Vai ai contenuti. | Spostati sulla navigazione | Spostati sulla ricerca | Vai al menu | Contatti | Accessibilità

| Crea un account

Sheriff, Michael (2015) Sustainable Entrepreneurial Economic Growth in Africa. [Tesi di dottorato]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]Documento PDF (Tesi di Dottorato)
Tesi non accessible fino a 27 Dicembre 2017 per motivi correlati alla proprietà intellettuale.
Visibile a: nessuno

4Mb

Abstract (inglese)

The mainstay of the economies of most African countries is dominated by the exportation of primary products. But over the years, the reliance on the exploitation of natural resources for economic development has become a major challenge for these countries since these resources are being depleted at an alarming rate and they are dwindling. Environmental degradation concerns as a result of the activities of the extractive industries have also been raised at the local, national and international levels.
In addition to the above challenges, the relatively high population growth in these countries coupled with evidences of a high percentage of unemployment and a majority of the citizenry living below the poverty line, has forced most African governments to start to respond to the clarion call to diversify the economy away from the exportation of raw materials, to the development of internal economic growth mechanisms that could reduce the incidence of poverty through the creation of employment and at the same time raise the standard of living of the general population.
Entrepreneurship could be a viable candidate for such diversification since it has played and continues to play a pivotal role in the economic growth of many countries that are not endowed with natural resources. It can be considered as a vital source of economic growth and competitiveness in the modern global economy when channeled properly. It is evident that the public policies in African countries focus mainly on the privatization of state owned enterprises and the support of established Micro, Small and Medium Scale Enterprises. These policies have been unproductive either because they are poorly designed or are not effectively implemented in most cases. Research about entrepreneurship policies and ecosystems in Africa that could be useful to policymakers is very limited and it is assumed that almost all countries in the continent are lagging behind in the formulation and implementation of appropriate entrepreneurship policies that could lead to the cultivation of country specific entrepreneurship ecosystem for sustainable economic growth. To fill these gaps, this explorative research aims to evaluate the present state of the entrepreneurship environments and policies that relate to entrepreneurship development of countries in Africa. Specifically, the main objective of this thesis is to analyze the entrepreneurship environments, policies and ecosystems to enhance the development of entrepreneurship policy and ecosystem frameworks and to contribute to the burgeoning literature in the entrepreneurship discipline. The two main research questions developed from the review of the literature are:
What is the impact of entrepreneurship ecosystems on entrepreneurs in the selected countries?
How can entrepreneurship ecosystems in selected African countries be improved through entrepreneurship policies to attain sustainable economic growth?
As this is an explorative research study and there are diverse countries in Africa, the research methodology follows the case study approach. Ten countries were initially selected using the Analytic Hierarchy Process but was restricted to two (Nigeria and Sierra Leone) as these countries manifested interest in the research among other reasons. Both countries can be found at the extremes of the economic spectrum of Africa.
A mixed method approach has been used with purposeful sampling to conduct the study. Data has been analyzed using descriptive statistics and a general inductive approach. From the analysis, entrepreneurship policies and entrepreneurship ecosystems frameworks were developed for both the selected countries. These dynamic frameworks, when effectively implemented, might form the main pillars for unleashing and supporting the type of entrepreneurship that could yield entrepreneurial economic growth which is sustainable.
As research in entrepreneurship dynamics is mainly focused in the developed world, this work has contributed to the growing body of knowledge since the research was conducted in least developed countries and the findings revealed emerging insights. This is a crucial factor since policymakers most often rely on recent findings in the discipline when formulating policies especially for a discipline that is multidimensional in nature and has eluded an exact definition since its beginnings.

Abstract (italiano)

Il pilastro su cui si fonda la maggior parte delle economie dei Paesi Africani è costituito dalla esportazione di prodotti primari. Tuttavia, nel corso degli anni, la dipendenza dallo sfruttamento delle risorse naturali per lo sviluppo economico è diventata una grande sfida per questi paesi, perché tali risorse si stanno esaurendo a un ritmo allarmante. Il progressivo degrado ambientale causato delle attività delle industrie estrattive ha generato preoccupazioni a livello locale, nazionale e anche internazionale.

Oltre alle sfide elencate sopra, l’elevata crescita della popolazione in questi paesi insieme a un'alta percentuale di disoccupazione e al fatto che la maggioranza dei cittadini vive al di sotto della soglia di povertà, ha indotto i governi Africani a diversificare l'economia dall’esportazione di materie prime, incoraggiando l’instaurarsi di meccanismi di crescita economica interna, che potrebbero ridurre l'incidenza della povertà attraverso la creazione di posti di lavoro e allo stesso tempo aumentare il tenore di vita della popolazione in generale.

L'imprenditorialità si configura una soluzione concreta per tale diversificazione in quanto ha svolto e continua a svolgere un ruolo centrale nella crescita economica di molti paesi che non sono dotati di risorse naturali. Essa può essere considerata come una fonte vitale per la crescita economica e la competitività nell'economia globale moderna, se opportunamente guidata e supportata. Si osserva come le politiche pubbliche nei paesi Africani siano indirizzate principalmente alla privatizzazione delle imprese statali e al sostegno alle Piccole e Medie Imprese (PMI). Finora queste politiche sono state per lo più inefficaci sia perché sono mal progettate, sia perché non effettivamente applicate nella maggior parte dei casi. La ricerca sulle politiche di imprenditorialità e sugli ecosistemi imprenditoriali in Africa, che potrebbero essere utili ai policymaker, è invece molto limitata. Inoltre si presume che quasi tutti i paesi del continente africano siano in ritardo nella formulazione e attuazione di adeguate politiche di imprenditorialità, che potrebbero alimentare un ecosistema imprenditoriale specifico per ogni paese, determinando così una crescita economica sostenibile. Per colmare queste lacune, questa ricerca esplorativa si propone di valutare lo stato attuale degli ambienti imprenditoriali e le ‘policies’ che riguardano lo sviluppo imprenditoriale dei paesi in Africa. In particolare, l'obiettivo principale di questa tesi è quello di analizzare gli ambienti imprenditoriali, le ‘policies’ e gli ecosistemi per migliorare lo sviluppo delle strutture politiche a favore dell'imprenditorialità e delle strutture degli ecosistemi imprenditoriali, per contribuire nello steso tempo alla letteratura accademica sulla disciplina imprenditoriale. Le due domande di ricerca principali individuate con la revisione della letteratura sono:
Quale è l'impatto degli ecosistemi imprenditoriali sugli imprenditori nei paesi selezionati?
Come possono gli ecosistemi imprenditoriali nei paesi africani essere rafforzate con le policies di imprenditorialità per raggiungere una crescita economica sostenibile?
Poiché si tratta di una ricerca esplorativa, che vuole investigare diversi paesi dell’Africa, la metodologia di ricerca segue l'approccio del caso studio multiplo. Dieci paesi sono stati inizialmente selezionati tramite il processo di analisi gerarchica, ma il campione di interesse è successivamente stato limitato a due (i.e. Nigeria e Sierra Leone), in quanto questi paesi hanno manifestato attivo interesse per la ricerca. Entrambi i paesi si trovano agli estremi dello spettro economico dell'Africa.
Per realizzare lo studio, E’ stato utilizzato un approccio di metodi misti con un campionamento mirato. I dati sono stati analizzati utilizzando statistiche descrittive e un approccio induttivo generale. Per entrambi i paesi selezionati, l’analisi dei risultati ha permesso di individuare le strutture di imprenditorialità e gli ecosistemi imprenditoriali sviluppati. Queste strutture dinamiche, quando efficacemente attuate, possono costituire i principali pilastri per avviare e sostenere il tipo di imprenditorialità che potrebbe produrre la crescita economica imprenditoriale stabile e sostenibile.
Poiché la ricerca sulle dinamiche imprenditoriali si è finora concentrata soprattutto nel mondo sviluppato, questo lavoro ha contribuito al crescente corpo di conoscenze su questi temi, poiché la ricerca si è focalizzata nei paesi meno sviluppati, e i risultati hanno consentito qualche interpretazione originale. Si tratta di un fattore cruciale dal momento che le policy imprenditoriali spesso si basano su recenti scoperte accademiche, grazie a una disciplina che è di natura multidimensionale e fin dagli albori ha eluso una esatta e precisa definizione.

