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Dal Maso, Elisa (2015) Epidemiology and control strategies applied to ash dieback and chestnut ink disease. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Main goal of forest diseases’ management is to reduce economic, biological and aesthetic damages and biodiversity loss caused by plant parasites. The many strategies used can be grouped under two main actions, prevention (prophylaxis in some early writings) and therapy (treatment or cure). Prevention is limited primarily by the lack of knowledge of the organisms involved, including host plants. Mathematical models have been used to extend the understanding of plant disease epidemiology on a number of fronts, providing an opportunity for a more rational use of resources on expensive field trials and representing a step towards more sustainable control measures. From a curative point of view, current efforts by scientists have focused on developing diseases management (Pest Management = PM) concepts in order to balance the benefits of pesticides with the ecological concerns of their residues contaminating the environment.
In this thesis, the two PM principles were applied from an innovative point of view on two case studies: ash dieback caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, which can be considered the most serious disease for Fraxinus genus in Europe, and chestnut ink disease, caused by Phytophthora cambivora and P. cinnamomi.
In the first part of the thesis, the two diseases are introduced, in order to permit the evaluation of similarities and differences (chapter I).
Subsequently, from chapter II to chapter V, the experimental trials performed are described. In particular, in chapter II a study of the ecological niche of H. fraxineus, with the characterization of the environmental variables associated with naturally infected zones, is reported. This procedure was realized with Species Distribution Models (SDM), widely utilized in the ecological field and only recently applied to plant pathology. The presence of the pathogen was highly correlated to three summer predictors: abundant precipitation, high soil moisture and low air temperature, in comparison with the averages of the study area. The ensemble forecasting technique was then applied to obtain a prediction of the potential distribution of the pathogen at European scale, considering the distribution maps of Fraxinus excelsior and Fraxinus angustifolia, susceptible to the parasite. At last, an innovative method of network analysis permitted to identify the suitable areas that are not reachable by the pathogen with a natural spread.
Chapter III reports a study conducted to evaluate six fungicides for their potential to control ash dieback. Initially, in vitro tests of the active ingredients against five different strains of the pathogen indicated thiabendazole, propiconazole and allicin as the most effective fungicides, with lower median lethal doses than procloraz. In contrast, copper sulphate and potassium phosphite were totally ineffective. Subsequently, the antifungal activities of the best three compounds were investigated in planta against H. fraxineus by trunk injection on European ashes inoculated with an indigenous strain. The test was preceded by preliminary trials to maximize the efficacy of injections; in the experimental conditions highest speed was reached with the addition of 1.2 % acetic acid to the aqueous solution and making treatments in early morning or late afternoon. Considering the results of in planta trial, thiabendazole and allicin significantly slowed down the growth of the necroses in the growing season, in contrast propiconazole injections were impracticable.
The studies in chapters IV and V recall the methodologies applied to ash dieback, with application to chestnut ink disease complex. In particular, in chapter IV fuzzy logic theory was applied considering the environmental variables, such as minimum winter temperature, summer drought, slope's aspect, streams' distance and soil's permeability, that mainly can influence the development of the disease. The model was validated with a broad field survey conducted in a chestnut area in Treviso province. Moreover, uncertainty maps (regarding model structure, inputs and parameters) were produced for the correct interpretation of the prediction. Great part of the chestnut area in the study zone resulted as suitable for the development of ink disease, whereas only the 18.8 %, corresponding to higher elevation zones, presented inferior risks.
In a second study (chapter V), a comparative efficacy trial on four potassium phosphite formulations by means of endotherapy against chestnut ink disease is performed. P. cinnamomi was isolated with baiting technique from symptomatic chestnuts and was inoculated on 50 asymptomatic trees. As a result of endotherapic treatments, the unique solution that significantly slowed down necroses' growth was potassium phosphite (35 %) with an addition of 0.1 % micronutrient solution. An additional endotherapic trial was conducted in a preliminary way in the chestnut where P. cinnamomi was isolated, with the main aim to evaluate growth stimulation of active growing callus next to the shape flame necroses by the injected solution of potassium phosphite 70 %. In this case, results did not highlight a significant difference between treated trees and water control ones, probably for the need of longer times for older trees.
On the base of the achieved results, epidemiological modelling and endotherapic treatments, applied both to ash dieback and chestnut ink disease, can represent fundamental tools in the management of these important diseases and should be applied in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM) approach, together with appropriate cultural techniques to maximize benefits.

Abstract (italiano)

Lo scopo principale della gestione delle malattie forestali è la riduzione dei danni economici, biologici ed estetici e delle perdite di biodiversità dovute alle malattie delle piante. Le molteplici strategie usate nella gestione delle malattie possono essere raggruppate in due azioni principali, la prevenzione (anche detta profilassi) e la terapia (trattamento o cura). La prevenzione è principalmente limitata dalla mancanza di conoscenza in merito all'organismo in oggetto e i suoi ospiti. I modelli matematici sono stati utilizzati per approfondire la conoscenza delle malattie delle piante con vari obiettivi. Essi offrono l'opportunità di affrontare un uso razionale delle risorse riguardo ai costosi monitoraggi e rappresentano un passo fondamentale verso misure di controllo più sostenibili. Da un punto di vista curativo, oggigiorno gli sforzi sono focalizzati allo sviluppo di concetti di gestione delle malattie che bilancino i benefici dei pesticidi con le preoccupazioni in merito ai residui che possono contaminare l'ambiente.
