Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Di Marino, Erika (2008) The ectomycorrhizal community structure in beech coppices of different age. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

Documento PDF

Abstract (english)

The species composition of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungal communities can be strongly influenced by the sylvicultural practises, abiotic and biotic factors, which determine interactions among the species. In order to determine the influence of the coppicing on EM community, the shoot age, bedrock types, exposure, slope, humus features, soil conditions, sampling points locations were taken into account as the most representative and influencing factors in these soil ecological dynamics. In summer 2005, 2006 and 2007, in 7 [2-48-years-old] Beech [Fagus sylvatica (L.) Karst.] coppices located in the Province of Trento (northern Italy), a monitoring on the the root tipes was applied to compare these sites, and to give an additional instrument like a synthetic biological indicator for the traditional management strategies.
In the present study the results confirmed the ectomycorrhizal community structure investigated in 7 beech coppices of different age was typical with the occurrence of few abundant species and many others with significantly lower abundance. Cenococcum geophilum was the most frequently detected species in each site and in each sample date. Morphological, anatomical and molecular investigations revealed a total of 60 anatomotypes. Of these 35 were unknown on Fagus sylvatica up to now. The investigations on the community composition can be considered a great contribute to the biodiversity of the Beech forest, with four detailed species descriptions: Fagirhiza byssoporioides, Fagirhiza entolomoides, Fagirhiza stellata and Hygrophorus penarius. Additional investigations using also the stable isotopes were necessary to understand the parasitic attitude showed by this species in the years 2006-2007 in these coppices.
The investigation of the ECM community composition (species richness evenness, and dispertion, vitality and rate of mycorrhization) in relation to the shoot age and to the main ecological factors revealed the absence of a real reaction to the coppicing, and the major importance of the slope or other ecological conditions to understand the species distribution.
An aggregation of the species was releaved, but the species features didn't show a clear correlation with the ecological stands conditions, concerning the spatial distribution and the soil horizons.
The results suggest an hypothesis that the coppice treatment in Beech, didn't have a significant effect on the EM community structure since 2 until 48 years from coppicing. Considering the stability of the EM community as a bioindicator of the ecosystem resilience, it can be suppose that a rational coppicing treatment could be a sustainable human activity, compatible with the ecosystem dynamics with these environmental conditions. Two more EM descriptions were performed: Pseudotomentella humicola on Picea abies and Sistotrema muscicola on Castanea sativa.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Montecchio, Lucio and Reinhard, Agerer
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 20 > Scuole per il 20simo ciclo > TERRITORIO, AMBIENTE, RISORSE E SALUTE > ECOLOGIA (ECOLOGIA FORESTALE)
Data di deposito della tesi:31 January 2008
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 January 2008
Key Words:ectomycorrhizal, community, coppice, short rotation, Fagus sylvatica, parasitism, Hygrophorus penarius, Sistotrema muscicola, Pseudotomentella humicola, bioindicator
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 05 - Scienze biologiche > BIO/07 Ecologia
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Codice ID:731
Depositato il:04 Nov 2008
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. ABUZINADAH RA, READ DJ (1986). The role of proteins in the nitrogen nutrition of ectomycorrhizal plants. Utilization of peptides and proteins by ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 103: 481-493. Cerca con Google

2. AGEE J (1993). Fire Ecology of Pacific Northwest Forests. Island Press,Washington D.C. Cerca con Google

3. AGERER R (1987-2002). Colour Atlas of Ectomycorrhizae. 1st-12th delivery. Einhorn Verlag, Schwäbisch Gmünd. Cerca con Google

4. AGERER R (2001). Exploration types of ectomycorrhizae. A proposal to classify ectomycorrhizal mycelial systems according to their patterns of differentiation and putative ecological importance. Mycorrhiza 11: 107-114. Cerca con Google

5. AGERER R, DANIELSON RM, EGLI S, INGLEBY K, LUOMA D & TREU R (1996 – 2004). Descriptions of Ectomycorrhizae. Schwäbisch-Gmünd: Einhorn-Verlag. Cerca con Google

6. AGERER R, GROTE R, RAIDL S (2002). The new method “micromapping”, a means to study species-specific associations and exclusions of ectomycorrhizae. Mycological Progress 1(2): 155- 166. Cerca con Google

7. AGERER R, SCHLOTER M, HAHN C (2000). Fungal enzymatic activity in fruitbodies. Nova Hedwigia Kryptogamenkd 71: 315–336. Cerca con Google

8. AGERER R, TAYLOR AFS, TREU R (1998). Effects of acid irrigation and liming on the production of fruit bodies by ecto-mycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 199: 179-190. Cerca con Google

9. AHLSTRÖM K, PERSSON H, BÖRJESSON I (1988). Fertilization in a mature Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand – effects on fine roots. Plant Soil 106: 179-190. Cerca con Google

10. ANDERSON IC, CAIRNEY JWG (2007). Ectomycorrhizal fungi: exploring the mycelial frontier. Federation of European Microbioloical Societies Blackwell Publisching 31: 388-406. Cerca con Google

11. ANDERSSONT S, SÖDERSTRÖM B (1995). Effects of lime (CaCO3) on ecto-mycorrhizal colonisation of Picea abies (L.) Karst. Seedlings plantes in a spruce forest. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 10: 149-154. Cerca con Google

12. ARCHAUX F, WOLTERS V(2006). Impact of summer drought on forest biodiversity: what do we know? Annal of Forest Science 63: 645–652 INRA, EDP Sciences. Cerca con Google

13. ARNEBRANT K (1994). Nitrogen amendments reduce the growth of extramatrical ectomycorrhizal mycelium. Mycorrhiza 5: 7-15. Cerca con Google

14. ARNEBRANT K, SÖDERSTRÖM (1992). Effects of different fertilizer treatment on ectomycorrhizal colonization potential in two Scots pine forests in Sweden. Forest Ecolgy and Management 53: 77-89. Cerca con Google

15. ARNOLDS E (1991). Decline of ecto-mycorrhizal fungi in Europe. Agricolture Ecosytem and Environment 35: 209-244. Cerca con Google

16. ASHFORD, AE, PETERSON CA, CARPENTER JL, CAIRNEY JWG, ALLAWAY, WG (1988). Structure and permeability of the fungal sheath in the Pisonia mycorrhiza. Protoplasma 147: 149- 161. Cerca con Google

17. BAAR J, de VRIES FW (1995). Effects of manipulation of litter and humus layers on ectomycorrhizal colonization potential in Scots pine stands of different age. Mycorrhiza 5: 267-272. Cerca con Google

18. BAAR J, HORTON TR, KRETSER AM, BRUNS TD (1999). Mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus muricata from resistant propagules after a stand replacing wildfire. New Phytologist 143: 409-418. Cerca con Google

19. BAAR J, ter BRAAK CJF (1996). Ecto-mycorrhizal sporocarp occurrence as affected by manipulation of litter and humus layer in Scots pine stands of different age. Application Soil Ecology 4: 61-73. Cerca con Google

20. BAKKER MR, GARBAYE J, NYS C (2000). Effect of liming on the ecto-mycorrhizal status of oak. Forest Ecology and Management 126: 121-131. Cerca con Google

21. BERNTSON GM, WAYNE PM, BAZZAZ FA (1997). Belowground architectural and mycorrhizal responses to elevetated CO2 in Betula alleghaniensis populations. Functional Ecology 11: 684-695. Cerca con Google

22. BJÖRKMAN E (1949). The ecological significance of the ectotrophic mycorrhizal association in forest trees. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift 43: 223–262. Cerca con Google

23. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Cerca con Google

24. BOULLARD B (1960). La lumière les mycorrhizes. Annal of Biology 36: 231-248. Cerca con Google

25. BOULLARD B (1961). Influence du photopèriodisme sur le mycorrhizationde jeunes conifères. Bull. Soc. Linn. Normandie, Série 10 (2): 30-46. Cerca con Google

26. BRAND F (1991). Ektomykorrhizen an Fagus sylvatica. Charakterisierung und Identifizierung, ökologische Kennzeichnung und unsterile Kultivierung. Libri Botanici, vol. 2, IHW-Verlag, Eching, Germany. Cerca con Google

27. BRUNS TD (1995). Thoughts on the processes that maintain local species diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil 170: 63-70. Cerca con Google

