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Bonati, Sara (2014) I paesaggi vulnerabili tra percezione e resilienza: l'isola di Madeira e le Cinque Terre come casi di studio. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

VULNERABLE LANDSCAPES BETWEEN PERCEPTION AND RESILIENCE: THE CASE STUDIES OF THE ISLAND OF MADEIRA AND CINQUE TERRE

The research has been finelized to define and intepret vulnerable landscapes, with the hypothesis that this representation and its critical explanation can be the starting point for a new analysis of the territory and for the improvement of effective policies for a Disaster Management. In her work, the author has tried to conceptualize teoretically and operationally the landscapes of vulnerability, with the purpose to suggest new strategies for building resilience and reduce community exposure. The author has discussed a local, integrative and periscope approach of analysis in the Disaster Risk Reduction studies.
In literature, several kind of vulnerable landscapes have been discussed, according to environmental and risk characteristics of the territory; in particular, three vulnerable landscapes have been identified: riskscapes, hazardscapes and disasterscapes. All the vulnerable landscapes mentioned have been defined analysing the different level of vulnerability, perception and resilience, and according to the kind of natural events.
Landscape is a frail concept, continually subjected to changes and alterations originated from the kind of human approach to the nature. Thus, landscape, as a reality in the making, isn’t a stable entity, so that social dynamics and environmental processes can impact irreversibly on its geomorphology.
Understanding the processes and dynamics that impact on the landscape is a key step in Disaster Prevention and Disaster Risk Reduction. Indeed, as a consequence of the climate change, an increasing number of natural events are affecting people, environments and cultural heritage.
Therefore, in order to define the vulnerable landscapes in Cinque Terre and in the island of Madeira, the author has started with a critical conceptual discussion of the vulnerability, perception and resilience of the landscapes at risk, and adopting a place-based approach. In the last section of the thesis, the concept of resilientscape has been introduced and analysed, valuating potentiality and limits of the concept for a Disaster Risk Reduction. Then, some approaches to participation and resilience education have been experimented in the context of the island of Madeira.
During the research work, three levels of analysis have been adopted: objective risk (in which different kinds of geo-physical risk and of the relationships beween society and nature have been investigated), risk perception (the level of risk perception of the local stakeholders involved in landscape management) and landscape resilience (actions improved in order to increase the local capacity to deal with hazards and to reduce future level of risk).
The analysis of physical contexts, anthropic processes and social representation is central in Disaster Prevention. Thus, a reflection on landscape representations is required. Moreover, risk and vulnerability should be considered during the social building of local representation. Then, the results of empirical analysis in the two areas of study have been compared in order to understand potentiality and limits of landscape analysis in Disaster Risk Reduction.
In order to reach the goals of the research, the work has been divided in three phases, that correspond to the three parts of the thesis. The first phase reflects and conceptualizes teoretically the key-concepts of the research. This phase has required the analysis of sources (bibliographic, cartographic, iconographic sources, historical representations and satellite images). The sources have provided important data on local risk. Moreover, it has let to “measure” the historical vulnerability in Cinque Terre and Madeira island. The second phase has been aimed at understanding local risk perception. In order to do it, 60 interviews have been realized in Cinque Terre and Madeira and 300 surveys in the island of Madeira. In the surveys the author adpoted tools already experimented in national and international research. The third phase has been destinated to research on the field (participative observation and work-research). According to the results, the research work let to collect information and data, make direct contact with local and (when and where it has been possible) to participate to the processes of resilience building.
The results show that the island of Madeira and Cinque Terre are lanscapes where natural hazards happen frequently. The origins of these natural processes must be traced in the man-work of landscape building and changing and in the abandonment of the rural areas. The promotion and representation of the landscapes in Madeira and Cinque Terre is mainly driven to preserve the tourrism in the region (the tourism is the first economic income in the two areas) and to reduce the perception of the landscape at risk and of the riskscape. Therefore, the landscapes of Cinque Terre and Madeira island appeare as vulnerable landscapes, in which interesting resilience examples have place and could participate in the building of a future resilientscape.

Abstract (italiano)

I PAESAGGI VULNERABILI TRA PERCEZIONE E RESILIENZA: L’ISOLA DI MADEIRA E LE CINQUE TERRE COME CASI DI STUDIO.