Aggiungi a RefWorks
Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Muffatto, Moreno
Correlatore:Cooper, Sarah
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 26 > Scuole 26 > INGEGNERIA GESTIONALE ED ESTIMO
Data di deposito della tesi:27 Gennaio 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:27 Gennaio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Entrepreneurial economy; Entrepreneurship policies; Entrepreneurship ecosystems; Africa
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 09 - Ingegneria industriale e dell'informazione > ING-IND/35 Ingegneria economico-gestionale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale
Codice ID:7598
Depositato il:10 Nov 2015 11:10
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

ABDULLAHI, S. A. (2012) Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: An Analysis of Impact of Public Policy On Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Business and Management 6-7 September, 2012. Phuket, Thailand. Cerca con Google

ACKOFF, R. K. and EMERY, F. E. (1972) On purposeful systems. Chicago. Aldine Cerca con Google

ACS, Z. J. (2006) How is Entrepreneurship Good for Economic Growth. Innovations; Technology, Governance, Globalization, 1 (1), pp. 97-107. Cerca con Google

ACS, Z. J. (2010) High-impact entrepreneurship. In: ACS, Z. J., AUDRETSCH, D. B. (eds.). Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research. An Interdisciplinary Survey and Introduction. Springer, New York, pp. 165–182. Cerca con Google

ACS, Z. J. and AUDRETSCH, D. B. (1993) Small Firms and Entrepreneurship: An East-West Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

ACS, Z. J. and AUDRETSCH, D. B. (2003) Innovation and technological change, In: ACS, Z. J. and AUDRETSCH, D.B (eds.). Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 55–79. Cerca con Google

ACS, Z. J., AUTIO, E. and SZERB, L. (2013) National Systems of Entrepreneurship: Measurement Issues and Policy Implications [Online] GMU School of Public Policy Research Paper No. 2012-08. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2008160 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2008160 [Accessed 06/10/2014] Vai! Cerca con Google

ACS, Z. J. and VIRGILL, N. (2009) Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries. Jena Economic Research Papers 2009-023 Cerca con Google

ADEBOYE, T. (1997) Models of Innovation and Sub-Saharan Africa’s Development Tragedy Technology Analysis & Strategic Management, (2), pp. 213-235. Cerca con Google

African Development Bank summary report on infrastructure and growth in Sierra Leone (2011) Cerca con Google

AFRICAN ECONOMIC OUTLOOK (2013) Structural Transformation and Natural Resources. African Development Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Development Program, Economic Commission for Africa. Cerca con Google

AFRICAN ECONOMIC OUTLOOK (2014) Regional Edition / West Africa. African Development Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Development Program. Cerca con Google

AFRICAN ECONOMIC OUTLOOK (2014) Global Value Chains and Africa’s Industrialization. African Development Bank, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, United Nations Development Program. Cerca con Google

ALAMINE, O. (2006) Entrepreneurship in Africa. New African, 457, 84. Cerca con Google

ALBY, P. and AURIOL E. (2011) Social Barriers to Entrepreneurship in Africa: The Forced Mutual Help Hypothesis. Cerca con Google

ALDRICH, H and ZIMMER, C. (1986) Entrepreneurship through social networks. In: SEXTON, D. L. and SMILOR, R. W. (eds.). The art and science of entrepreneurship. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger Publishing, pp. 2-23. Cerca con Google

ALDRICH, H. E. (1979) Organizations and environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall Cerca con Google

ALDRICH, H. E. (1999) Organizations Evolving. London: Sage. Cerca con Google

ALDRICH, H. E. and FIOL, C. M. (1994) Fools rush in? The institutional context of industry creation. Academy of Management Review, 19 (4), pp. 645–670. Cerca con Google

ALLEN, P. M. (2001) A complex systems approach to learning in adaptive networks. International Journal of Innovation Management, 5 (2), pp. 149-180. Cerca con Google

ALVESSON, M. and DEETZ, S. (2000) Doing Critical Management Research, Sage. London. Cerca con Google

AMIT, R., GLOSTEN, L, and MULLER, E. (1993) Challenges to theory development in entrepreneurship research. Journal of Management Studies, 30 (5), pp. 0022-2280. Cerca con Google

ARENIUS, P. M. (2002) Creation of firm-level social capital, its exploitation, and the process of early internationalization. [Online] (Doctoral dissertation, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo). Available from http://www.tuta.hut.fi/units/Isib/research/bg/Arenius2002.pdf [Accessed:12/04/2012]. Vai! Cerca con Google

ARIKAN, A. T. (2010) Regional Entrepreneurial Transformation: A Complex Systems Perspective. Journal of Small Business and Management, 48 (2), pp. 152-173. Cerca con Google

ARIYO, D. (2005) Small firms are the backbone of the Nigerian economy. [Online] Available from: http://www.africaeconomicanalysis.org [Accessed: 19/10/2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

ARTHUR, W. B. (1988) Self-reinforcing mechanisms in economies. In: ANDERSON, P. W., ARROW, K. J. and PINES, D. (eds.). The Economy as an Evolving Complex System. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, pp. 9-32. Cerca con Google

ARTHUR, W. B. (1994) On the evolution of complexity. In: COWEN, G. A. et al, (eds.). Complexity, Metaphors, Models and Reality. SFI Studies in the Science of Complexity, Proc. New York Addison-Wesley. 19, pp. 65-82. Cerca con Google

ARY, D., JACOBS, L. C., and SORENSON, C. (2010) Introduction to research in education (8th ed). California: Thomson Wadsworth. Cerca con Google

AUDRETSCH, D. B. (2003). Entrepreneurship policy and the strategic management of places, In: HART, D. M. (ed.) The emergence of entrepreneurship policy – governance, start-ups, and growth in the U.S. knowledge economy, Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

AUDRETSCH, D. B. (2010) Sustaining Innovation and Growth: Public Policy Support for Entrepreneurship. Industry and Innovation, 11 (3), pp. 167-191. [Online] Available from http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1366271042000265366 [Accessed 20/06/2012] Vai! Cerca con Google

AUDRETSCH, D. B. and KEILBACH, M. (2003) Entrepreneurship capital and economic performance. Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper DP3678, London: CEPR. Cerca con Google

AUDRETSCH, D. B. and THURIK, A. R. (2004) A Model of the Entrepreneurial Economy. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 2 (2), pp. 143-66. Cerca con Google

AUDRETSCH, D. B., GRILO, I. and Thurik, R. A. (2007) Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship Policy, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. Cerca con Google

AUDRETSCH, D. B., KEILBACH, M. C. and LEHMANN, E. E. (2006) Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. Oxford Scholarship Online . Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

AUSTIN, G. (2010) African Economic Development and Colonial legacies. International Development Policy Series. Cerca con Google

AVAN, B. I. and WHITE, F. (2001) The Proposition: An insight into research. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association [online] Available from http://www.jpma.org.pk/full_article_text.php? article_id=2499 [Accessed 06/08/2014]. Vai! Cerca con Google

AZAM, J. P., FOSU, A. and NDUNGU, N. S. (2002) Explaining slow growth in Africa. African Development Review, 14 (2), pp. 177-220. Cerca con Google

BAILEY, H. (2007) Entrepreneurial spirit as a Crucial driver for Development and Cooperation Discussion paper Nr. 2007-1 Wittenberg Centre for Global Ethics. Cerca con Google

BANNON, I. and COLLIER, P. (2003) Natural Resources and Conflict: What Can We Do. In: BANNON, I and COLLIER, P. (eds.). Natural Resources and Violent Conflict: Options and Actions. The World Bank, pp. 1-16. Cerca con Google

BARTH, F. (1967) On the Study of Social Change. American Anthropologist (new series), 69 (6), pp. 661-669. [Online] Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1504509. [Accessed, 02/04/2012]. Vai! Cerca con Google

BASKERVILLE, R. F. (2003), Hofstede Never Studied Culture. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 28 (1), pp. 1-14. Cerca con Google

BAUM, J. A. C. (1996) Organizational Ecology. In: CLEGG, S., HARDY, C. and Nord, W. (eds.). Handbook of Organization Studies. London: Sage, pp. 77–114. Cerca con Google

BAUM, J. R. and LOCKE, E. A. (2004) The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, pp.587-598. Cerca con Google

BAUMOL, W. J. (1968) Entrepreneurship in Economic Theory. [Online] The American Economic Review. 58 (2), pp. 64-71. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1506344 [Accessed 07/04/2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

BAUMOL, W. J. (1990) Entrepreneurship: Productive, unproductive and destructive. Journal of political economy, 98 (5), 893-921. Cerca con Google