28. BUÉE M, VAIRRELES D, GARBAYE J (2005). Year-round monitoring of diversity and potential metabolic activity of ectomycorrhyzal community in a beech (Fagus silvatica L.) forest subjected to two thinning regimes. Mycorrhiza 15: 235-245. Cerca con Google

29. BÜSGEN M (1905). Studien über die Wurzelsysteme einiger dictotyler Holzpflanzen. Flora, Jena 95: 58. Cerca con Google

30. BUYCK B, THOEN D, WATLING R (1996). Ectomycorrhizal fungi of the Guinea Congo region. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 104B: 313-333. Cerca con Google

31. CAIRNEY JWG, BURKE RM (1996) Physiological hetereogeneity within fungal mycelia: an important concept for a functional understanding of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. New Phytologist 134: 685-695. Cerca con Google

32. CLARIDGE AW (2002). Ecological role of hypogeousectomycorrhizal fungi in Australia forests and woodlands. Plant and Soil 244: 291-305. Cerca con Google

33. CLEMMENSEN KE (2006). Ectomycorrhiza and Artic Ecosystem Response to Environmental Change PhD Thesis. Institute of Biology Faculty of Science University of Copenhagen. Cerca con Google

34. CLINE ET, AMMIRATI JF, EDMONDS FRL (2005). Does proximity to mature trees influence ectomycorrhizal fungus communities of Douglas-fir seedling? New Phytologist 166: 993-1009. Cerca con Google

35. CLOWES FAL (1949). The morphology and anatomy of the roots associated with ectotrophic mycorrhiza. D. Phil., Thesis, Oxford University (typescript). Cerca con Google

36. CLOWES FAL (1950). Root apical meristems of Fagus sylvatica. New Phytologist 49: 249-268. Cerca con Google

37. CLOWES FAL (1951). The structure of mycorrhizal roots of Fagus sylvatica. New Phytologist 50: 1-16. Cerca con Google

38. CLOWES FAL (1954). The root-cap of ectotrophic mycorrhizas. New Phytologist 53: 525-529. Cerca con Google

39. COLEMAN DC, ODUM EP, CROSSLEY DA (1992). Soil biology, soil ecology and global change. Biologiy and Fertility of Soils 14: 104-111. Cerca con Google

40. CONN C, DIGHTON J (2000). Litter quality influences on decomposition, ectomycorrhizal community structure and mycorrhizal root surface acid phosphatase activity. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 32: 489-496. Cerca con Google

41. COOKE RC, WHIPPS JM (1993). Ecophysiolgy of fungi. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Pubblications. Cerca con Google

42. CORNELISSEN JHC, AERTS R, CERABOLINI B, WERGER MJA, van der Heijeden MGA. 2001. Carbon cycling traits of plant species are linked with mycorrhizal strategy. Oecologia 129: 611-619. Cerca con Google

43. DAHLBERG A (2001). Community ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi: an advancing interdisciplinary field. New Phytologist 150: 555-562. Cerca con Google

44. DANIELSON RM (1984). Ectomycorrhizal associations in jack pine stands in north-eastern Alberta. Canadian Journal of Botany 62: 932–939. Cerca con Google

45. DANIELSON RM, VISSER S (1989). Effects of forest soils acidification on ectomycorrhizal and vescicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal development. New Phytologist 112: 41-47. Cerca con Google

46. DAWSON TE, MAMBELLI S, PLAMBOECK A, TEMPLER PH, Tu KP (2002). Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic 33: 507-559. Cerca con Google

47. DE ROMAN M, DE MIGUEL AM (2005). Post- fire, seasonal and annual dynamics of the ectomycorrhiza community of Quercus ilex L. forest over a 3 years. Mycorrhiza 15 (6): 471-482. Cerca con Google

48. DELWICHE CC, ZINKE PJ, JOHNSON CM, VIRGINIA RA (1978). Nitrogen isotope distribution as a presumptive indicator of nitrogen fixation. Botanical Gazette 140: S65-S69. Cerca con Google

49. DICKIE IA, XU B, KOIDE RT (2002). Vertical niche differentiation of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil as shown by T-RFLP analysis. New Phytologist 156: 527-535. Cerca con Google

50. DICKIE IA, XU B, KOIDE RT (2003). Vertical niche differentiation of ectomycorrhizal hyphae in soil as shown by T-RFLP analysis. New Phytologist 156: 527-535. Cerca con Google

51. DIGHTON J, MORALE BONILLA AS, JIMINEZ-NUNEZ RA, MARTINEZ N (2000). Determinants of leaf litter patchiness in mixed species New Jersey pine barrens forest and its possibile influence on soil and soil biota. Biology and Fertility of Soils 31: 288-293. Cerca con Google

52. DIGHTON J, SKEFFINGTON RA (1987). Effects of artificial acid precipitation on the mycorrhizas of Scots pine seedlings. New Phytologist 107: 191-202. Cerca con Google

53. DUFR´ENE M, LEGENDRE P (1997). Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs 67:345–66. Cerca con Google

54. EBERHRADT U, WALTER L, KOTTKE I (1999). Molecular and morphologial discrimination between Tylospora fibrillosa adn Tylospora asterophora mycorrhizae. Canadian Journal of Botany 75: 1323-1335. Cerca con Google

55. EDWARDS GS, KELLY JM (1992). Ecto-mycorrhizal colonisation of loblolly-pine seedlings during 3 growing seasons in response to ozone, acid precipitation and soil Mg status. Environment and Pollution 76: 71-77. Cerca con Google

56. EGGER KN (1995). Molecular analysis of ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Canadian Journal of Botany 73: 1415–1422. Cerca con Google

57. EGGER KN, HIBBETT DS (2004). The evolutionary implications of exploitation in mycorrhizas. Canadian Journal of Botany-Revue Canadienne de Botanique 82: 1110-1121. Cerca con Google

58. EGLI S (1981). Die Mykorrhiza und ihre vertikale Verteilung in Eichenbaständen. Schweizerischen Zeitschrift für Forstwesen 132: 345-353. Cerca con Google

59. ERLAND S, SÖDERSTRÖM B (1991). Effects of lime and ash treatments on ecto-mycorrhizal infection on Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings planted in a pine forest. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 6: 519-526. Cerca con Google

60. ERLAND S, TAYLOR AFS (1999). Resupinate Ecto-mycorrhizal Fungal Genera. In: Cairney JWG, Chambers SM (eds) Ecto-mycorrhizal fungi: key genera in profile. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp.347-363. Cerca con Google

61. ERLAND S, TAYLOR AFS (2002). Diversity of Ectomycorrhizal Fungal Communites in Relation to the Abiotic Environment. In: Ecological Studies Vol. 157 M.G.A. Van der Heijden, I Sanders (Eds.) Mycorrhizal Ecology . Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Cerca con Google

62. FASSI B, de VECCHI E (1962). Ricerche sulle micorrize ectotrofiche del Pino strobo in vivaio.I. Descrizione di alcune forme più diffuse in Piemonte. Allinoia 8: 133-151. Cerca con Google

63. FIORE-DONNO AM, MARTIN F (2001). Populations of ectomycorrhizal Laccaria amethystina and Xerocomus spp. show contrasting colonization patterns in a mixed forest. New Phytologist 152: 533–542. Cerca con Google

64. FRANSSON PMA, TAYLOR AFS & FYNLAY RD (2001). Elevated atmospheric CO2 alters root symbiont community structure in forest trees. New Phytologist 152: 431-442. Cerca con Google

65. FRANSSON PMA, TAYLOR AFS, FINLAY RD (2000). Effects of continuous optimal fertilisation upon a Norway spruce ectomycorrhizal community. Tree Physiology 20: 599-606. Cerca con Google

66. GARBAYE J (1994). Helper bacteria: a new dimension to the mycorrhizal symbiosis. New Phytologist 128: 197-210. Cerca con Google

67. GARDES M, BRUNS TD (1996). Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: Above- and below-ground views. Canadian Journal of Botany 74: 1572-1583. Cerca con Google

68. GEBAUER G, MAYER M (2003). 15N and 13C natural abundance of autotrophic and mycohertotrophic orchids provides insight into nitrogen and carbon gain from fungal associations. New Phytologist 160:209-223. Cerca con Google

69. GEBHARDT S, NEUBERT J, WÖLLECKE B, MÜNZENBERGER B, HÜTTL RF (2007). Ectomycorrhiza communities of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) of different age in the Lusatian lignite mining distict, East Germany. Mycorrhiza 17: 279-290. Cerca con Google