Il lavoro di ricerca è stato teso alla definizione e interpretazione di un paesaggio vulnerabile, nell’ipotesi che questa rappresentazione, e la sua esplicitazione critica, sia la premessa per letture del territorio e politiche efficaci per la gestione del rischio. Il lavoro di tesi ha cercato, pertanto, di concettualizzare teoricamente e operativamente i paesaggi della vulnerabilità cercando di proporre una nuova tipologia di questa analisi che possa aiutare nella costruzione di processi resilienti in grado di ridurre l’esposizione delle comunità ai disastri. Si è cercato, cioè, di presentare un nuovo approccio di analisi alla disaster risk reduction, con carattere locale, integrato e periscopico.
In letteratura sono stati definiti diversi tipi di paesaggio vulnerabile in ragione delle dinamiche ambientali e dei rischi presenti sul territorio; in particolare sono stati identificati i riskscapes, gli hazardscapes, e i disasterscapes, definiti dalle diverse interazioni entro vulnerabilità, resilienza e percezione.
Il paesaggio è una realtà fragile, sottoposta a continui mutamenti e alterazioni che discendono dall’opera dell’uomo e della natura. In quanto realtà in divenire, il paesaggio non è un’entità stabile, e dinamiche sociali e processi ambientali possono avere impatti irreversibili su di esso. Comprendere le dinamiche e i processi che agiscono sul paesaggio è fondamentale nella prevenzione dei disastri e nella riduzione dei rischi che popolazioni, ambiente e patrimonio oggi vivono in misura crescente, a conseguenza anche del cambiamento climatico.
Per giungere a una definizione del paesaggio vulnerabile nelle Cinque Terre e a Madeira sono stati, pertanto, indagati la vulnerabilità, la percezione e il livello di resilienza del paesaggio al rischio, partendo dallo studio del locale. Infine, è stato discusso cosa sia un paesaggio resiliente (potenzialità e limiti del concetto nella riduzione del rischio di disastri) e come costruirlo in un contesto sperimentale quale l’isola di Madeira.
Durante il lavoro di ricerca sono stati adottati tre livelli di analisi: rischio oggettivo (nel quale sono state discusse le diverse tipologie di rischio geo-fisico presenti nelle aree di studio e le dinamiche società-ambiente che accrescono o producono questi rischi), rischio percepito (in particolare, è stato analizzato il livello di percezione del rischio degli attori coinvolti nella costruzione del paesaggio), resilienza del paesaggio (per la quale sono state considerate le azioni locali messe in atto per aumentare la capacità di risposta ai disastri e di riduzione del rischio).
Nella prevenzione dei disastri è fondamentale lavorare non solo sui contesti fisici e sui processi antropici ma anche sulle rappresentazioni che i diversi attori hanno del rischio di eventi naturali. Si tratta, perciò, di riflettere e contribuire alla costruzione di rappresentazioni del territorio e, di conseguenza, del paesaggio (come inteso da Raffestin) che incorporino il rischio e la vulnerabilità. I risultati delle analisi empiriche sono stati, poi, comparati al fine di comprendere potenzialità e limiti di un’analisi paesaggistica nel processo di riduzione del rischio di disastri.
Per raggiungere gli obiettivi prefissati, il lavoro di ricerca è stato diviso in tre fasi che corrispondono ai tre corpi della tesi. Una prima fase di riflessione concettuale e discussione teorica, a cui segue l’analisi delle fonti (bibliografiche, cartografiche, iconografiche, fotografie storiche e immagini satellitari) che hanno fornito indicazioni e dati sul rischio nelle aree di studio. Questo lavoro ha consentito di definire la vulnerabilità storica dei paesaggi nelle Cinque Terre e sull’isola di Madeira e di comprendere le dinamiche di formazione del rischio attuale. È seguita, poi, una fase di indagine della percezione della popolazione, e a tal proposito sono state realizzate 60 interviste strutturate e semi-strutturate (nell'isola di Madeira e nelle Cinque Terre) e 300 questionari (nell'isola di Madeira). I questionari hanno adottato strumenti di indagine già sperimentati in ricerche scientifiche nazionali e internazionali. Infine, l’ultima fase è stata dedicata alla ricerca di campo (osservazione partecipante e ricerca-lavoro) attraverso la quale è stato possibile raccogliere informazioni, prendere contatto con le realtà locali, e attivare collaborazioni al fine di definire e (onde possibile) incrementare la resilienza locale.
I risultati hanno mostrato che l’isola di Madeira e le Cinque Terre sono paesaggi frequentemente interessati da processi naturali a volte disastrosi, le cui origini si possono ritrovare in buona misura nel lavoro di produzione e modificazione del paesaggio operato dall'uomo nel corso dei secoli e dal processo di abbandono delle aree agricole. Entrambe le regioni sono conosciute a livello internazionale per le loro bellezze paesistiche e costituiscono importanti mete turistiche mondiali. Di conseguenza, la promozione e rappresentazione di questi paesaggi è principalmente guidata dalla necessità di preservare il turismo (oggi prima risorsa economica locale) e di ridurre la percezione di un paesaggio del rischio. I paesaggi delle Cinque Terre e di Madeira sono apparsi, pertanto, come paesaggi fortemente vulnerabili. Entro questi paesaggi, tuttavia, si incontrano interessanti esempi di resilienza, che costituiscono delle basi da cui partire per la costruzione di un paesaggio resiliente al rischio.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Dansero , Egidio
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > SCUOLA SUPERIORE DI STUDI STORICI, GEOGRAFICI E ANTROPOLOGICI (INTERATENEO) > GEOGRAFIA UMANA E FISICA
Data di deposito della tesi:30 Settembre 2014
Anno di Pubblicazione:2014
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):paesaggio resiliente/resilientscape; vulnerabilità al rischio/risk vulnerability; partecipazione/participation; costruire resilienza/building resilience; disastri naturali/natural hazards
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-GGR/01 Geografia
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Storiche, Geografiche e dell'Antichità
Codice ID:7213
Depositato il:16 Nov 2015 12:07
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