapter 2, I present four studies in which I have employed the gaze-cueing paradigm. This allows to investigate the role of gaze direction in modulating social attention. In these four studies, the social variables manipulated have been social status (Study 1) and political affiliation (Study 2). Moreover, I have also investigated the impact of implicit social learning on gaze cueing (Study 3). The final study (Study 4), investigated social attention in schizophrenic patients, who are known to be particularly impaired in dealing with social stimuli. In Chapter 3, I present a particular aspect of social attention known as social inhibition of return, a phenomenon whereby an individual is slower to reach a location previously explorer by another individual. Here, I have manipulated the social similarity between participants (Study 5). Finally, in Chapter 4, I present some evidence supporting the view that gaze direction, in combination with racial group membership, represents a crucial variable not only for attentional mechanisms but even for the encoding and maintenance of face’s visual representations in visual working memory (Study 6). To conclude, in Chapter 5, a general discussion highlights the importance of considering social variables in the study of social attention, inviting to embrace a more ecological research approach in order to investigate this phenomenon during real social interactions and in real world settings.

Abstract (italiano)

Con attenzione sociale si intende l’abilità, che generalmente caratterizza gli esseri umani così come altre specie animali, di orientare le proprie risorse attentive in risposta agli indizi spaziali che provengono dagli altri individui. Questi indizi spaziali sono rappresentati, tipicamente, dalla direzione dello sguardo, della testa e dall’orientamento del corpo. La presenti tesi si è focalizzata, principalmente, sul ruolo giocato da alcune variabili di tipo sociale nel modulare tale abilità.
Nel Capitolo 1 è discusso il concetto di attenzione sociale e la sua importanza nella regolazione delle interazioni sociali. Nel Capitolo 2 presento quattro studi nei quali ho utilizzato il paradigma di orientamento attentivo mediato dallo sguardo. Questo paradigma consente di valutare il ruolo della direzione dello sguardo nel modulare l’attenzione sociale. In questi quattro studi, le variabili sociali da me manipolate sono state lo status sociale (Studio 1) e l’affiliazione politica (Studio 2). Inoltre, ho approfondito il ruolo dell’apprendimento implicito di variabili sociali sull’orientamento attentivo mediato dallo sguardo (Studio 3). Lo studio finale (Studio 4), ha indagato l’attenzione sociale in pazienti schizofrenici, nei quali l’abilità di elaborare stimoli sociali risulta generalmente compromessa. Nel Capitolo 3, presento un particolare aspetto legato all’attenzione sociale noto come inibizione di ritorno sociale, un fenomeno per il quale gli individui risultano più lenti nel compiere un movimento verso una posizione spaziale precedentemente raggiunta da un altro individuo. In questo caso, ho manipolato la somiglianza percepita tra i partecipanti (Studio 5). In fine, nel Capitolo 4 presento alcune evidenze che sottolineano come la direzione dello sguardo, in combinazione con l’appartenenza etnica, sia una variabile cruciale implicata non solo nei processi attentivi ma addirittura nei processi di codifica e mantenimento dell’identità di un volto nella memoria visiva a breve termine (Studio 6). Per concludere, nel Capitolo 5, una discussione generale sottolinea l’importanza di considerare le variabili sociali nello studio dell’attenzione sociale e invita l’idea di considerare l’utilizzo paradigmi sperimentali sempre più ecologici, in modo tale da permettere di studiare il fenomeno dell’attenzione sociale durante vere interazioni tra individui che avvengono in contesti sociali reali.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Galfano, Giovanni
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 26 > Scuole 26 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2014
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Gennaio 2014
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):social attention, social cognition, gaze-cueing of attention, social inhibition of return, visual short-term memory, eye tracker, ERPs
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/01 Psicologia generale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:6509
Depositato il:03 Nov 2014 12:37
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