70. GEHRING CA, THEIMER TC, WHITHAM TG, KEIM P (1998). Ectomycorrhizal fungal communiy structure of pinyon pine growing in two environmental extremes. Ecology 79: 1562- 1572. Cerca con Google

71. GENNEY DR, ANDERSONO IC, ALEXANDER IJ (2006). Fine-scale distribution of pine ectomycorrhizas and their extramatrical mycelium. New Phytologist 170: 381-390. Cerca con Google

72. GLEIXNER G, DANIER H-J, WERNER RA, SCMIDT H-L (1993). Correlations between the 13C content of primary and secondary plant products in different cell compartments and that in decomposing basidiomycetes. Plant Physiology 102: 1287-1290. Cerca con Google

73. GODBOLD DL, BERNSTON GM (1997). Elevated atmospheric CO2 concetration changes ectomycorrhizal morphotype assemblages in Betula papyrifera. New Phytologist 17:347-350. Cerca con Google

74. GODBOlD DL, BERNTSON GM, BAZZAZ FA (1997). Growth and mycorrhizal colonization of three North American tree species under elevated atmospheric CO2. New Phytologist 137: 433-440. Cerca con Google

75. GOODMAN DM, TROFYMOW JA (1998). Distribution of ectomycorrhizas in micro-habitats in mature and old-growth stands of Douglas-fir sotheastern Vancouver Island. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 30: 2127-2138. Cerca con Google

76. GÖTTSCHE D (1972). Mitteilungen der Bundesforschungsamt für Forst – und Holzwirtschaft. Verteilung von Feinwurzeln und Mykorrhizen im Bodenprofil eines Buchen – und Fichtenbestandes im Solling. Cerca con Google

77. GREBENC T, KRAIGHER H (2007).Types of Ectomycorrhiza of Mature Beech and Spruce at Ozone-Fumigated and Control Forest Plots. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 128: 45-59. Cerca con Google

78. GROGAN P, BAAR J, BRUNS TD (2000). Below-ground ectomycorrhizal community structure in a recently burned bishop pine forest. Journal of Ecology 88: 1051–1062. Cerca con Google

79. GRYTA H, DEBAUD J-C, EFFOSSE A, GAY G, MARMEISSE R (1997). Fine-scale structure of populations of the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindorsporum in coastal sand dune forest ecosystems. Molecular Ecology 6: 353–364. Cerca con Google

80. GUIDOT A, DEBAUD JC, EFFOSSE A, MARMEISSE R (2003). Below-ground distribution and persistence of an ectomycorrhizal fungus. New Phytologist 161: 539-547. Cerca con Google

81. GUIDOT A, DEBAUD JC, MARMEISSE R (2001). Correspondence between genet diversity and spatial distribution of above- and below-ground populationsof the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum. Molecular Ecology 10: 1121–1131. Cerca con Google

82. HARLEY JL (1948). Mycorrhiza and soil ecology. Biological Review 23: 127-158. Cerca con Google

83. HARLEY JL, WAID JS (1955). A method of studying active mycelia on livings roots and other surfaces in the soil. Transaction of the British Mycological Society 38: 104-118. Cerca con Google

84. HARLEY JL(1972). The biology of Mycorrhiza. A plant science Monograph. Edited by Professor Nicholas Polunin. 2nd Edition. Cerca con Google

85. HARTLEY J, CARINEY JWG, FREESTONE O, WOODS C, MEHARG AA (1999). The effects of multiple metal contamination on ecto-mycorrhizal Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) seedlings. Environment and Pollution 106: 413-424. Cerca con Google

86. HARTLEY JLF, HARTLEY EL (1987). A check-list of mycorrhiza in the british flora. New Phytologist 105: 1-102. Cerca con Google

87. HAUG I, WEISS M, HOMEIER J, OBERWINKLER F, KOTTKE I (2005). Russulaceae and Thelephoraceae form ectomycorrhizas with members of the Nyctaginaceae (Caryophyllales) in the tropical mountain rain forest of southern Ecuador. New Phytologist 165: 923-936. Cerca con Google

88. HEINONSALO J (2004).The effects of forestry practices on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities and seedling establishment. Integrated studies on biodiversity, podzol profile, clear-cut logging impacts and seedling inoculation. Academic Dissertation in General Microbiology Faculty of Biosciences of the University of Helsinki. Cerca con Google

89. HEINONSALO J, HURME KR, SEN R (2004). Recent C-14-labelled assimilate allocation to Scots pine seedling root and mycorrhizosphere compartments developed on reconstructed podzol humus, E- and B-mineral horizons. Plant and Soil 259: 111-121. Cerca con Google

90. HEINONSALO J, JØRGENSEN K, SEN R (2001). Microcosm-based analyses of Scots pine seedling growth, ectomycorrhizal fungal communiy structure and bacterial carbon utilization profiles in boreal forest humus and underlying illuvial mineral horizons. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 36: 73-84. Cerca con Google

91. HENN MR, CHAPELA IH (2001). Ecophysiology of C-13 and N-15 isotopic fractionation in forest fungi and the roots of the saprotrophic-mycorrhizal divide. Oecologia 128: 480-487. Cerca con Google

92. HIBBETT DS, GILBERT LB, DONOHUGUE MJ (2000).Evolutionary instability of ectomycorrhizal symbioses inbasidiomycetes. Nature 407: 506-508. Cerca con Google

93. HOBBIE EA (2006). Carbon allocation to ectomycorrhizal fungi correlates with belowground allocation in culture studies. Ecology 87: 563-569. Cerca con Google

94. HOBBIE EA, WEBER NS, TRAPPE JM (2001). Mycorrhizal vs saprotrophic status of fungi: the isotopic evidence. New Phytologist 150: 601-610. Cerca con Google

95. HÖRGBERG P, HÖGBOM L, SCHINKEL H, HÖRGBERG M, JOHANNISSON C, WALLMARK H (1996). 15N abundance of surface soils, roots, and mycorrhizas in profiles of European forest soils. Oecologia 108: 297-214. Cerca con Google

96. HÖRGBERG P, PLAMBOECK AH, TAYLOR AFS, FRANSSON PMA (1999). Natural 13C abundance reveals trophic status of fungi and host-origin of carbon in mycorrhizal fungi in mixed forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 96: 8534- 8539. Cerca con Google

97. HORTON T, BRUNS TD (2001). The molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: Peeking into the black-box. Molecular Ecology 10: 1855-1871. Cerca con Google

98. HORTON T, BRUNS TD, PARKER VT (1999). Ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with Arctostaphylos contribute to Pseudotsuga menziesii establishment. Canadian Journal of Botany 77: 93-102. Cerca con Google

99. INEICHEN K, WIEMKEN V, WIEMKEN A (1995). Shoots, roots and ectomycorrhiza formation of pine seedlings at elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. Plant Cell and Environment 18: 703-707. Cerca con Google

100. ISHIDA TA, KAZUHIDE N, HOGETSU T (2007). Host effects on ectomycorrhizal fungal communities: insight from eight host species in mixed conifer-broadleaf forests. New Phytologist 174: 430-440. Cerca con Google

101. IZZO A, AGBOWO J, BRUNS TD (2004). Detection of plot-level changes in ectomycorrhizal communities across year in an old-growth mixed conifer forest. New Phytologist 166: 619-630. Cerca con Google

102. IZZO A, AGBOWO J, BRUNS TD (2005). Detection of plot-level changes in ectomycorrhizal communities across year in an old-growth mixed-conifer forest. New Phytologist 166: 619–629. Cerca con Google

103. IZZOA, CANRIGHT M, BRUNS TD (2006).The effects of heat treatments on ectomycorrhizal resistant propagules and their ability to colonize bioassay seedlings. Mycological Research 110: 196-202. Cerca con Google

104. JACKSON RB, CANADELL J, EHLERINGER JR, MOONEY HA, SALA OE, SCHULZE ED (1996). A global analysis of root distribution for terrestrial biomes. Oecologia 108: 389-411. Cerca con Google

105. JOHNSON BC, GRAHAM JH, SMITH FA (1997). Functioning of mycorrhizal associations along the mutualism-parasitism continuum. New Phytologist 135:575-585. Cerca con Google