BERNER, E., GOMEZ, G. and KNORRINGA, P. (2008) Helping a Large Number of People Becoming A Little Less Poor: the Logic of Survival Entrepreneurs. UNU-WIDER Workshop on Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, Helsinki, Finland. Cerca con Google

BERRY, A. J. and OTLEY, D. T. (2004) Case-Based Research in Accounting. In: HUMPREY, C. and LEE, B. (eds.). The Real Life Guide to Accounting Research: A Behind-The-Scenes View of Using Qualitative Research Methods, Elsevier, Oxford. Cerca con Google

BEVAN, P. (1997) Small Scale Enterprises in Ethiopia Adding a Sociological Dimension to Economic Research. Working Paper, Center for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), Oxford. Cerca con Google

BHIDÉ, A.V. (2000) The Origin and Evolution of New Businesses, Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

BIRCH, D. L. (1979) The job generation process. Cambridge, MA: MIT Program on Neighborhood and Regional Change. Cerca con Google

BIRLEY, S. (1985) The role of networks in the entrepreneurial process. Journal of Business Venturing, 1 (1), pp. 107-117. Cerca con Google

BJERREGAARD, T. and LAURING, J. (2012) Entrepreneurship as Institutional Change: Strategies of Bridging Institutional Contradictions. European Management Review, 9, pp.31-43. Cerca con Google

BLEWITT, J. (2006) The ecology of learning: sustainability, lifelong learning, and everyday life, Sterling, VA, Earthscan. Cerca con Google

BLOOM, B. N. and DEES, G. (2008) Cultivate your ecosystem Stanford Social Innovation Review, Stanford Graduate School of Business. Cerca con Google

BOETTKE, P. J. (20079 Editorial: Entrepreneurial Response to Poverty and Social Conflict: The Enterprise Africa Project. Journal Compilation, Institute of Economic Affairs. Cerca con Google

BOHM, D. (1957) Causality and chance in Modern Physics. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. Cerca con Google

BOISSEVAIN, J. (1973) Preface. In: BOISSEVAIN, J. and MITCHELL, J. C. (eds.). Network analysis studies in human interaction, Netherlands: Mouton and Co., pp. vii-xiii. Cerca con Google

BOLTON, W. K and THOMPSON, J. L. (2000) Entrepreneurs: Talent, Temperament, Technique. Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford, U.K. Cerca con Google

BOONE, H. N. and BOONE, D. A. (2012) Analyzing Likert Data. Journal of Extension 50 (2). Cerca con Google

BORGATTI, S. P. and HALGIN, D. S. (2011) On Network Theory. Organization Science, Articles in Advance. pp. 1-14. Cerca con Google

BOSKER, M. and GARRETSON, H. (2008) Economic Geography and Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa. Cesifo Working Paper No. 2490. Cerca con Google

BOWEN, H. and DE CLERCQ, D. (2008). Institutional Context and the Allocation of Entrepreneurial Effort. The Journal of Political Economy, 98(5), 893-921. Cerca con Google

BRANCATO, G. et al. (2006) Handbook of Recommended Practices for Questionnaire Development and Testing in the European Statistical System. European Commission Grant Agreement 200410300002. Cerca con Google

BRAUNERHJELM, P. (2010) Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Growth-past experience, current knowledge and policy implications. CESIS Electronic Working Papers Series, No.224. [Online] The Royal Institute of Technology. Available from http://www.cesis.se [Accessed: 12/05/2013] Vai! Cerca con Google

BRIXIOVA, Z. (2010) Unlocking Productive Entrepreneurship in Africa’s Least Developed Countries. Africa Development Review, 22 (3), pp. 440-451. Cerca con Google

BROCK, W. A. and EVANS, D. S. (1989) Small business economics. Small Business Economics 1 (1), pp. 7-20. Cerca con Google

BRUNO, A.V. and TYEBJEE, T. T. (1982) The environment for entrepreneurship. In: KENT, C. A., SEXTON, D. L. and VESPER, K. H. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, pp. 288–307. Cerca con Google

BRUTON, G. D., AHLSTOM, D. and OBLOJ, K. (2008) Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies: Where Are We Today and Where Should the Research Go in the Future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 1042-2587. Cerca con Google

BRUTON, G. D., AHLSTROM, D. and LI, H.-L. (2010) Institutional theory and entrepreneurship: where are we now and where do we need to move in the future? Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34 (3), pp. 421–440. Cerca con Google

BRYMAN, A. (2008) Social research methods 3rd. Ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press Cerca con Google

BURRELL, G. and MORGAN, G. (1979) Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis. London: Heinemann Educational Books. Cerca con Google

BURNARD, P. (1994) Searching for meaning: a method of analyzing interview transcripts with a personal computer. Nurse Education Today, 14, pp 111-117. Cerca con Google

BURRELL, G. and MORGAN, G. (2003) Sociological paradigms and organisational analysis. Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Limited (12th reprint). Cerca con Google

BURT, R. (1992) Structural holes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Cerca con Google

BUSENITZ, L. W., GÒMEZ, C. and SPENCER, J. W. (2000) Country Institutional Profiles: Unlocking Entrepreneurial Phenomena. Academy of Management Journal, 43 (5), pp. 994-1003. Cerca con Google

BYGRAVE, W. and HOFER, C. (1991) Theorizing about entrepreneurship, Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16 (2), pp. 13‐22. Cerca con Google

CAI, L. et al. (2012) A general review of entrepreneurship research (1998 to 2010): Theoretical implications, management applications, and future research directions. African Journal of Business Management, 6 (2), pp. 474-492. Cerca con Google

CARLSSON, B. et al. (2013) The evolving domain of entrepreneurship research. Small Business Economics, 41, pp.913-930. Cerca con Google

CARREE, M. A. and THURIK, A. R. (2002) The Impact of Entrepreneurship on Economic Growth. In: ACS, Z. J. and AUDRETSCH, D. B. (eds.). International Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Cerca con Google

CARREE, M. A. and THURIK, A. R. (2010) The Impact of Entrepreneurship on Economic Growth. In: ACS, Z. J. and AUDRETSCH, D. B. (eds.). Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, International Handbook Series on Entrepreneurship 5, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-1191-9_20. Cerca con Google

CARTER. S and WILTON. W (2006) Don’t blame the entrepreneur, blame the government: The centrality of government enterprise development; lessons from enterprise failure in Zimbabwe. Journal of Enterprising Culture 14 (1) pp.65 DOI: 10.1142/S0218495806000052. Cerca con Google

CASSON, M. C. (1982) The Entrepreneur: An Economic Theory. [Online] University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1496173 [Accessed 14/03/2013] Vai! Cerca con Google

CAVES, R. (1982) Multinational Enterprise and Economic Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

CHANDLER, A. D. (1977) The Visible Hand: The Managerial Revolution in American Business, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Cerca con Google

CHANDLER, A. D. (1990) Scale and Scope: The Dynamics of Industrial Capitalism, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Cerca con Google

CHELL, E. and PITTAWAY, L. (1998) The social constructionism of entrepreneurship. In: Proceedings of the ISBA National Small Firms Conference, Durham University, November 18–20. Cerca con Google

CHILES, T. H., MEYER, A. D. and HENCH, T. J. (2004) Organizational Emergence: The Origin and Transformation of Branson, Missouri’s Musical Theatres. Organization Science, 15, pp.499–519. Cerca con Google

CHISHOLM, D. et al (2014) Increasing Innovation-driven Entrepreneurship in Scotland through Collective Impacts. REAP Report. Highlands and Islands Enterprise/Scottish Enterprise [Online] Available from: http//www.hie.co.uk. [Accessed: 6/01/2015]. Vai! Cerca con Google

CHU, H. M., KARA, O. and BENZING, C. (2010) An empirical study of Nigerian entrepreneurs: success, motivations, problems, and stress. International Journal of Business Research. [Online] Available: from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_6773/is_2_8/ai_n31121252/. [Accessed: 18/10/2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

CHU, M. (2009) Getting Microfinance Right: Loaning to the very poorest gives reason for optimism. [Online] Available from http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/22/poverty-microfinance-world-bank-opinionscontributors-latin-america.html, [Accessed, 30/01/ 2010]. Vai! Cerca con Google

CHUKWUEMEKA, C., NZEWI, A., and OKIGBO (2008) Public Policy and Entrepreneurship in Nigeria: Addressing Immediate Pathological Problems. Paper presented at an International Conference on Entrepreneurship organized by Chike Okoli Centre for Entrepreneurial Studies, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka, Nigeria. Cerca con Google

