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Tamiazzo, Jessica (2015) Evaluation of phytodepuration intensified systems for the treatment of agricultural and livestock wastewaters. [Ph.D. thesis]

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Abstract (english)

The intensification of Italian pig breeding over the years has resulted in high livestock concentrations in some parts of the country, especially in the north, increasing environmental pollutions threats. The potential environmental hazards caused by these activities regard surface water or groundwater eutrophication, emission of ammonia with consequent problems of acid deposition due to rainfall, other gases, odours, and accumulation risk of heavy metals and salts in agricultural soils. In addition, the proliferation over time of biogas plants in the livestock and agricultural field has led to a rapid and significant increase in the digestate quantities produced. The wastewaters from these activities are distributed on fields according to the European Directive (91/676 EC), which often results in an increase in the demand for available surfaces for the distribution of the effluent. However, when the land for spreading is not sufficient, other solutions must be found, that breeders solve by relocating the wastewater in other areas, incurring high transport costs. In recent years phytodepuration has proved to be of substantial interest as a system for the treatment of animal wastewater liquid fraction, representing a valid solution for its disposal when the surface area is not adequate.
This work examined phytodepuration intensified systems for the treatment of agricultural and livestock wastewaters, based on low-cost solutions and reduction of the area required for treatment. The research concerned in particular the study of pilot filter systems using recycled and sustainable materials for the pretreatment of piggery wastewater and digestate, in order to purify wastewater for the phytodepuration treatment. A vertically arranged phytodepuration system was also investigated, where both wetland and halophytic plant species have been tested for the treatment of piggery wastewater. Lastly, a secondary part of this research was devoted to the hydraulics study of filters used for phosphorus treatment, and to the growth of algae on pretreated piggery wastewater to analyze the chemical removal and possible accumulation of astaxanthin. The pretreatment systems proved to be suitable for digestate and piggery wastewater depuration, with higher removal for NH4-N, COD and total N than other chemicals. The phytodepuration highlighted the potential of several plants and the weaknesses of others for the treatment of piggery wastewater, showing highest concentration abatements of NH4-N (69-99%) and lower abatements of the other chemicals.

Abstract (italian)

Il processo di intensificazione dell’allevamento suino in Italia ha portato negli anni ad un alta concentrazione di animali in alcune parti del paese, specialmente al nord, accrescendo i rischi di inquinamento ambientale. I potenziali danni sull’ambiente causati da queste attività riguardano l’eutrofizzazione delle acque superficiali e sotterranee, le emissioni di ammoniaca con conseguenti problemi di deposizioni acide in seguito a precipitazioni e di altri gas, gli odori, e il rischio di accumulo di metalli pesanti e di sali nei suoli agricoli. Inoltre la forte crescita negli ultimi anni del biogas nel settore agro-zootecnico ha generato un altrettanto rapido ed importante incremento dei quantitativi di digestato prodotto. I reflui derivanti da queste attività devono distribuiti secondo la normativa italiana (Direttiva CE 91/676), che si traduce spesso in un aumento della richiesta di superfici disponibili per la distribuzione dei reflui. Tuttavia, quando la superficie per lo spandimento è insufficiente, c’è la necessità di trovare altre soluzioni, che l’allevatore ovvia delocalizzando i reflui in altri terreni, sostenendo costi di trasporto non esigui. In questi ultimi anni la fitodepurazione si è rivelata di considerevole interesse come sistema di trattamento della frazione liquida dei reflui animali, rappresentando una valida soluzione per il loro smaltimento quando la superficie è insufficiente.
Questo lavoro ha esaminato sistemi intensivi di fitodepurazione per il trattamento di reflui agro-zootecnici, basati sull’economicità e sulla riduzione della superficie per la depurazione. La ricerca ha riguardato principalmente lo studio di sistemi pilota filtranti per il pretrattamento di refluo suino e digestato, allo scopo di depurare il refluo prima del trattamento di fitodepurazione, in cui sono utilizzati materiali sostenibili e di scarto. Inoltre è stato investigato un sistema di fitodepurazione sviluppato verticalmente, ove sono state testate diverse specie vegetali per il trattamento del refluo suino. Infine, una minor parte della ricerca è stata dedicata allo studio dell’idraulica di filtri, usati per il trattamento del fosforo,e alla crescita di alghe su refluo suino pretrattato per analizzare la rimozione chimica e l’eventuale accumulo di astaxantina. I sistemi di pretrattamento si sono rivelati abili nella depurazione del digestato e del refluo suino, con maggiori abbattimenti per N-NH4, COD e TN, rispetto agli altri composti chimici. La fitodepurazione ha risaltato le potenzialità di alcune piante e le debolezze di altre per il trattamento del refluo suino, mostrando i maggiori abbattimenti di concentrazione per N-NH4 (69-99%) e più bassi per gli altri parametri chimici.

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EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Borin, Maurizio
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > SCIENZE DELLE PRODUZIONI VEGETALI
Data di deposito della tesi:26 January 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:2015
Key Words:refluo suino digestato piggery wastewater digestate fitodepurazione constructed wetland
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/02 Agronomia e coltivazioni erbacee
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente
Codice ID:7574
Depositato il:10 Nov 2015 11:27
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