106. JOHNSON D, MARLEEN IJDO, GENNEY DR , ANDERSON IC, ALEXANDE IJ (2005). How do plants regulate the function, community structure, and diversity of mycorrhizal fungi? Journal of Experimental Botany (56) 417: 1751–1760. Cerca con Google

107. JONES MD, DURALL DM, TINKER PB (2001). Fluxes of carbon and phosphorus between symbionts in willow ectomycorrhizas and their changes with time. New Phytologist 119: 99-106. Cerca con Google

108. JONSSON L, DAHLBERG A, NILSSON M-C, ZACKRISSON O, KÅRÉN O (1999). Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in late-successional Swedish boreal forest, and their composition following wildfire. Molecular Ecology 8: 205-212. Cerca con Google

109. JONSSON LM, NILSSON MC, WARDLE DA, ZACKRISSON O (2001). Context dependent effects of ectomycorrhizal species richness on tree seedling productivity. Oikos 93: 353-364. Cerca con Google

110. KÅRÉN O, NYLUND J-E (1996). Effects of N-free fertilization on ecto-mycorrhiza community structure in Norway spruce stands in southern Sweden. Plant Soil 181: 295-305. Cerca con Google

111. KASURINEN A, KEINANEN MM, KAIPAINEN S, NILSSON LO, VAPAAVUORI E, KONTRO MH, HOLOPAINEN T (2005). Belowground responses of silver birch trees exposed to elevated CO2 and O-3 levels during three growing seasons. Global Change Biology 11:1167-1179. Cerca con Google

112. KERNAGHAN G, WIDDEN P, BERGERON Y, LE'GARE' S, PARE' D (2003). Biotic and abiotic factors affecting ectomycorrhizal diversity in boreal mixed-woods. Oikos 102: 497-504. Cerca con Google

113. KIELLAND K (1994). Amino acid absorption by arctic plants: Implications for plant nutrition and nitrogen cycling. Ecology 75: 2373-2383. Cerca con Google

114. KINGSTON JC, BIRKS HJB, UUTALA AJ, CUMMING BF, SMOL JP (1992). Assessing trends in fishery resources and lake water aluminum from paleolimnological analyses of siliceous algae. Canadian Journal Fisheries Aquatic Sciences. 49:116–27. Cerca con Google

115. KOIDE R, XU B, SHARDA J, LEKBERG Y, OSTIGUY N (2005). Evidence of species interactions within an ectomycorrhizal fungal community. New Phytologist 165: 305-316. Cerca con Google

116. KOIDE RT, COURTY PE, GARBAYE J (2007). Research perspectives on functional diversity in ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 174: 240-243. Cerca con Google

117. KOIDE RT, XU B, SHARDA J (2005). Contrasting below-ground views of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community. New Phytologist 166: 251-262. Cerca con Google

118. KOIDE TR, SHUMWAY DL, XU B, SHARDA JN (2007). On temporal partioning of a community of ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 174: 420-429. Cerca con Google

119. KÕLJALG U, LARSSON K-H, ABARENKOV K, NILSSON RH, ALEXANDER IJ, EBERHARDT U, ERLAND S, HOILAND K, KJOLLER R, LARSSON E, PENNANEN T, SEN R, TAYLOR AFS, TEDERSOO L, VRALSTAD T, URSING BM. (2005) UNITE: a database providing web-based methods for the molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 166: 1063-1068 Cerca con Google

120. KOTTKE I, BEITER A, WEISS M, HAUG I, OBERWINKLER F, NEBEL M (2003). Heterobasidiomycetes form symbiotic associations with hepatics: Jungermanniales have sebacinoid mycobionts while Aneura pinguis (Metzgeriales) is associated with a Tulasnella species. Mycological Research 107: 957-968. Cerca con Google

121. KOVACS G, PAUSCH M, URBAN A (2000). Diversity of Ectomycorhizal Morphotypes and Oak Decline. Phyton (Horn, Austria), 40(4), 109–116. Cerca con Google

122. KRAIGHER H (1999). Diversity of types of Ectomycorrhizae on Norway spruce in Slovenia. Phyton (Horn, Austria) 39: 199–202. Cerca con Google

123. KRAIGHER H, AL SAYEGH PETKOVŠEK S, GREBENC T, SIMON?I? P (2006). Types of Ectomycorrhiza as Pollution Stress Indicators:Case Studies in Slovenia. Environ Monit Assess DOI 10.1007/s10661-006-9413-4. Cerca con Google

124. KUITERS AT (1990). Role of phenolic substances from decomposing forest litter in plant-soil interaction. Acta Botanica Neerlandica 39:329-348. Cerca con Google

125. KURTZ JC, JACKSON LE, FISHER WS (2001). Strategies for evaluating indicators based on guidelines from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Office of Research and Development. Ecological Indicators 1:49–60. Cerca con Google

126. LAIHO O (1965). Further studies on the ectendotrophic mycorrhizas. Acta Forestalia Fennica 79: 3-35. Cerca con Google

127. LANDEWEERT R, LEEFLANG P, KUYPER TW., HOFFLAND E., ROSLING, A, ERNARS, K. & SMIT, E. (2003). Molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal mycelium in soil horizons. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 69: 327-333. Cerca con Google

128. LARSEN MJ, SMITH JS, McKAY (1997).On Piloderma bicolor and the closely related P. byssinum,P. Croceum, and P. fallax. Mycotaxon 63: 1-8. Cerca con Google

129. LARSSON KH, LARSSON E, KÕLJALG U (2004). High phylogenetic diversity among corticoid homobasidiomycetes. Mycological Research 108: 983-1002. Cerca con Google

130. LAST FT, DIGHTON J, MASON PA (1987). Successions of sheathing mycorrhizal fungi. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 2: 157–161. Cerca con Google

131. LEAKE JR, READ DJ (1997). Mycorrhizal fungi in terrestrial ecosystems. In: Wicklow D, Söderström B, eds. The Mycota IV environmental and microbial relationships. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 281-301. Cerca con Google

132. LEE KJ, KIM YS (1987). Host specificity and distribution of putative ectomycorrhizal fungi in pure stands of twelve tree species in Korea. Korean Journal of Mycology 15: 48-69. Cerca con Google

133. LEE LS, ALEXANDER IJ (1996). The dynamics of ectomycorrhizal infection of Shorea leprosula seedlings in Malaysian rain forests. New Phytologist 132: 297–305. Cerca con Google

134. LEHTO T (1984). Kalkituksen vaikutus männyn mykoritsoihin. Folia Forestalia 609: 1-20. Cerca con Google

135. LEHTO T (1994). Effects of liming and boron fertilization on mycorrhizas of Picea abies. Plant Soil 163: 65-68. Cerca con Google

136. LEYVAL C, TURNAU K, HASELWANDTER K (1997). Effect of heavy metal pollution on mycorrhizal colonization and function: physiological, ecological and applied aspects. Mycorrhiza 7: 139-153. Cerca con Google

137. LILLESKOV EA, FAHEY TH, HORTON TR, LOVETT GM (2002). Belowground ectomycorrhizal fungal community change over a nitrogen deposition gradient in Alaska. Ecology 83: 104-115. Cerca con Google

138. LILLESKOV EA, FAHEY TJ (1996). Patterns of ecto-mycorrhizal diversity over an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient near Kenai, Alaska. In: Szaro TM, Bruns TD (eds) Abstracts of the 1st International Conference on Mycorrhizae: Univ California, Berkeley, 76. Cerca con Google

139. LILLESKOV EA, FAHEY TJ, LOVETT GM (2001). Ectomycorrhizal fungal aboveground community change over an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient. Ecological Applications 11: 397-410. Cerca con Google

140. LIPSON DA, SCHADT CW, SCHMIDT SK, MONSON RK (1999). Ectomycorrhizal transfer of amino acid-nitrogen to the alpie sedge Kobresia myosuroides. New Phytologist 142: 163-167. Cerca con Google

141. MACDOUGAL DT, DUFRENOY J (1946). Criteria of nutritive realtions of fungi and seed-plants in mycorrhiza. Plant Physiology 21, I. Cerca con Google

142. MAGURRAN AE (1988). Ecological diversity and its measurement. Croom Helm, London. Cerca con Google

143. MAHMOOD S (2000). Ecto-mycorrhizal community structure and function in relation to forest residue harvesting and wood ash applications. Doctoral Thesis, Lund University. ISBN 91-7105- 136-8 Cerca con Google