CLARK, S. J. and DESHARNAIS, R. A. (1998) Honest Answers to Embarrassing Questions: Detecting Cheating in the Randomized Response Model. Psychological Methods, 3 (2), pp. 160-168. Cerca con Google

CLASON, D. L. and DORMODY, T. J. (1994) Analysing data measured individual Likert-type items. Journal of Agricultural Education 35 (4), pp. 31-35. Cerca con Google

COHEN, B. (2006) Sustainable Valley Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. Business Strategy and the Environment, 15 (1), pp. 1-14. Cerca con Google

COHEN, W. M. and KLEPPER, S. (1992) The trade-off between firm size and diversity in the pursuit of technological progress. Small Business Economics, 4, pp. 1-14. Cerca con Google

COLEMAN, J. (2000) Social capital in the creation of human capital. In: DASGUPTA, P and SERAGELDIN, J. (eds.). Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank: Washington, D.C., pp. 13-39. Cerca con Google

COLLIER, P. (2002) Primary Commodity Dependence and Africa’s Future. [Online] The World Bank Available from http://info.worldbank.org/etools/docs/library/df [Accessed: 08/08/2014]. Vai! Cerca con Google

COLLIER, P. (2007) Africa’s Economic Growth: Opportunities and Constraints. Centre for the Study of African Economies. Department of Economics, Oxford University, U.K. Cerca con Google

COURT, J. and MAXWELL, S. (2005) Policy Entrepreneurship for Poverty Reduction: Bridging Research and Policy in International Development. Journal of International Development, vol. 17, pp. 713-725. Cerca con Google

CRESPI, L. P. (1945) The cheater problem in polling. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 9, pp. 431-445. Cerca con Google

CRESWELL, J. W., PLANO CLARK, V. L., GUTMANN, M., and HANSON, W. (2003). Advanced mixed methods research designs. In: TASHAKKORI, A. and TEDDLIE, C. (eds.). Handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research. pp. 209-240. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cerca con Google

CURRAN, J. and BLACKBURN, R. (2001) Researching the small enterprise. London, UK: Sage. Cerca con Google

DANA, L. P. (1987) Entrepreneurship and venture creation-An international comparison of five commonwealth nations. In: CHURCHILL, N. C. et al. (eds.) Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research Wellesley: MA Babson College, pp.573-583. Cerca con Google

DAVIDSSON, P. (1991) Continued entrepreneurship. Ability, need and opportunity as determinants of small firm growth. Journal of Business venturing, 6, pp. 405-429. Cerca con Google

DAVIDSSON, P. (2003). The domain of entrepreneurship research: Some suggestions. In: J. KATZ, J. and SHEPHERD, D. (eds.). Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence and growth (Vol. 6, pp. 315–372). Oxford, UK: Elsevier/JAI Press. Cerca con Google

DAVIDSSON, P. and WIKLUND, J. (2001) Levels of analysis in entrepreneurship research: Current research practice and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25 (4), pp. 81-100. Cerca con Google

DAVIDSSON, P., LOW, M. and WRIGHT, M. (2001) Editorial: Low and Macmillan ten years on –Achievements and future directions of entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 25 (4), pp.5 Cerca con Google

DE LEEUW, E. D. and HOX, J. J. (1994) Are inconsistent respondents consistently inconsistent? A study of several nonparametric person fit indices. In: HOX, J. J. and JANSEN, W. (eds.). Measurement problems in social and behavioral research. Amsterdam: SCO-KI. Cerca con Google

DELGADO, M., PORTER, M. E. and STERN, S. (2007) Clusters, Convergence and Economic Performance. manuscript. Cerca con Google

DING, Y. (2003) Impacts of Affluence and Overexploitation of Natural Resources. In Environment and Development. Encyclopaedia of life support systems 1. Cerca con Google

DOOLEY, K. J. (1997) A Complex Adaptive Systems Model of Organizational Change. Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology and Life Sciences. Vol.1 No.1. Cerca con Google

DRORI, G. S. (2003) Loose Coupling in National Science: Policy versus Practice. In: DRORI, G. S. et al. (eds.). Science in the Modern World Polity: Institutionalization and Globalization, Stanford University Press. Cerca con Google

DURU, M. (2011) Entrepreneurship opportunities and challenges in Nigeria. Business and Management Review. 1 (1) pp. 41-48. Cerca con Google

DUTZ, M. A., ORDOVER, J. A. and WILLIG, R. D. (2000) Entrepreneurship, access policy and economic development: Lessons from industrial organization. European Economic Review, 44, pp. 739-747. Cerca con Google

E’ONYEMENAM, C. (2004) Firm Level Competitiveness in Nigeria. Paper presented at the ODI-NESG Seminar on Maximizing pro-poor growth: regenerating the socio-economic database in Nigeria June 15-16, 2004. City University, Northampton Square, London, UK. Cerca con Google

ECONOMIC COMMISSION FOR AFRICA (ECA) (2011) Economic Commission for Africa Map. [Map] Department of Field Support Cartographic Section. United Nations. Cerca con Google

EHRENFELD, J. R. (2000) Industrial ecology: Paradigm shift or normal science? The American Behavioral Scientist, 44, pp. 229-245. Cerca con Google

EHWARIEME, W. (2010) Politics and the Competitiveness of the Nigerian Economy. Journal of Social Science. 23 (1) pp. 39-44. Cerca con Google

EISENHARDT, K. M. (1989) Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), pp. 532-550. Cerca con Google

EKELEDO, I. and BEWAYO, E. D. (2009) Challenges and opportunities facing African entrepreneurs and their small firms. International Journal of Business Research, 9 (3). Cerca con Google

ELKAN, W. (1988) Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship in Africa. Research Observer, 3 (2). Cerca con Google

EL-NAMAKI, M. S. S. (1988) Encouraging entrepreneurs in developing countries. Long Range Planning, 21 (4), pp. 98–106. Cerca con Google

ERICKSON, P. I. and KAPLAN, C. P. (2000) Maximising qualitative responses about smoking in structured interviews. Qualitative Health Research.10, pp.829-840. Cerca con Google

ETEMAD, H. (2004) International Entrepreneurship as a Dynamic Open Complex Adaptive System: Towards a Grounded Theory. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 2, pp. 5-59. Cerca con Google

Evening Post, Administrative Science Quarterly, 21, pp. 185-211. Cerca con Google

FAYOLLE, A. (2011) Necessity Entrepreneurship and Job Insecurity: The Hidden Face of Entrepreneurship. International Journal of E-Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2 (3), pp. 1-10. Cerca con Google

FAYOLLE, A. and LASSAS-CLERC, N. (2006) Essay on the nature of entrepreneurship education. In: FUEGLISTALLER, U et al (eds.). Understanding the Regulatory Climate for Entrepreneurship and SME, KMU Verlag HSG, St. Gallen. Cerca con Google

FEILZER, M. Y. (2010) Doing mixed methods research pragmatically: Implications for the rediscovery of pragmatism as a research paradigm. Journal of Mixed Methods Research. 4, pp. 6-16. Cerca con Google

FELDMAN, M. P. (2001) The Entrepreneurial Event Revisited: Firm Formation in a Regional Context. Industrial and Corporate Change, 10, pp. 861–891. Cerca con Google

FICK, D. (2002) Entrepreneurship in Africa: A Study of Successes. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Cerca con Google

FINLAY, L. (2006) ‘Rigour’, ‘ethical integrity’ or ‘artistry’? Reflexively reviewing criteria for evaluating qualitative research. The British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 69 (7), pp. 319-326. Cerca con Google

FOGEL, K., HAWK, A. and YEUNG, B. (2006) Institutional Obstacles to Entrepreneurship. In: CASSON, M. et al, (eds.). Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurship. Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

FORRESTER, J. (1958) Industrial dynamics: A major breakthrough for decision-making. Harvard Business Review, 36, (4), pp. 37-66. Cerca con Google

FORZA, C. (2002) Survey research in operations management: A process-based perspective. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 22 (2), pp. 152-194. Cerca con Google

FRESE, M. (ed). (2000) Success and failure of micro business owners in Africa. A psychological approach. Westport, CT: Quorum Books. Cerca con Google

FRYE, T. and SHLEIFER, A. (1997) The invisible hand and the grabbing hand. American Economic Review Vol.87 (2) 354-358. Cerca con Google

FULLER, T. and MORAN, P. (2001) Small enterprises as complex adaptive systems: A methodological question? Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 13, pp. 47-63. Cerca con Google