In questa tesi, i due principi della gestione della malattia sono stati affrontati con due casi studio: il dissecamento del frassino, causata da Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, che può essere considerata la più grave malattia del genere Fraxinus in Europa, e il mal dell'inchiostro del castagno, causata da Phytophthora cambivora (Petri) Buism. and P. cinnamomi Rands.
Nella prima parte della tesi sono state introdotte le due malattie, in modo da poterne appurare somiglianze e differenze (Capitolo I).
Successivamente, dal capitolo II al capitolo V sono descritte le prove sperimentali effettuate. In particolare, nel capitolo II è stato approntato uno studio della nicchia ecologica di H. fraxineus, con la caratterizzazione di variabili ecologiche e ambientali associate a zone naturalmente infette. Tale procedura è stata effettuata tramite Species Distribution Models (SDM), ampiamente utilizzati in ambito ecologico e da poco tempo anche nell'ambito della patologia vegetale. La presenza del patogeno è risultata fortemente correlata a tre variabili ambientali estive, in particolare abbondanti precipitazioni, alta umidità del suolo e basse temperature, in comparazione con la media dell'area di studio. Successivamente la tecnica dell'ensemble forecasting è stata applicata per ottenere una predizione della distribuzione potenziale del patogeno a scala europea, considerando la distribuzione di F. excelsior e F. angustifolia, ospiti della malattia. Infine, un innovativo metodo di network analysis ha permesso di individuare le aree ecologicamente adatte al patogeno ma non raggiungibili con una diffusione naturale.
Nel capitolo III viene descritto uno studio condotto per valutare sei diversi fungicidi contro H. fraxineus. Inizialmente è stata effettuata una prova in vitro dei prodotti commerciali contro cinque ceppi del patogeno. Tiabendazolo, propiconazolo e allicina sono risultati i fungicidi più efficaci, con dose letale mediana più bassa, rispetto, per esempio, al principio attivo procloraz. Al contrario, il solfato di rame e i fosfiti di potassio si sono rilevati completamente inefficaci. Successivamente, i tre migliori fungicidi sono stati applicati in planta tramite trattamenti endoterapici su frassini maggiori inoculati al tronco con un ceppo autoctono. Tale test è stato anticipato da prove preliminari per massimizzare l'efficienza delle iniezioni; nelle condizioni stazionali e climatiche delle prove, maggiori velocità sono state raggiunte con soluzione acquosa addizionata con 1.2 % di acido acetico, effettuando i trattamenti la mattina presto o nel pomeriggio tardo. Considerando i risultati della prova in planta, tiabendazolo e allicina hanno rallentato in maniera significativa la crescita delle necrosi, al contrario non si è riusciti a iniettare la soluzione a base di propiconazolo.
I capitoli IV e V riprendono le metodologie applicate contro la patologia del dissecamento del frassino, applicandole al mal dell'inchiostro del castagno. In particolare nel capitolo IV, la teoria fuzzy è stata adottata nello studio del complesso del mal dell'inchiostro, includendo nella costruzione del modello variabili ambientali quali temperatura minima invernale, siccità estiva, esposizione, distanza da corsi d'acqua e permeabilità del suolo, che più possono influire sullo sviluppo della malattia. Il modello è stato validato con un'ampia ricerca sul campo condotta nei castagneti nell'area di Treviso. Inoltre, sono state prodotte delle mappe dell'incertezza (inerenti a struttura, input e parametri del modello) per la corretta interpretazione della previsione. Buona parte dell'area a castagneto nella zona di studio si è rivelata adatta allo sviluppo del mal dell'inchiostro, mentre solo il 18.8 %, corrispondente alle aree più elevate, presentava rischi inferiori.
Un secondo studio (capitolo V) ha riguardato una prova comparativa di efficacia di quattro formulazioni di fosfiti di potassio tramite endoterapia. P. cinnamomi è stata isolata con la tecnica del baiting in un castagneto affetto da mal dell'inchiostro ed è stata inoculata su 50 castagni asintomatici. In seguito ai trattamenti endoterapici, l'unica soluzione che ha significativamente rallentato la crescita delle necrosi è stata quella a base di fosfiti di potassio (35 %) addizionata con 0.1 % di soluzione di micronutrienti. Un'ulteriore prova di endoterapia è stata condotta in via preliminare nel castagneto abbandonato in cui era stata isolata P. cinnamomi, al fine di valutare la stimolazione alla crescita del callo cicatriziale da parte della soluzione iniettata fosfiti di potassio 70 %. I risultati ottenuti in questo caso non hanno evidenziato una differenza significativa rispetto ai controlli trattati con acqua, probabilmente per una necessità di tempi più lunghi considerando piante di età maggiore.
In base ai risultati raggiunti, la modellistica epidemiologica e i trattamenti endoterapici sperimentati in merito alle patologie del dissecamento del frassino e al mal dell'inchiostro del castagno possono rappresentare degli strumenti fondamentali nella gestione integrata delle malattie considerate, da applicare insieme ad appropriate tecniche colturali per massimizzarne i benefici.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Montecchio, Lucio
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > TERRITORIO, AMBIENTE, RISORSE E SALUTE
Data di deposito della tesi:27 Gennaio 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:27 Gennaio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):ash dieback; chestnut ink disease; Hymenoscyphus fraxineus; Phytophthora cambivora; Phytophthora cinnamomi; sdm; species distribution modelling; epidemiological modelling; endotherapy; trunk injection; potassium phosphite; allicin; Bite; fuzzy logic; fuzzy model
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/12 Patologia vegetale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Codice ID:7463
Depositato il:20 Nov 2015 09:43
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