144. MAHMOOD S, ROGER D. FINLAY SE (1999). Effects of Repeated Harvesting of Forest Residues on the Ectomycorrhizal Community in a Swedish Spruce Forest. New Phytologist, 142(3): 577-585. Cerca con Google

145. MAKKONEN K, HELMISSARI HS (1998). Seasonal and yearly variation of fine-root biomass and necromass in a Scot pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand. Forest Ecology and Management 102: 283- 290. Cerca con Google

146. MAMOUN M, OLIVIER JM (1993a). Competition between Tuber melanosporum and other ectomycorrhizal fungi under two irrigation regimes. I. Competition with Tuber brumale. Plant and Soil 149: 211–218. Cerca con Google

147. MAMOUN M, OLIVIER JM (1993b). Competition between Tuber melanosporumand other ectomycorrhizal fungi under two irrigation regimes. II. New Phytologist (2005) 165: 305–316. Cerca con Google

148. MANLEY PN, ZIELINSKI WJ, SCHLESINGER MD, MORI SR (2004). Evaluation of a multiple species approach to monitoring species at the ecoregional scale. Ecological Application 14: 296– 310. Cerca con Google

149. MASON PA, LAST FT, PELHAM J, INGLEBY K (1982). Ecology of some fungi associated with an aging stand of birches (Betula pendula and Betula pubescens). Forest Ecology and Management 4: 19–39. Cerca con Google

150. MASON PA, WILSON J, LAST FT, WALKER C (1983). The concept of succession in relation to the spread of sheathing mycorrhizal fungi on inoculated tree seedlings growing in unsterile soils. Plant and Soil 71: 47–256. Cerca con Google

151. MASSICOTTE HB, MOLINA R, TACKABERRY LE, SMITH JE, AMARANTHUS MP (1999). Diversity and host specifity of ectomycorrhizal fungi retrieved from three adjacen forest sites by five host species. Canadian Journal of Botany 77: 1053-1076. Cerca con Google

152. MASSICOTTE, HB, MELVILLE, LH, PETERSON, RL & LUOMA, DL (1998). Anatomical aspects of field ectomycorrhizas on Polygonum viviparum (Polygonaceae) and Kobresia bellardii (Cyperaceae). Mycorrhiza 7: 287-292. Cerca con Google

153. MEYER FH (1962). Die Buchen und Fichtenmykorrhiza in verschiedenen Bodentypen, ihre Beeinflussung durch Minealdünger sowie für die Mykorrhizabildung wichtige Faktoren. Mitteilungen der Budesforschungsanstalt für Forst- und Holzwirtschaft 54: 1-73. Cerca con Google

154. MEYER FH (1973). Distribution of ectomycorrhizae in native and man-made forests. In: Ectomycorrhizae (eds G. C. Marks, and T. T. Kozlowski). Academic Press, New York, USA. pp. 79- 105. Cerca con Google

155. MICHELSEN A, SCHMIDT IDK, JONASSON S, QUARMBY C, SLEEP D (1996). Leaf 15N abundance of subarctic plants provides field evidence that ericoid, ectomycorrhizal and non- and arbuscular mycorrhizal species access different sources of soil nitrogen. Oecologia 105: 53-63. Cerca con Google

156. MOLINA R, MASSICOTTE H, TRAPPE JM (1992). Specifity phenomena in mycorrhizal symbioses: community-ecological consequences and pratical implications. In: Allen MJ, ed. Mycorrhizal functioning. New York, NY, USA: Chapman & Hall, 357-423. Cerca con Google

157. MOSCA E (2007). Rapporto tra deperimento della farnia e stato ectomicorrizico: effetto di un trattamento selvicolturale. PhD thesis Università degli Studi di Padova-Université Henri Poincaré Nancy1. Cerca con Google

158. MOSCA E, MONTECCHIO L, SELLA L, GARBAYE J (2007).Short-term effect of removing tree competition on the ectomycorrhizal status of a declining pedunculate oak forest (Quercus robur L.). Forest Ecology and Management 244: 129-140. Cerca con Google

159. MURAT C, DÍEZ J, LUIS P, DELARUELLE C, DUPRE C, CHEVALIER G, BONFANTE P, MARTIN F (2004). Polymorphism at the ribosomal DNA ITS and its relation to postglacial recolonization routes of the Perigord truffle Tuber melanosporum. New Phytologist 164: 401-411. Cerca con Google

160. NANTEL P, NEUMANN P (1992). Ecology of ectomycorrhizal-basidiomycete communities on a local vegetation gradient. Ecology 73: 99-117. Cerca con Google

161. NEWTON AC, HAIGH JM (1998). Diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Britain: a test of the species-area relationship, and the role of host specificity. New Phytologist 138: 619-627. Cerca con Google

162. NIEMI JG, McDONALD EM (2004).Application of ecological indicators. Annual Review Ecology Evolotion andSystematics 35:89–111. Cerca con Google

163. NORBY RJ, O'NEILL EG, HOOD WG, LUXMORE RJ (1987). Carbon allocation, root exudation and mycorrhizal colonization of Pinus echinata seedlings grown under CO2 enrichment. Tree Phyiology 3: 203-210. Cerca con Google

164. O’CONNOR RJ, WALLS TE, HUGHES RM (2000).Using multiple taxonomic groups to index the ecological condition of lakes. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 61:207–2. Cerca con Google

165. OLSSON PA, MÜNZENBERGER B, MAHMOOD S, ERLAND S (2000). Molecular and anatomical evidence for a three-way association between Pinus sylvestris and the ectomycorrhizal fungi Suillus bovinus and Gomphidius roseus. Mycological Research 104: 1372–1378. Cerca con Google

166. PENUELAS J, BOADA M (2003). A global change-induced biome shift in the Montseny mountains (NE Spain). Global Change Biology 9:131–140. Cerca con Google

167. PERSSON H (1980). Spatial distribution of fine-root growth, mortality and decomposition in a young Scots pine stand in Central Sweden. Oikos 34: 77-97. Cerca con Google

168. PERSSON H, AHLSTRÖM K (1994). The effects of alkalizing compounds on fine-root growth in a Norway spruce stand in southwest Sweden. Journal Environmental Science Health 29: 803-820. Cerca con Google

169. POST DM (2002). Using stable isotopes to estimate trophic position: Models, methods and assumptions. Ecology 83: 703-718. Cerca con Google

170. QIU Z, CHEPELLKA AH, SOMERS GL, LOCKABY BG, MELDAHL RS (1993). Effects on Ozone and simulated acid precipitation on ecto-mycorrhizal formation on loblolly pine seedlings. Environmental Experimental Botany 33: 423-431. Cerca con Google

171. RAIDL S (1997). Studien zur Ontogenie an Rhizomorphen von Ektomykorrhizen. Brbl Mycol 169:1–184. Cerca con Google

172. RAO CS, SHARMA GD, SHUKLA AK (1997). Distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungi in pure stands of different age groups of Pinus kesiya. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 43: 85–91. Cerca con Google

173. READ DJ (1991). Mycorrhizas in ecosystems. Experimenta 47: 376-391. Cerca con Google

174. READ DJ, LEAKE JR, PEREZ-MORENO J (2004). Mycorrhizal fungi as drivers of ecosystem processes in heathland and boreal forest biomes. Canadian Journal of Botany 82: 1243-1263. Cerca con Google

175. READ DJ, PEREZ-MORENO J (2003). Mycorrhizas and nutrient cycling in ecosystems – a journey towards relevance? New Phytologist 157:475-492. Cerca con Google

176. RESCO de DIOS V, FISCHER C, COLINAS C (2007).Climate change effects on mediterranean forests and preventive measures. New Forests 33:29–40. Cerca con Google

177. REY A , JARVIS PG (1997). Growth response of young birch trees (Betula pendulal Roth.) after four and a half years of CO2 exposure. Annal of Botany 80: 809-816. Cerca con Google

178. REYNOLDSON TB, NORRIS RH, RESH VH, DAY KE, ROSENBERG DM (1997). The reference condition: a comparison of multimetric and multivariate approaches to assess waterquality impairment using benthic macroinvertebrates. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 16:833–52. Cerca con Google

