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Di Rosa, Elisa (2014) Behavioural and electrophysiological indices of executive functions in ageing and in Parkinson's disease. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Healthy ageing and Parkinson's disease (PD) are both characterized by different changes in the prefrontal cortex and in dopaminergic functionality. Working memory and feedback processing have been related to the dopaminergic activity in the prefrontal cortex (Hammerer & Eppinger, 2012; Backman et al., 2010-2008; Backman & Farde, 2005). The aim of the three studies presented in this thesis was to examine if, and how, these two executive functions change in ageing and in Parkinson's disease patients under pharmacological treatment. In detail, a first study investigated executive attention and inhibitory control, top down components of working memory, with the aim to explore the management of the information stored in working memory. Feedback processing was instead investigated in the second study exploring the interaction between motivation and cognitive control and, in the third study, analysing the electrophysiological correlates of outcome evaluation in a decision-making task.
Results of the first study highlighted the presence of an age-related decline in top down components of working memory, like executive attention and inhibitory control, in line with findings about age-related vulnerability to interference and decline in working memory (Reuter-Lorenz & Sylvester, 2005). In addition, the results of this study showed as medicated PD patients performed like a matched control group of healthy elderly in terms of accuracy, but better in terms of latency.
Results of the second study indicated that feedback processing is preserved in healthy ageing, but impaired in medicated PD patients, in line with previous findings (Kapogiannis et al., 2011; Spaniol et al., 2011; Harsay et al., 2010; Kobayakawa et al., 2010; Bodi et al., 2009; Frank et al., 2007-2004). Results of the third study contributed to increase the knowledge of this impairment showing the presence of abnormal electrophysiological correlates of feedback processing in medicated PD patients.
Taken together, the results presented in this dissertation confirm the presence of specific age-related declines in executive functions (Verhaeghen, 2011), and also suggest that the pattern of performances of medicated PD patients could be compatible with the effect of a "dopaminergic overdose" in executive functions (Vaillancourt et al., 2013), recommending further investigations about the role of dopaminergic treatment in PD patients' cognition

Abstract (italiano)

L'invecchiamento sano e la malattia di Parkinson rappresentano due condizioni in cui la corteccia prefrontale e il sistema dopaminergico vanno incontro a diversi cambiamenti. La memoria di lavoro e l'elaborazione del feedback rappresentano due funzioni esecutive che sono state correlate all'attività dopaminergica nella corteccia prefrontale (Hammerer & Eppinger, 2012; Backman et al., 2010-2008; Backman & Farde, 2005). L'obiettivo dei tre studi presentati in questa tesi è stato quello di studiare se, e come, queste due funzioni esecutive vanno incontro a cambiamenti, durante l'invecchiamento sano e in pazienti con malattia di Parkinson. Nello specifico, nel primo studio sono state esplorate le componenti top-down della memoria di lavoro, ovvero la capacità  di focalizzare le risorse sull'informazione rilevante e di inibire l'elaborazione di quella irrilevante, capacità essenziali per la gestione di informazioni in memoria di lavoro. L'elaborazione del feedback è stata invece studiata indagando i meccanismi d'interazione tra controllo cognitivo e motivazione nel secondo studio, e analizzando i correlate elettrofisiologici (ERPs) dell'elaborazione del feedback in un compito di decision-making nel terzo studio. I risultati del primo studio hanno mostrato che nell'invecchiamento sano le componenti top-down della memoria di lavoro vanno incontro ad un declino, coerentemente con precedenti evidenze circa l'aumentata sensibilità  all'interferenza e la presenza di deficit di memoria di lavoro nell'invecchiamento (Reuter-Lorenz & Sylvester, 2005).
Pazienti con malattia di Parkinson sotto trattamento farmacologico hanno invece mostrato prestazioni comparabili a quelle del gruppo di controllo in termini di accuratezza, ma migliori in termini di tempi di risposta. I risultati del secondo studio hanno inoltre mostrato che mentre nell'invecchiamento sano la capacità  di elaborazione del feedback è preservata, questa stessa capacità è compromessa in pazienti con malattia di Parkinson sotto trattamento farmacologico, coerentemente con quanto riportato in letteratura (Kapogiannis et al., 2011; Kobayakawa et al., 2010; Harsay et al., 2010; Spaniol et al., 2011; Bodi et al., 2009; Frank et al., 2007-2004). I risultati del terzo studio hanno contribuito a questa letteratura mostrando la presenza di anomalie nei correlati elettrifisiologici dell'elaborazione del feedback, in pazienti con malattia di Parkinson sotto trattamento farmacologico. In conclusione, i risultati presentati in questa tesi confermano la presenza di specifici deficit a livello delle funzioni esecutive nell'invecchiamento sano (Verhaeghen, 2011) e suggeriscono una compatibilità con l'ipotesi di una "overdose dopaminergica" alla base dei deficit esecutivi dei pazienti con malattia di Parkinson sotto trattamento farmacologico, ipotesi su cui dovranno concentrarsi futuri approfondimenti

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Mapelli, Daniela
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 26 > Scuole 26 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:29 Gennaio 2014
Anno di Pubblicazione:29 Gennaio 2014
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Executive Functions; Parkinson's disease; Ageing
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:6571
Depositato il:13 Nov 2014 12:53
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