GABBAY, S. M., and LEENDERS, R. Th. A. J. (1999) CSC: The structure of advantage and disadvantage. In: LEENDERS, R. Th. A. J. and S. M. GABBAY, S. M. (eds.). Corporate Social Capital and Liability: pp. 1-14. Boston: Kluwer Academic Press. Cerca con Google

GABR, H. M. and HOFFMAN, A. (2006) A General Policy Framework for Entrepreneurship, FORA - Ministry of Economic and Business Affairs’ Division for Research and Analysis, Copenhagen, Denmark. Cerca con Google

GANNE, B. and LECLER, Y. (2009) From Industrial Districts to Poles of Competitiveness. In: GANNE, B. and LECLER, Y. (eds). Asian Industrial Clusters, Global Competitiveness and New Policy Initiatives, Singapore: World Scientific. Cerca con Google

GARDNER, M. (2005) Linking activism: ecology, social justice, and education for social change. New York, NY: Routledge. Cerca con Google

GARTNER, W. B. (1985) A Conceptual Framework for Describing the Phenomenon of New Venture Creation. Academic of Management Review, 10 (4), pp. 696-706. Cerca con Google

GEDEON, S. (2010) What is Entrepreneurship? Entrepreneurial Practice Review, 1 (3). Cerca con Google

GERLACH, J. R. and GARRA, C. (n.d.) Those Missing Values in Questionnaires. Maxim Group and IMS HEALTH, Plymouth Meeting, PA. Cerca con Google

GERRING, J. (2004) What is a Case Study and What Is It Good for? American Political Science Review, 98 (2), pp.341-354. Cerca con Google

GERRING, J. (2007) Case study research: Principles and practices. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

GHAURI, P. (2004) Designing and conducting case studies in international business research. In: MARSCHAN-PIEKKARI, R. and WELCH, C. (eds.). Handbook of qualitative research methods for international business. pp. 109-124. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar. Cerca con Google

GILBERT, B. A., AUDRETSCH, D. B, and MCDOUGALL, P. (2003) The emergence of entrepreneurship policy. Small Business Economics, 22, pp. 313-323. Cerca con Google

GILMORE, A. and CARSON, D. (1996) “Integrative” qualitative methods in a services context. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 14 (6), pp. 21-26. Cerca con Google

GIVEN, L. M. (ed.) (2008) The Sage Encyclopedia of Qualitative Research Methods. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA. 2, pp.697‐698. Cerca con Google

GLASER, B.G. and STRAUSS, A.L. (1967) The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. Adline, Chicago. Cerca con Google

GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS INDEX (2014) The Global Competitiveness Report 2013–2014: Full Data Edition. World Economic Forum. Cerca con Google

GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2013) Country List Ranked by name of country. Cerca con Google

GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP MONITOR (2012) African Entrepreneurship. Sub Saharan Africa Regional Report GEM: IDRC; Canada. Cerca con Google

GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP MONITOR (2013) Fifteen Years of assessing entrepreneurship across the globe. Global report 2013. Cerca con Google

GNYAWALI, D. and FOGEL, D. (1994) Environments for entrepreneurship development: key dimensions and research implications. Entrepreneurship, Theory and Practice, 18, 4: 43-62. Cerca con Google

GOULDNER, A. (1964) Patterns of Industrial Bureaucracy. Free Press, New York. Cerca con Google

GOVERNMENT OF SIERRA LEONE (n.d) The Agenda for Prosperity: Road to Middle Income Status. Cerca con Google

GRANOVETTER, M. (1985) Economic action and social structure: The problem of embeddedness. American Journal of Sociology, 91, pp. 481-510. Cerca con Google

GRANT, P. and PERREN, L. (2002) Small business and entrepreneurial research: meta-theories, paradigms and prejudices. International Small Business Journal, 20 (2), pp. 185-211. Cerca con Google

GREEN, F. J., MOLE, K. and STOREY, D. (2007) Three Decades of Enterprise Culture? Entrepreneurship, Economic Regeneration and Public Policy. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. Cerca con Google

GROEN, A. J. (2005) Knowledge Intensive Entrepreneurship in Networks: Towards a Multi-Level/Multi Dimensional Approach. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 13 (1), pp. 69-88. Cerca con Google

GROSSMAN, G. and HELPMAN, E. (1991) Innovation and Growth in the Global Economy. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. Cerca con Google

GULATI, R. (1998) Alliances and Networks. Strategic Management Journal, 19, pp. 393-417. Cerca con Google

HALL R. I. (1976) A system pathology of an organization: The rise and fall of the Saturday Cerca con Google

HALL, J. et al. (2012) Entrepreneurship and Innovation at the Base of the Pyramid: A Recipe for Inclusive Growth or Social Exclusion? Journal of Management Studies, (49) 4. Cerca con Google

HALL, R. (2012) Mixed methods: In search of a paradigm. [Online] Vortrag. Available from: http://www. auamii. com/proceedings_Phuket_2012/Hall. pdf. [Accessed: 10/03/ 2013] Vai! Cerca con Google

HANNAN, M. T. and FREEMAN, J. (1977) The population ecology of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82, pp. 929-964. Cerca con Google

HANNAN, M. T. and FREEMAN, J. (1989) Organizational Ecology. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press. Cerca con Google

HARRISON, D. E. and KRAUSS, S. I. (2002) Interviewer Cheating: Implications for Research on Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7 (3), pp. 319-330. Cerca con Google

HASSARD, J. (1991) Multiple paradigms and organizational analysis: a case study. Organization Studies, 12 (2), pp. 275-99. Cerca con Google

HAYEK, F. A. (1945) The Use of Knowledge in Society. American Economic Review, 35, pp. 519-30. Cerca con Google

HAYLES, N. K. (1991) Introduction: Complex dynamics in science and literature. In: HAYLES, N. K. (ed.). Chaos and order: Complex dynamics in literature and science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, pp. 1-36. Cerca con Google

HÉBERT, R. F. and LINK, A. N. (1989) In search of the meaning of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics. 1, pp. 39-49. Cerca con Google

HENREKSON, M. and SANANDAJI, T. (2010) The interaction of entrepreneurship and institutions. IFN Working Paper, No. 830. Research Institute of Industrial Economics. Cerca con Google

HERNÀNDEZ-VARGAS, J. G. (2010) The role of government in enhancing entrepreneurship of small and medium enterprises for economic growth. Rivista da Micro e Pequena Empresa. 4 (3), pp. 40-52. Cerca con Google

HILL, P. (1970) Studies in rural capitalism in West Africa. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

HILLEBRAND, B., KOK, R. A. W., and BIEMANS, W. G. (2001) Theory-testing using case studies: A comment on Johnston, Leach, and Liu. Industrial Marketing Management, 30 (8), pp. 651-657. Cerca con Google

HJORTH, D., JONES, C., and GARTNER, W. B. (2008) Recreating/recontextualising entrepreneurship. Scandinavian Journal of Management, 21, 81-84. Cerca con Google

HOLBROOK, D. et al. (2000) The nature, sources, and consequences of firm differences in the early history of the semiconductor industry. Strategic Management Journal, 21, pp. 1017-1041. Cerca con Google

HOLBROOK, M. (2003) Adventure in Complexity: An Essay on Dynamic Open Adaptive Systems, Butterfly Effects, Self-organizing Order, Coevolution, the Ecological Perspective, Fitness Landscape, Market Spaces, Emergent Beauty at the Edge of Chaos and All That Jazz. Academy of Marketing Sciences. (6) [Online] Available at http://www.amserview.org/articles/hobrook06-2003.pdf. [Accessed 09/10/2012]. Vai! Cerca con Google

HOLCOMBE, R. G. (1998) Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics, 1 (2), pp. 45-62. Cerca con Google

HOLM, P. (1995) The dynamics of institutionalization: Transformation processes in Norwegian fisheries. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40 (3), pp. 398-422. Cerca con Google

HOLTZ-EAKIN, D. (2000) Public Policy Towards Entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 15 pp. 283-291. Cerca con Google

HOWORTH, C. and TEMPEST, S. (2003) Reloading the matrix: the case for multiple paradigm methodologies in entrepreneurship research. Discussion paper, Nottingham University Business School, Nottingham. Cerca con Google

HOWORTH, C. TEMPEST, S. and COUPLAND, C. (2005) Rethinking entrepreneurship methodology and definitions of the entrepreneur. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 12 (1), pp. 24-40. Cerca con Google

HOY, F. (1989) Editorial: Audiences for entrepreneurship research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 13 (3), pp 5-6. Cerca con Google