179. RILLING CM, KATHLEEN KT, MICHAEL FA (2002). Global Change and Mycorrhizal Fungi. In: Ecological Studies Vol. 157 M.G.A. Van der Heijden, I Sanders (Eds.) Mycorrhizal Ecology. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Cerca con Google

180. RILLING MC, WRIGHT SF, ALLEN MF, FIELD CB (1999). Long-term CO2 elevation affects soil structure of natural ecosystems. Nature 400: 628. Cerca con Google

181. ROSLING A, LANDEWEERT R, LINDAHL BD, LARSSON KH, KUYPER TW, TAYLOR AFS, FINLAY RD (2003). Vertical distribution of ectomycorrhizal fungal taxa in a podzol soil profile. New Phytologist 159: 775-783. Cerca con Google

182. ROTH DR, FAHEY TJ (1998). The effects of acid precipitation and ozone on the ecto-mycorrhiza of red spruce saplings. Water Air Soil Pollution 103: 263-276. Cerca con Google

183. ROUHIER H, READ DJ (1998). Plant and fungal responses to elevated atomospheric carbon dioxide, in mycorrhizal seedlings of Pinus sylvestris. Environmental Experimental Botany 40(3): 237-246. Cerca con Google

184. ROUHIER H, READ DJ (1999). Plant and fungal responses to elevated CO2 in mycorrhizal seedlings of Betula pendula. Environmetal Experimental Botany 42: 231-241. Cerca con Google

185. RÜHLING Å, SÖDERSTRÖM B (1990). Changes in fruitbody production of mycorrhizal and litter decomposing macromycetes in heavy metal polluted coniferous forests in north Sweden. Water Air Soil Pollution 49: 375-387. Cerca con Google

186. SAKAKIBARA SM, JONES MD, GILLESPIE M, HAGERMAN SM, FOREST ME, SIMARD SW, DURALL DM (2002). A comparison of ectomycorrhiza identification based on morphotyping and PCR-RFLP analysis. Mycological Research 106: 868-878. Cerca con Google

187. SCATTOLIN L (2006). Variations of the ectomycorrhizal community in high mountain Norway spruce stands and correlations with the main pedoclimatic factors. PhD thesis - Università degli Studi di Padova and Ludwig-Maximilians- Universität München. Cerca con Google

188. SCATTOLIN L, MONTECCHIO L, AGERER R, 2007. The Ectomycorrhizal community structure in high mountain Norway spruce stands. Trees. DOI 10.1007/s00468-007-0164-9. In press. Cerca con Google

189. SHANNON CE,WEAVERW. 1949. The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana: Univ. Illinois Press. Cerca con Google

190. SHI L, GUTTENBERGER M, KOTTKE I, HAMPP R (2002). The effect of drought on mycorrhizas of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.): changes in community structure, and the content of carbohydrates and nitrogen storage bodies of the fungi. Mycorrhiza 12: 303–311. Cerca con Google

191. SIMARD SW, PERRY DA, JONES MD, MYROLD DD, DURALL DM, MOLINA R (1997). Net transfer of carbon between ectomycorrhizal tree species in the field. Nature 388: 579-582. Cerca con Google

192. SIMON TP, ED (2003). Biological Response Signatures: Indicator Patterns Using Aquatic Communities. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Cerca con Google

193. SMEETS E, WETERINGS R 1999. Environmental indicators: typology and overview. Tech. Rep. 25, Eur. Environ. Agency, Copenhagen, Den. http://reports.eea.eu.int:80/TEC25/en/tech 25 text.pdf Vai! Cerca con Google

194. SMITH SE, READ DJ (1997). Mycorrhizal symbiosis. San Diego, CA, USA: Academic Press. Cerca con Google

195. STADDON PL, HEINEMEYER1 A, FITTER AH (2002). Mycorrhizas and global environmental change: research at different scales. Plant and Soil 244: 253–261. Cerca con Google

196. STARK JM, HART SC (1997). High rates of nitrification and nitrate turnover in undisturbed coniferous forests. Nature 385: 61-64. Cerca con Google

197. STENSTRÖM E (1991) The effects of flooding on the formation of ectomycorrhizae in Pinus sylvestris seedlings. Plant Soil 131:247-250. Cerca con Google

198. SYLVIA DM, JARSTFER AG (1997). Distribution of mycorrhiza on competing pines and weeds in a southern pine plantation. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:139-144. Cerca con Google

199. TAYLOR AFS (2002) Fungal diversity in ectomycorrhizal communities: sampling effort and species detection. Plant and Soil 244: 19–28. Cerca con Google

200. TAYLOR AFS, ALEXANDER IJ (2005). The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: life in the real world Mycologist, Volume 19, Part 3 103-112. Cerca con Google

201. TAYLOR AFS, FRANSSON PM, HÖGBERG P, HÖGBERG MN, PLAMBOECK AH (2003). Species level pattern in 13C and 15N abundance of ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic fungal sporocarps. New Phytologist 159: 757-774. Cerca con Google

202. TAYLOR AFS, GEBAUER G, READ DJ (2004). Uptake of nitrogen and carbon from doublelabelled (N-15 and C-13) glycine by mycorrhizal pine seedlings. New Phytologist 164: 383-388. Cerca con Google

203. TAYLOR AFS, HÖGBOM L, HÖGBERG M, LYON AJE, NASHOLM T (1997). Natural 15N abundance in fruit bodies of ectomycorrhizal fungi from boreal forests. New Phytologist 136: 713- 720. Cerca con Google

204. TAYLOR AFS, MARTIN F, READ DJ (2000). Fungal diversity in ectomycorrhizal communities of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) and Beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) along north-south transects in Europe. In: Schulze ED, ed. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in European forest ecosystems. Berlin: Springer, 343-365. Cerca con Google

205. TAYLOR DL, BRUNS TD, SZARO TM, HODGES SA (2003). Divergence in mycorrhizal specialization within Hexalectris spicata (Orchidaceae), a nonphotosynthetic desert orchid. American Journal of Botany 90: 1168-1179. Cerca con Google

206. TERMOSHUIZEN AJ ( 1990). Succession of mycorrhizal fungi in stands of Pinus sylvestris in the Netherlands. In: Termoshouizen AJ (Ed.), Decline of Carpophores of Mycorrhizal Fungi in Stands of Pinus sylvestris. PhD Thesis. University,The Netherlands, pp.41-50. Cerca con Google

207. TINGEY DT, PHILLIPS DL, JOHSON MG, STROM MJ, BALL JT (1997). Effects of elevated CO 2 and N fertilization on fine root dynamics and fungal growth in seedling Pinus ponderosa. Environmental Experimental Botany 37: 73-83. Cerca con Google

208. TISDALL JM, OADES JM (1982). Organinc matter and water-stable aggregats in soils. Journal of Soil Science 33: 141-163. Cerca con Google

209. TOLJANDER JF , EBERHARDT U, TOLJANDER YK, PAUL LR, TAYLOR AFS (2006). Species composition of an ectomycorrhizal fungal community along a local nutrient gradient in a boreal forest. New Phytologist 170: 873-884. Cerca con Google

210. TRESEDER KK (2005). Unearthing ectomycorrhizal dynamics. New Phytologist 166: 358-359. Cerca con Google

211. TRESEDER KK, ALLEN MF (2000). Mycorrhizal fungi have a potential role in soil carbon storage under elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition. New Phytologist 147: 189–200. Cerca con Google

212. UNESTAM T (1991). Water repellency, mat formation, and leaf-stimulated growth of some ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza, 1: 13-20. Cerca con Google

213. UNESTAM T, STENSTRÖM E (1989).A method for observing and manipulating roots and rootassociated fungi on plants growing in nonsterile substrates. Scandinavian Journal Forest Research 4:51-58. Cerca con Google

214. UNESTAM T, SUN YP (1995). Extramatrical structures of hydrophobic and hydrophilic ectomycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhiza 5: 301-311. Cerca con Google

215. URBAN, A., WEISS, M. & BAUER, R. (2003). Ectomycorrhizae involving sebacinoid fungi and their analogs. Journal of theLinnaean Society of London, Botany 13: 31-42. Cerca con Google

216. US EPA (2000). Evaluation guidelines for ecological indicators. EPA/620/R-99/005, Research Triangle Park, NC.109 pp. http://www.ecosystemindicators.org/wg/publication/Jackson_Kurtz_ Fisher.pdf Vai! Cerca con Google

