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Zovi, Francesco (2014) Assessment of heterogeneous hydraulic properties in natural aquifers at the intermediate scale. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

One of the most relevant issues in groundwater hydrology is the assessment of heterogeneous hydraulic properties of natural aquifers at the intermediate scale. The intermediate scale includes, as a general definition, aquifers characterized by a ratio L/B, L being a linear measure of the horizontal extent, and B the average thickness, between one (local scale) and approximately one thousand (regional scale). In Italy groundwater represents almost eighty percent of drinkable water supply, therefore the control of groundwater pollution as well as an optimal planning of the well production activity are essential steps in groundwater management that are generally developed at the intermediate scale. The assessment of unknown geological properties affecting groundwater dynamics and the quantification of the related uncertainty is thus one of the most relevant issues, known in literature as parameter estimation or inverse modelling. Regional and local scales have been largely studied by the scientific community, although the local scale is typically less exploited than the regional. The intermediate scale, instead, has been the subject of a relatively limited number of publications and is still characterized by relevant open problems, like, for example, the optimal choice of the numerical model to adopt or the definition of a proper parameter estimation approach. Moreover, a limit is often given by the lack of experimental sites available for testing the new research developments. As a result, too often the research is not applied in real-world problems. This thesis is subdivided in four chapters. In Chapter 1 we introduce the multi-scale experimental site of Settolo, an alluvial unconfined aquifer in north-eastern Italy that constitutes, as far as we know, the first multi-scale groundwater test site in our country. The installed instrumentation and the collected data are described, together with a preliminary data interpretation. In Chapter 2 we focus on groundwater modelling at the intermediate-scale. We calibrate a homogeneous 2D groundwater model to reproduce the Settolo field piezometric data and we explore the differences with a 3D model implemented with the same parameters and boundary conditions. We compare again the two models with spatial heterogeneity in the parameters. Because of the very similar performance of the 2D and 3D models we conclude that, in our case, the 2D model is suitable to describe the Settolo aquifer behavior at the intermediate scale; therefore, it can be effectively adopted for inverse modelling approaches and data assimilation. Chapter 3 introduces a novel global optimization algorithm implemented in a geostatistical framework to calibrate groundwater models. The proposed parallel algorithm is tested and validated under various conditions, with both homogeneous and heterogeneous parameter distributions, showing robustness and efficiency in solving the inverse problem, as well as scalability to high performance computing. Finally in Chapter 4 we focus on the geological facies-heterogeneity, not suitable to be described by classic geostatistical approaches like, for example, variogram based models. We approach the inverse problem with a strategy that combines multiple point geostatistics and sequential data assimilation with the ensemble Kalman filter, involving different kind of data, i.e., satellite images, electrical resistivity tomographies and time series of piezometric heads recorded in different locations. This approach is tested for the first time on a real-world case, and its advantages and limits are shown.

Abstract (italiano)

La caratterizzazione degli acquiferi naturali a scala intermedia è un problema di fondamentale importanza nell'idrologia sotterranea. Per intermedia si intende una scala compresa fra la scala locale, con dimensioni orizzontali del dominio comparabili con quella verticale, e la scala regionale, dove la dimensione verticale è di più ordini di grandezza inferiore a quelle orizzontali. Gli studi sulla scala intermedia sono estremamente importanti per una gestione corretta e sostenibile della risorsa idropotabile, per il controllo dell'inquinamento e per la protezione dal dissesto idrogeologico. A titolo di esempio, in Italia circa l'ottanta per cento dell'acqua potabile viene estratta dalle falde acquifere. La letteratura scientifica di settore è composta da numerosi studi che trattano il problema su scala regionale, con un minor numero di contributi a scala locale. In ogni caso l'ambito della scala intermedia risulta meno sviluppato: esso è caratterizzato da alcuni problemi aperti, quali, ad esempio, la scelta più adeguata dei modelli numerici da utilizzare e la definizione di metodi di stima dei parametri. Un grande limite, inoltre, è rappresentato dalla scarsità di siti sperimentali su cui testare e validare le teorie e i metodi sviluppati, aspetto che spesso rischia di rendere i risultati della ricerca difficilmente fruibili nelle pratiche applicazioni. Il lavoro presentato in questa tesi è diviso in quattro capitoli. (1) Gestione e caratterizzazione del campo prove multi-scala di Settolo (TV). È stata messa a punto la strumentazione del campo prove di Settolo-Valdobbiadene, in provincia di Treviso, per lo studio delle dinamiche multi scala di flusso e trasporto sotterraneo. Per quanto è noto, a dicembre 2013 esso è l'unico esempio in Italia di campo sperimentale su più scale (locale e intermedia). Un attento monitoraggio di livelli di falda, precipitazione, e condizioni al contorno unito ad analisi geotecniche, idrauliche, geofisiche, chimico-biologiche e topografiche, fornisce un notevole insieme di dati che consentono svariate applicazioni. (2) Confronto tra modelli 2D e 3D su scala intermedia. Un primo utilizzo dei dati del campo sperimentale è consistito nella comparazione dei risultati di due modelli numerici volta a determinare l'adeguatezza di una approssimazione shallow water all'ambito di analisi. Nel confronto sono stati presi in considerazione anche aspetti pratici quali la velocità di calcolo e la facilità di implementazione con specifico riferimento alle caratteristiche del sito in esame. (3) Messa a punto di un nuovo algoritmo di stima dei parametri e dell'incertezza. Un nuovo algoritmo di ottimizzazione globale, applicabile a svariati problemi di ottimizzazione, è stato formulato e validato. Tale metodo è stato applicato con successo nella stima dei parametri idraulici eterogenei dell'acquifero di Settolo, fornendo anche una valutazione spaziale dell'incertezza nella stima. (4) Applicazione a un caso pratico di un metodo di assimilazione dati e multiple point geostatistics. Un approccio di modellazione inversa che combina l'ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) e le multiple point geostatistics (MPG), è stato applicato al campo sperimentale di Settolo-Valdobbiadene. Combinando dati diversi, quali immagini satellitari, tomografie geoelettriche del suolo, dati piezometrici di falda, precipitazioni e indagini geotecniche, si è cercato di ricostruire la distribuzione spaziale dei paleoalvei ghiaiosi, la cui posizione risulta fondamentale per poter definire con precisione le direzioni preferenziali di flusso e trasporto sotterraneo. Tale analisi, applicata per la prima volta un caso reale, ha messo in luce potenzialità e limiti dell'approccio utilizzato.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Salandin, Paolo - Camporese, Matteo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 26 > Scuole 26 > SCIENZE DELL'INGEGNERIA CIVILE E AMBIENTALE
Data di deposito della tesi:30 Gennaio 2014
Anno di Pubblicazione:30 Gennaio 2014
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):idrologia sotterranea, modellazione numerica, campo prove sperimentale sperimentazione di campo conducibilità idraulica, modellazione inversa, stima dei parametri ottimizzazione globale ensemble kalman filter, assimilazione dati, multiple point geostatistics / groundwater hydrology, numerical modelling, field experiment hydraulic conductivity inverse modelling, parameter estimation, global optimization data assimilation ensemble Kalman filter, multiple point geostatistics,
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 08 - Ingegneria civile e Architettura > ICAR/02 Costruzioni idrauliche e marittime e idrologia
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Edile e Ambientale
Codice ID:6708
Depositato il:04 Nov 2014 16:35
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