HOZSELITZ, B. F. (1951) The Early History of Entrepreneurial Theory Explorations in Entrepreneurial History, 3 (4), 193-220. Cerca con Google

HUBBARD, R. G. and DUGGAN, W. (2009) The Aid Trap: Hard Truths about Ending Poverty. New York: Columbia University Press. Cerca con Google

HULME, D. (2007) Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research for Country Case Studies of Development. [Online] Global Poverty Research Group. Available from: http://www.gprg.org/ [Accessed: 15/10/2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

HUNTER, M. (2012) On some of the misconceptions about entrepreneurship. Economics, Management and Financial Markets, 7 (2), pp.54-104. Cerca con Google

INTERNATIONAL TRADE DEPARTMENT (2009) Clusters for Competitiveness: A Practical Guide and Policy Implications for Developing Cluster Initiatives. The World Bank. Cerca con Google

ISENBERG, D. (2010) The Big Idea: How to start an Entrepreneurial Revolution. Harvard Business Review. Cerca con Google

ISENBERG, D. (2011) The Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Strategy as a New Paradigm for economic Policy: Principles for Cultivating Entrepreneurship. The Babson Entrepreneurship Ecosystem Project. Cerca con Google

JACKSON, K. M. and TROCHIM, W. M. K. (2002) Concept Mapping as an Alternative Approach for the Analysis of Open-Ended Survey Responses. Organizational Research Methods. 5 (4), pp. 307-336. Cerca con Google

JACOBS, J. (1969) The Economy of Cities. New York: Random House. Cerca con Google

JALLOH, A. (1999) African Entrepreneurship: Muslim Fula Merchants in Sierra Leone. Ohio University Center for International Studies: Monographs in International Studies. Cerca con Google

JENNINGS, P., PERREN, L. and CARTER, N. M. (2005). Guest Editors' Introduction: Alternative Perspectives on Entrepreneurship Research. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(2), pp.145-152. Cerca con Google

JOHNS, G. (1991). Substantive and methodological constraints on behavior and attitudes in organizational research. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 49, pp. 80-104. Cerca con Google

JOHNS, R. (2010) Likert Items and Scales. Methods Fact Sheet 1. Survey Question Bank. Cerca con Google

JOHNSTON, W. J., LEACH, M. P. and LIU, A. H. (1999) Theory testing using case studies in business-to-business research. Industrial Marketing Management, 28(3), pp. 201-213. Cerca con Google

JONES, S. (1985) The analysis of depth interviews. In: WALKER, R. (ed.). Applied qualitative research. Gower, Aldershot. Cerca con Google

KABONGO, J. D. (2008) The status of entrepreneurship education in colleges and universities in sub-Saharan Africa. In Proceedings of the 39th Annual Meeting of the Decision Sciences Institute. Cerca con Google

KALLON, K. (1990) The Economics of Sierra Leonean Entrepreneurship. Lanham, MD: University Press of America. Cerca con Google

KANTIS, H. D. and FEDERICO, J. S. (2012) Entrepreneurial Ecosystems in Latin America: the role of policies Entrepreneurial Development Programme (PRODEM) – Institute of Industry, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento (Argentina). Cerca con Google

KIGGUNDU, M. N. (2002) Entrepreneurs and Entrepreneurship in Africa: what is Known and What Needs to be Done. Journal of developmental Entrepreneurship, 7 (3). Cerca con Google

KING, K. and MCGRATH, S. (eds.). (1999) Enterprise in Africa: Between Poverty and Growth. London: Intermediate Technology Publications. Cerca con Google

KIRZNER, I. (1973) Competition and Entrepreneurship. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cerca con Google

KISLENKO, K. and GREVHOLM, B (n.d.) The Likert Scale Used in Research on Affect – A short Discussion of Terminology and Appropriate Analysing Methods. University of Tallinn and University of Agder. Cerca con Google

KISS, A. N, DANIS, W. M. and CAVUSGIL, S. T. (2012) International entrepreneurship research in emerging economies: A critical review and research agenda. Journal of Business Venturing, 27, pp. 266-290. Cerca con Google

KNIGHT; F. H. (1921) Risk, Uncertainty and Profit. Boston, MA: Hart Schahhner & Marx Houghton Mifflin Co. Cerca con Google

KOSTOVA, T. (1997) Country institutional profiles concept and measurements Academic of Management, Best paper proceedings 180-189. Cerca con Google

KOVEOS, P. YOUROUGOU, P. and AMOUAKU-ADU, B. (2011) Entrepreneurship in Africa: Editors Notes. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 16 (1), pp. 1-7. Cerca con Google

KOZLOWSKI, S. W. J. and KLEIN, K. J. (2000) A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In: K. J. KLEIN, K. J. and KOZLOWSKI, S. W. J. (eds.). Multilevel theory, research and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions. pp. 3-90. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Cerca con Google

KRUGMAN, P. (1991) Geography and Trade. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Cerca con Google

KSHETRI, N. (2011) Institutional and Economic Foundation of Entrepreneurship in Africa: An Overview. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 16 (1) [Online] Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1947439. [Accessed, 18/07/2012]. Vai! Cerca con Google

KURATKO, D. F. (2009) Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice. (8th Ed). South-Western Cengage Learning. Mason, OH 45040 USA. Cerca con Google

KYVER, K and SCHOTT, T. (2011) How Social Network Structures shape Entrepreneurial Intentions. Journal of Global Entrepreneurship Research, 1 (1), pp. 3-19. Cerca con Google

LADO, A. A and VOZIKIZ, G. S. (1996) Transfer of technology to promote entrepreneurship in developing countries: an integration and proposed framework. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, pp. 55-72. Cerca con Google

LALL, S. (2003) East Asia. In: DUNNING, J. (ed.) Government, Globalization and International Business. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

LANDSTRÖM, H. (2001) Pioneers in Entrepreneurship Research, Lund university School of Economics and Management. Cerca con Google

LANDSTRÖM, H., HARIRCHI, G. and ÅSTRÖM, F. (2011) Entrepreneurship: Exploring the knowledge base. Paper presented at the DIME Final Conference, 6-8 April 2011, Maastricht. Cerca con Google

LARSON, A. L. and STARR, J. A. (1993) A network model of organization formation. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 17 (2), pp. 5-15. Cerca con Google

LEE, S. M. and PETERSON, S. J. (2000) Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness. Journal of World Business, 35 (4), pp.401-416. Cerca con Google

LEHNER, O. M. and KANSIKAS, J. (2011) Social Entrepreneurship Research across Disciplines: Paradigmatic and Methodological Considerations. In: Proceedings of the 3rd. EMES International Research Conference on Social Enterprise. Roskilde University, July 2011. Denmark: Social Innovation through Social Entrepreneurship in Civil Society. Cerca con Google

LERNER, J. (2009) Boulevard of broken dreams: Why public efforts to boost entrepreneurship and venture capital have failed—and what to do about it. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Cerca con Google

LEVIE, J and AUTIO, E. (2011) Regulatory Burden, Rule of Law and Strategic Entry of Entrepreneurs: An International panel study. Journal of Management Studies 48 (6), pp. 1392-1419. Cerca con Google

LIN, N. (1999) Building a network theory of social capital. Connections, 22 (1), pp. 28-51. Cerca con Google

LINCOLN, Y. S. and GUBA, E. (1985) Naturalistic enquiry. Beverley Hills, CA: Sage. Cerca con Google

LINGELBACH, D. C., DE LA VINA, L. and ASEL, P. (2005) What's Distinctive about Growth-Oriented Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries. UTSA College of Business Center for Global Entrepreneurship Working Paper No. 1. [Online] Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=742605 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.742605 [Accessed 15/06/2013] Vai! Cerca con Google

LONG, W. (1983) The Meaning of Entrepreneurship. American Journal of Small Business 8 (2). Cerca con Google

LOVEMAN, G. and SENGENBERGER, W. (1991) The re-emergence of small-scale production; an international comparison, Small Business Economics, 3, pp. 1-37. Cerca con Google

LOW, M. B. and MACMILLAN, I. C. (1988) Entrepreneurship: Past research and Future Challenges. Journal of Management, 14 (2). Cerca con Google

LUCAS, R. E. (1988) On the Mechanics of Economic Development. Journal of Monetary Economics, 22 (1), pp. 3-42. Cerca con Google

LUNDSTRÖM, A. and STEVENSON, L. (2001) Entrepreneurship Policy for the Future. Stockholm: Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research. Cerca con Google

LUNDSTRÖM, A. and STEVENSON, L. (2002) On the Road to Entrepreneurship Policy, Stockholm: Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research. Cerca con Google