217. US EPA (2002b). A SAB report: a framework for assessing and reporting on ecological condition. EPA-SAB-EPEC-02–009, Washington, DC. 142 pp. http://www.epa.gov/sab/pdf/epec02009.pdf Vai! Cerca con Google

218. US EPA (2002c). Biological indicator variability and stream program integration: a Maryland ECOLOGICAL INDICATORS 111 case study. EPA/903/R-02/008, Washington, DC. 92 pp. http://www.epa.gov/bio indicators/pdf/biological indicator md .pdf Vai! Cerca con Google

219. VAN DER HEIJDEN M, KLIRONOMOS J, URSIC M ET AL (1998). Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. – Nature 396: 69–72. Cerca con Google

220. VISSER S (1995). Ectomycorrhizal fungal succession in Jack pine stands following wildfire. New Phytologist 129: 389–401. Cerca con Google

221. VRÅLSTAD T, FOSSHEIM T, SCHUMACHER T (2000). Piceirhiza bicolorata – the ectomycorrhizal expression of the Hymenoscyphus ericae aggregate? New Phytologist 145: 549- 563. Cerca con Google

222. VRÅLSTAD T, SCHUMACHER T, TAYLOR AFS (2002). Mycorrhizal synthesis between fungal strains of the Hymenoscyphus ericae aggregate and potential ectomycorrhizal and ericoid hosts. New Phytologist 153: 143-152. Cerca con Google

223. WALLANDER H (2006). External mycorrhizal mycelia – the importance of quantifiation in natural ecosystems. New Phytologist 171: 240-242. Cerca con Google

224. WALLANDER H, MAHMOOD S, HAGERBERG D, JOHANSSON L, PALLON J (2003). Elemental composition of ectomycorrhizal mycelia identified by PCR-RFLP analysis and growth in contact with apatite or wood ash in forest soil. FEMS Microbiological Ecology 44: 55- 65. Cerca con Google

225. WALLANDER H, NILSSON LO, HAGERBERG D, BAATH E (2001). Estimation of the biomass and seasonal growth of external mycelium of ectomycorrhizal fungi in the field. New Phytologist 171: 240-242. Cerca con Google

226. WALLANDER H, NYLUND JE (1992). Effects of excess nitrogen and phosphorus starvation on the extramatrical mycelium of ecto-mycorrhizas of Pinus sylvestris L. New Phytologist 120: 495- 503. Cerca con Google

227. WALLENDA T, KOTTKE I (1998). Nitrogen deposition and ectomycorrhizas. New Phytologist 139: 169-187. Cerca con Google

228. WARREN WILSON J See WILSON, WARREN J. Cerca con Google

229. WEISS M, SELOSSE MA, REXER KH, URBAN A, OBERWINKLER F (2004). Sebacinales: a hitherto overlooked cosm of heterobasidiomycetes with a broad mycorrhizal potential. Mycological Research 108: 1003-1010. Cerca con Google

230. WENGER KF (1955). Light and mycorrhiza development. Ecology 36: 518-520. Cerca con Google

231. WILSON, WARREN J (1951). Micro-organisms in the rhizosphere of beech. D. Phil. Thesis, Oxford University (typescript). Cerca con Google

232. WU B, NARA K, HOGETSU T (1999). Competition between ectomycorrhizal fungi colonizing Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza 9: 151–159. Cerca con Google

233. YOUNG IM, BLANCHART E, CHENU C, DANGERFIELD M, FRAGOSO C, GRIMALDI M, INGRAM J, MONROZIER L (1998). The interaction of soil biota and soil structure under global change. Global Change Biology 4: 703-712. Cerca con Google

234. ZHOU Z, HOGETSU T (2002). Subterranean community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi under Cerca con Google

235. Suillus grevillei sporocarps in a Larix kaempferi forest. New Phytologist 154: 529-539. Cerca con Google

236. AGERER R (1991) Characterization of ectomycorrhizae. In: NORRIS JR, READ DJ, VARMA AK, (eds) Techniques for the Study of Mycorrhiza. UK Academic Press, London, pp 25-73. Cerca con Google

237. AGERER R (1987-2006). Colour atlas of ectomycorrhizae. 1th -13 th del. Einhorn, Schwäbisch Gmünd, Germany. Cerca con Google

238. AGERER R (2006). Fungal relationship and structural patterns of their ectomycorrhizae. Mycological Progress 5(2): 67-107. Cerca con Google

239. AGERER R, RAMBOLD G (2004-2007). [first posted on 2004-06-01; most recent update: 2007- 03-##]. DEEMY – An Information System for Characterization and Determination of Ectomycorrhizae. www.deemy.de – München, Germany. Vai! Cerca con Google

240. AGERER R (2001). Exploration types of ectomycorrhizal mycelial systems. A proposal to classify mycorrhizal mycelial systems with respect to their ecologically important contact area with the substrate. Mycorrhiza 11: 107-114. Cerca con Google

241. BAIER R, INGENHAAG J, BLASCHKE H, GÖTTLEIN A, AGERER R (2006). Vertical distribution of an ectomycorrhizal community in upper soil horizons of a young Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst.) stand of the Bavarian Limestone Alps. Mycorrhiza 16(6): 197-206. Cerca con Google

242. BRAND F (1991). Ektomycorrhizen an Fagus sylvatica. Charakterisierung und Identifizierung, ökologische Kennzeichnung und unsterile Kultivierung. Libri Botanici, IHW-Verlag : 1-229. Cerca con Google

243. BEENKEN L (2004). Die Gattung Russula Untersuchungenn zu ihrer Systematik anhand von Ektomykorrhizen, p.1-414. Cerca con Google

244. DE ROMAN M, CLAVERIA V, DE MIGUEL AM (2005). A revision of the description of ectomycorrhiza published since 1961. Mycological Research 109 (10)1:1063-1104. Cerca con Google

245. GOODMAN DM, DURALL DM, TROFYMOW JA, BERCH SM (1996). A manual of Concise Descriptions of North American Ectomycorrhizae including microscopic and molecular characterization. Canadian Forest Service and the B.C. Ministry of Forests. Cerca con Google

246. PALFNER G (2001). Taxonomische Studien an Ektomycorrhizen aus den Nothofagus-Wäldern Mittelsüdchiles. Bibliotheca Mycologica, Ed. J. Cramer 1-243. Cerca con Google

247. GRONBACH E (1988). Charakterisierung und Identifizierung von Ektomycorrhizen in einem Fichtenbestand mit Untersuchungen zur Merkmalsvariabilität in sauer beregneten Flächen. Bibliotheca Mycologica, Ed. J. Cramer:1-217 Cerca con Google

248. JAKUCS E (1998). “Fagirhiza vermiculiformis + Fagus sylvatica L.” in Descriptions of Ectomycorrhizae 3: 7-11. Cerca con Google

249. KÕLJALG U, LARSSON K-H, ABARENKOV K, NILSSON RH, ALEXANDER IJ, EBERHARDT U, ERLAND S, HOILAND K, KJOLLER R, LARSSON E, PENNANEN T, SEN R, TAYLOR AFS, TEDERSOO L, VRALSTAD T, URSING BM (2005). UNITE: a database providing web-based methods for the molecular identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 166: 1063-1068. Cerca con Google

250. MOLINA R, MASSICOTTE H, TRAPPE JM (1992). Specificity phenomena in mycorrhizal symbioses: Community-ecological consequences and practical implications. In: Routledge AMF, ed. Mycorrhizal functioning, an integralive plant–fungal process. New York, USA: Chapman & Hall, Inc., 357–423. Cerca con Google

251. MONTECCHIO L, CAUSIN R, ROSSI S, MUTTO ACCORDI S (2004) Changes in ectomycorrhizal diversity in a declining Quercus ilex coastal forest. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 43: 26-34. Cerca con Google

252. PROVINCIA AUTONOMA DI TRENTO (2001) I dati della pianificazione forestale aggiornati al 31/12/2000. Servizio Foreste-Sistema Informativo Ambiente e Territorio. CD-ROM, Trento, I Cerca con Google

253. RAIDL S (1997). Studien zur Ontogenie an Rhizomorphen von Ektomykorrhizen. Biblioteca Mycologica, Ed. J. Cramer: 1-184. Cerca con Google

254. SBOARINA C, CESCATTI A (2004) Il clima del Trentino. Distribuzione spaziale delle principali variabili climatiche. Centro di Ecologia Alpina, report 33 and CD-ROM, Trento, I Cerca con Google

255. SITTIG U (1999). Zur saisonale Dynamik von Ektomycorrhizen der Buche (Fagus sylvatica L.) Ber Forschungszentrum. Waldökosysteme, Reihe a, Bd. 162. Cerca con Google

256. TAYLOR ANDY FS, ALEXANDER I (2005). The ectomycorrhizal symbiosis: life in the real world. Mycologist, Volume 19, Part 3 August 2005 p. 102-112. Cerca con Google

257. BERNETTI I, FAGARAZZI C, FRATINI R (2004). A methodology to analyse the potential development of biomass-energy sector: an application in Tuscany. Forest Policy and Economics 6: 415-432. Cerca con Google

258. BRUNS TD (1995). Thoughts on the processes that maintain local species diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi. Plant Soil 172: 17-27. Cerca con Google

259. BUCKLEY GP (1992). Ecology and Management of coppice woodland (Hardcover). Cerca con Google

260. BYRD KB, PARKER VT, VOGLER DR, CULLINGS KW (2000). The influence of clear-cutting on ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity in a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) stand, Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, and Gallatin National Forest, Montana. Canadian Journal of Botany 78: 149-156. Cerca con Google

261. CAUSIN R, MONTECCHIO L, MUTTO ACCORDI S (1996). Probability of ectomycorrhizal infection in a declining stand of common oak. Annales des Sciences Forestieres 53: 743-752. Cerca con Google

262. CLINE ET, AMMIRATI JF, EDMONDS RL (2005). Does proximity to mature trees influence ectomycorrhizal fungus communities of Douglas-fir seedlings? New Phytologist 166: 993-1009. Cerca con Google

263. DAHLBERG A (2001).Community ecology of ectomycorrhizal fungi: an advancing interdisciplinary field. New Phytologist 150: 555-562. Cerca con Google

264. DE ROMAN M, CLAVERIA V, DE MIGUEL AM (2005). A revision of the description of ectomycorrhiza published since 1961. Mycological Research 109 (10)1:1063-1104. Cerca con Google

265. DURALL DM, JONES MD, WRIGHT EF, KROEGER P, COATES KD (1999). Species richness of ectomycorrhizal fungi in cutblocks of different sizes in the Interior Cedar-Hemlock forests of northwestern British Columbia: sporocarps and ectomycorrhizae. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:1322-1332. Cerca con Google

266. GROGAN P, BAAR J, BRUNS TD (2000).Below-ground ectomycorrhizal community structure in a recently burned bishop pine forest. Journal of Ecology 88: 1051-1062. Cerca con Google

267. HAGERMAN SM, JONES MD, BRADFIELD GE, GILLESPIE M, DURALL DM (1999). Effects of clear-cut logging on the diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizae at a subalpine forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29: 124-134. Cerca con Google

268. HORTON TR, BRUNS TD (2001). The molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: pecking into black-box. Molecular Ecology 10: 1855-1832. Cerca con Google

269. JAKUCS E, KOVACS GM, AGERER R, ROMSICS C, ERÖS-HONTI Z (2005). Morphological-anatomical characterization and molecular identification of Tomentella stuposa ectomycorrhizae and related anatomotypes. Mycorrhiza 15: 247-258. Cerca con Google

270. JANY JL, MARTIN F, GARBAYE J (2003). Respiration activity of ectomycorrhizas from Cenococcum geophilum and Lactarius sp. in relation to soil water potential in five beech forests. Plant and Soil 255: 487-494. Cerca con Google

271. JONES MD, DURALL DM, CAIRNEY JWG (2003). Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in young forest stands regenerating after clearcut logging. New Phytologist 157: 399-422. Cerca con Google

272. KOIDE RT, XU B, SHARDA J, LEKBERG Y, OSTIGUY N (2005). Evidence of species interactions within an ectomycorrhizal fungal community. New Phytologist 165:305-316. Cerca con Google

273. KÕLJALG U, DAHLBERG A, TAYLOR AFS, LARSSON E, HALLENBERG N, STENLID J, LARSSON KH, FRANSSON PM, K?RÉN, JONSSON L (2000). Diversity and abundance of resupinate thelephoroid fungi as ectomycorrhizal symbionts in Swedish boreal forests. Molecular Ecology 9: 1985-1996. Cerca con Google

274. KÕLJALG U, JAKUCS E, BOKA K, AGERER R (2001). Three ectomycorrhiza with cystidia formed by different Tomentella species as revealed by rDNA ITS sequences and anatomical characteristics. Folia Cryptog. Estonia Facs. 38: 27-39. Cerca con Google

275. KÕLJALG U, TAMMI H, TIMONEN S, AGERER R, SEN R (2002). ITA rDNA sequence-based phylogenetic analysis of Tomentellopsis species from boreal and temperate forests, and the identification of pink-type ectomycorrhizas. Mycological Progress 1: 81-92. Cerca con Google

276. KJØLLER R (2006). Disproortionate abundance between ectomycorrhizal root tips and their associated mycelia. FEMS Mycrobiology Ecology (58)2: 214-224. Cerca con Google

277. KUYPER TW, LANDEWEERT R (2002). Vertical niche differentiation by hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi in soil. New Phytologist 156: 321–326 Cerca con Google

278. MAHMOOD S, FINLAY RD, ERLAND S (1999). Effects of repeated harvesting of forest residues on the ectomycorrhizal community in a Swedish spruce forest. New Phytologist 142: 577-585. Cerca con Google

279. ORLANDER G, GEMMEL P, HUNT J (1990). Site Preparation: A Swedish Overview. FRDA Report 105, ISSN 0835-0752 1-61, pp. 1–61. Cerca con Google

280. MONTECCHIO L, CAUSIN R, ROSSI S, MUTTO ACCORDI S (2004). Changes in ectomycorrhizal diversity in a declining Quercus ilex coastal forest. Phytopathologia Mediterranea 43: 26-34. Cerca con Google

281. MOSCA E, MONTECCHIO L, SELLA L, GARBAYE J (2007). Short-term effect of removing tree competition on the ectomycorrhizal status of a declining pedunculate oak forest (Quercus robur L.). Forest Ecology and Management 244: 129-140. Cerca con Google

282. NEVES MACHADO MH (1995). La mycorrhization contrôllée d'Eucalyptus globulus au Portugal et l'effet de la sècheresse sur la symbiose ectomycorhizienne chez cette essence. PhD thesis, Universitè de Nancy, France. 156 pp. Cerca con Google

283. SALZER P, HEBE G, REITH A, ZITTERELL-HAID B, STRANSKY H, GASCHLER K, HAGER A (1996). Rapid reactions of spruce cells to elicitors released from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hebeloma rustiliniforme, and inactivation of these elicitors by extracellular spruce cell enzymes. Planta 198: 118-126. Cerca con Google

284. SCATTOLIN L, MONTECCHIO L, AGERER R (2008). The ectomycorrhizal community structure in high mountain Norway spruce stands. Trees. DOI 10.1007/s00468-007-0164-9. Cerca con Google

285. SCHWACKE M, HAGER A (1992). Fungal elicitors induce a transient release of active oxygen species from cultured spruce cells depending on Ca2+ and protein-kinase activity. Planta 187:136- 141. Cerca con Google

286. STICHER L, MAUCH-MANI B, METRAUX JP(1997). Systemic acquired resistance. Annual Review of. Phytopathology 35: 235-270. Cerca con Google

287. SUTTON RF (1993). Mounding site preparation: a review of European and North-American experience. New For. 7, 151–192. Cerca con Google

288. TAYLOR AFS (2002). Fungal diversity in ectomycorrhizal communities: sampling effort and species detection. Plant and Soil 244: 19–28. Cerca con Google

289. TOLJANDER JF, EBERHARDT U, TOLJANDER YK, PAUL LR, TAYLOR AFS (2006). Species composition of an ectomycorrhzial fungal community along a local nutrient gradient in a boreal forest. New Phytologist 170: 873-884. Cerca con Google

290. VAN LOON LC, BAKKER PAHM, PIETERSE CM (1998). Systematic resistance induced by rhizosphere bacteria. annual review of phythopatology 36: 453-483. Cerca con Google

291. WARGO PM (1988). Root vitality and mycorrhizal status of different health classed of red spruce trees. Phytophatology 78: 1533. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record