LUNDSTRÖM, A. and STEVENSON, L. A. (2005) Entrepreneurship Policy: Theory and Practice. ISEN International studies in Entrepreneurship, Springer, New York. Cerca con Google

MACGAFFEY, J. et al. (1991) The real economy of Zaire: The contribution of smuggling and other activities to national wealth. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Cerca con Google

MAGELLAN GEOGRAPHIES (1997) Country Maps [Map] [Online] Available from: www.maps.com [Accessed: 11/10/2012]. Vai! Cerca con Google

MANNAK, M. (2008) Development Africa-Why the richest continent is also the poorest Journalism and Communication for Global Change. [Online] Inter Press Service News Agency. Available from: http://www.ipsnews.net/2008/09/development-africa-why-the-richest-con...[Accesed 05/08/2014]. Vai! Cerca con Google

MARCH, J. G. and OLSEN, J. P. (1989) Rediscovering institutions: The organizational basis of politics. New York: Free Press. Cerca con Google

MARSHALL, A. (1920) Principles of Economics. 8th ed. London: Macmillan. Cerca con Google

MASON, C. and BROWN, R. (2013) Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Growth Oriented Entrepreneurship. In: Summary report of an international workshop organized by the OECD and The Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs The Hague, November 2013. Netherlands. Cerca con Google

MAXCY, S. J. (2003) Pragmatic threads in mixed methods research in the social sciences: the search for multiple modes of inquiry and the end of the philosophy of formalism. In: TASHAKKORI, A. and TEDDLIE, C. (eds.). Handbook of Mixed Methods in Social and Behavioral Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cerca con Google

MAXWELL, J. (1997) Designing a qualitative study. In: BICKMAN, L. and ROG, D. J. (eds.). Handbook of applied social research methods. pp. 69-100. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cerca con Google

MBAKU, J. M. (2003) Entrenching Economic Freedom in Africa. Cato Journal, 23 (2). Cerca con Google

MCCLELLAND, D. C. (1961) The achieving society. Princeton, N.J.: Van Nostrand. Cerca con Google

MCDADE, B. E and SPRING, A. (2005) The ‘new generation of African Entrepreneurs’: networking to change the climate of business and private sector-led development. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, pp. 17-42. Cerca con Google

MCKELVEY, B. (2004) Towards a complexity science of entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, pp. 313-341. Cerca con Google

MCKENZIE, B. and SUD, M. (2009) Prolegomena to a new ecological perspective in entrepreneurship. Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal, 15 (1). Cerca con Google

MCKENZIE, D. (2011) How Can We Learn Whether Firm Policies are Working in Africa? Challenges (Solutions?) for Experiments and Structural Models. Policy Research Working Paper No. 5632. The World Bank Development Research Group. Cerca con Google

MEAD, D. C. and LEIDHLOM, C. (1998) The dynamics of micro and small enterprises in developing countries. World Development, 26 (1), pp. 61-74. Cerca con Google

MEILLASSOUX, C. (ed) (1971) The development of indigenous trade and markets in West Africa. London: Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

MERTON, R. K. (1957). Bureaucratic Structure and Personality in Social Theory and Social Structure. Free Press, New York. Cerca con Google

MEYER, J. W. and BROWN, R. (1977) Institutionalized organizations: Formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 82 (3), pp. 340-363. Cerca con Google

MICHAEL, S. C. and PEARCE II, J. A. (2009) The need for innovation as a rationale for government involvement in entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship & Regional development, 21 (3), pp.285-302. Cerca con Google

MILES, M. B. (1979) Qualitative data as an attractive nuisance: The Problem of Analysis. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24 (4), pp.590-601. Cerca con Google

MILES, M. B. and HUBERMAN, A. M. (1984) Qualitative Data Analysis: A Sourcebook of New Methods. California; SAGE publications Inc. Cerca con Google

MINISTRY OF TRADE AND INDUSTRY (n.d.) Unleashing the Talent of Our People: A Vision and a Promise. Private Sector Development Strategy for Sierra Leone ( 2009-2014). Government of Sierra Leone. Cerca con Google

MINNITI, M. (2008) The Role of Government Policy on Entrepreneurial Activity; productive, Unproductive or Destructive. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. Cerca con Google

MINNITI, M., BYGRAVE, W. D., and AUTIO, E. (2005). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, Executive Report. Babson College: MA. Cerca con Google

MITCHELL, J. C. (1973) Networks, norms and institutions. In: BOISSEVAIN, J and MITCHELL, J. C. (eds.). Network analysis studies in human interaction. Netherlands: Mouton and Co., pp. 15-36. Cerca con Google

MOKRY, B. W. (1988) Entrepreneurship and public policy. Can government stimulate start ups? New York Quorum Books. Cerca con Google

MORGAN, D. L. (2007) Paradigms lost and pragmatism regained. Methodological implications of combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 48-76. Cerca con Google

MUNOZ, F., ENCINA, M. and CANIBANO, C. (2009) On Entrepreneurship, Intentionality and Economic Policy Making. Scientific Research i-business, (1) pp. 57-64. [Online] Available from (http://www.sciRP.org/journal/ib) [Accessed: August 14, 2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

MURPHY, P. J., LIAO, J. and WELSCH, H. P. (2006) A Conceptual History of Entrepreneurial Thought. Journal of Management history, 12 (1). Cerca con Google

NADGRODKIEWICZ, A. (2013) Building Entrepreneurship Ecosystems. Center for International Private Enterprise. [Online] Available from www.cipe.org. [Accessed 08/10/2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

NAUDE, W. & HAVENGA, J. J. D (2005) An overview of African entrepreneurship and small business research. Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, 18 (1), pp. 101. Cerca con Google

NAUDE, W. (2008) Entrepreneurship in Economic Development. Research Paper No. UNU-WIDER 2008/20 United Nations University. Cerca con Google

NAUDE, W. (2009) Entrepreneurship is not a Binding Constraint on Growth and Development in the Poorest Countries. Research Paper No. UNU-WIDER 2009/45 United Nations University. Cerca con Google

NAUDÈ, W. (2010) Promoting Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries: Policy Challenges, United Nations University, No. 4. Cerca con Google

NELSON, R. R. and WINTER, S. G. (1974) Neoclassical vs. evolutionary theories of economic growth: critique and prospectus. Economic Journal, 84, pp. 886-905. Cerca con Google

NG, F. and YEATS, A. J. (2000) On the recent trade performance of Sub Saharan African Countries: Cause for hope or more of the same? African Region Working Papers Series, No.7, Washington, DC: The World Bank. Cerca con Google

NIELSEN, S. L. and LASSEN, A. H. (2010) Images of entrepreneurship: towards a new categorization of entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, DOI 10.1007/s11365-010-0159-7. Cerca con Google

NKECHI, A., IKECHUKWU, E. J. E. and OKECHUKWU, U. F. (2012) Entrepreneurship development and employment generation in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. Universal Journal of Education and General Studies. 1(4), pp. 088-102. Cerca con Google

NORTH, D. C. (1990) Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

NORTH, D. C. (1991) Institutions. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Vol. 5. No.1 pp. 97-112. Cerca con Google

OGBO, A. and NWACHUKWU, A. C. (2012) The Role of Entrepreneurship in Economic Development: The Nigerian Perspective. European Journal of Business and Management. 4 (8). Cerca con Google

OGUNDELE, O. J. K and HASSAN, A. R. (2010) Developing African Entrepreneurs for Global Dominance from late 21st. Century and Through Out 22nd. Centuries. Global Journal of Human Social Science. 10 (4) pp.63-70. Cerca con Google

OLIVER, C. (1991) Strategic Responses to Institutional Processes, Academy of Management Review, 16 (1), pp. 145-179. Cerca con Google

OLOMI, D. R. (1999) Scope and role of research on entrepreneurship and small business development. In: KINUNDA-RUTASHOBYA, L. and OLOMI, D. R. (eds). African Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development, Dar es Salaam: DUP Ltd, pp. 53-63. Cerca con Google

OLYMPIO, J., BIDÉ, P. and NDLELA, D. (2006) Sierra Leone EPA Impact Study. Project No. 112 – Sierra Leone. Draft Final Report. February 2006. Cerca con Google

ONWUBIKO C. M. (2011). Entrepreneurship and leadership; Nigeria and the Imperative For Youth Entrepreneurial Development. Univers. J. Edu. and Gen. Stud. 1 (3), pp. 55-70. Cerca con Google

ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, (2013) Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Growth oriented enterprises. In: Summary Report of an International Workshop by the OECD and The Netherlands Ministry of Economic Affairs. The Hague , Netherlands. Cerca con Google

OTUNGA, R. N., OPATA, G. and NAFUKHO, F. M. (2001) Women entrepreneurs in Eldoret town: their socio-economic background and business performance. In: ALILA, P. O. and PEDERSEN, P. O. (eds.). Negotiating Social Space: East African Micro Enterprises Africa World Press. Cerca con Google

OWUALAH S. I. (1999) Entrepreneurship in Small Business Firms. GMAG Investment Ltd. Lagos Cerca con Google

OXFORD ENGLISH DICTIONARY, (2006) Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

PATTON M. Q. (1990) Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. Sage Publications, Newbury Park. Cerca con Google

PATTON, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Cerca con Google

PENEDER, M. (2009). The Meaning of Entrepreneurship: A modular Concept. Journal of Industry Competition and Trade, 9, pp. 77-99. Cerca con Google

PENNINGS, J. M. (1982) Organizational birth frequencies: An empirical investigation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 27, pp.120-144. Cerca con Google

PICKETT, S. T. A. and CADENASSO, M. L. (2002) The Ecosystem as a Multidimensional Concept: Meaning, Model and Metaphor. Ecosystems. 5, pp. 1-10. Cerca con Google

PIORE, M. J. and SABEL, C. F. (1984) The Second Industrial Divide: Possibilities for Prosperity. New York: Basic Books. Cerca con Google

PITELIS, C. (2012) Clusters, entrepreneurial ecosystem co-creation, and appropriability: a conceptual framework. Industrial and Corporate Change. Vol.21. No. 6. pp. 1359-1388. Cerca con Google

POLICY DIALOGUE ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP (2013). Global Researchers Joined Forces to Shed Light on the World’s Entrepreneurs [Blog] Entrepreneurship.Org Available from http://www.kaufmann.org/newsroom/global-researchers-join-forces../ [Accessed 15/10/2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

PORTER, M. E. (1990) The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: The Free Press. Cerca con Google

RABBIOSI, L. and STUCCHI, T (2012) The Magic of Diasporas: The Role of Overseas National Ownership in Outward FDI of Emerging Markets Firms. Third Copenhagen Conference on “Emerging Multinationals’: Outward Investment from Emerging Economies”. Copenhagen, Denmark . 25-26 October 2012. Cerca con Google

REYNOLDS, P. D. et al. (2000) Global Entrepreneurship Monitor: 2000 Executive Report, Kauffman Centre for Entrepreneurial Leadership at the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. Cerca con Google

RICARDO, D. [1821] (1912) The Principles of Political Economy. 3rd.Ed. London: J.M. Dent. Cerca con Google

RICHARME, M. and ROGERS, F. (2009) The Honesty of Online Survey Respondents: Lessons Learnt and Prescriptive Remedies. [Online] Decision Analyst. Available from: http//:www.decisionanalyst.com/publ_art/onlinerespondents.dai [Accessed: 22/10/2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

ROBSON, P. J. A. and OBENG, B. A. (2008) The barriers to growth in Ghana. Small Business Economics, 30(4), pp.385-403. Cerca con Google

ROBSON, P. J. A., HAUGH, H. M. and OBENG, B. A. (2009) Entrepreneurship and innovation in Ghana: Enterprising Africa. Small Business Economics, 32 pp. 331-350. Cerca con Google

ROCHA, V. C. (2012) The Entrepreneur in Economic Theory: From an Invisible Man Toward a New Research Field. FEP Working Papers. School of Economics and Management, University of Porto. Cerca con Google

ROMER, P. M. (1986) Increasing Returns and Long-Run Growth. Journal of Political Economy, 94 (5), pp. 1002-10037. Cerca con Google

SAATY, R. (2003) Decision making in complex environments. Creative Decisions Foundation 4922 Ellsworth Avenue Pittsburgh, PA 15213. Cerca con Google

SACHS, J et. al. (2004) Ending Africa’s Poverty Trap Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1, pp. 117-240 [Online] Columbia University and UN Millennium Project. Cerca con Google

SACHS, J. D. and BLOOM, D. E. (1998) Geography, Demography and Economic Growth in Africa. Harvard Institute for International Development, Harvard University. Cerca con Google

SANUSI, L. S. (2012) Nigeria’s Economic Development Aspirations and the Leadership Question: Is there a Nexus. Central Bank of Nigeria. Cerca con Google

SAUNDERS, M., LEWIS, P. and THORNHILL, A. (2009) Research Methods for Business Students, Pearson Education, London. Cerca con Google

SAXENIAN, A. (2000) Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route 128. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Cerca con Google

SCHOTT, T. and JENSEN, K. W. (2008) The coupling between entrepreneurship and public policy: Tight in developed countries but loose in developing countries. Estudios du Economia, 35 (2) pp. 195-214. Cerca con Google

SCHULTZ, M. and HATCH, M. J. (1996) Living with multiple paradigms: the case of paradigm interplay in organizational culture studies. Academy of Management Review, 21 (2), pp. 529-57. Cerca con Google

SCHUMPETER, J. A. (1934) [1911] The Theory of Economic Development. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Cerca con Google

SCOTT, W. (1995) Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage. Cerca con Google

SEAWRIGHT, J. and GERRING, J. (2008) Case Selection Techniques in Case Study Research. Political Research Quarterly, 61 (2), pp. 294-308. Cerca con Google

SEGURA, E. (1988) Industrial, trade and financial sector policies to foster private enterprise in developing countries. Columbia Journal of World Business, 23 (1), pp. 19-27. Cerca con Google

SENGE, P. M. (1990) The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. Doubleday Currency, New York. Cerca con Google

SEO M. G. and CREED, W. E. D. (2002) Institutional Contradictions, Praxis and Institutional Change: A dialectical Perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27 (2), pp.222-247. Cerca con Google

SHAMOO, A. E. and RESNIK, B. R. (2003) Responsible Conduct of Research. Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

SHANE, S. (1994) The Effect of National Culture on the Choice between Licensing and Direct Foreign Investment. Strategic Management Journal, 15, pp. 627-642. Cerca con Google

SHANE, S. (2009) Why encouraging more people to become entrepreneurs is a bad policy. Small Business Economics, 33, pp. 141-149. Cerca con Google

SHANE, S. and VENKATARAMAN, S. (2000) The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25 (1), pp. 217-226. Cerca con Google

SHERIFF, M. and MUFFATTO, M. (2014a) Reviewing Existing Policies For Unleashing And Fostering Entrepreneurship In Selected African Countries. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 19 (3). Cerca con Google

SHERIFF, M. and MUFFATTO, M. (2014b) The Present State of Entrepreneurship Ecosystems in Selected Countries in Africa. African Journal of Economic and Management Studies. 6 (In print). Cerca con Google

SHIRIMA, L. L. (n.d.) Alleviating Poverty Through Innovation and Entrepreneurship (I&E) (Research Paper) International Business and Entrepreneurship Warrington College of Business Administration. University of Florida. Cerca con Google

SIERRA LEONE TIMES ONLINE NEWS PAPER (2015). World Bank says Ebola puts future prosperity of Liberia, Sierra leone at high risk. [Online] Available from: http://www.sierraleone times.com/index.php. [Accessed 13/01/2015]. Vai! Cerca con Google

SIMPEH, K. N. (2011) Entrepreneurship theories and Empirical research: A Summary Review of the Literature European Journal of Business and Management. ISSN 2222-2839 [Online] 3 (6) Available from www.iiste.org [Accessed 17/07/2013]. Vai! Cerca con Google

SISAYE, S. (2006) The ecology of management accounting and control systems: implications for managing teams and work groups in complex organizations, Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers. Cerca con Google

SLOTTE-KOCK, S. and COVIELLO, N. (2009) Entrepreneurship Research on Network Processes: A review and Ways Forward. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. Cerca con Google

SMITH, A. [1776] (1937) An Inquiry Into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. New York: Modern Library. Cerca con Google

SOLOW, R. M. (1956) A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 70 (1), pp. 65-94. Cerca con Google

SOTO, H. D. (2000) The mystery of capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. New York: Basic Books. Cerca con Google

SPENCER, J. W. and GOMÈZ, C. (2004) The relationship among national institutional structures, economic factors and domestic entrepreneurship activity: a multi country study. Journal of Business Research, 57 pp. 1098-1107. Cerca con Google

SPILLING, O. R. (1996) The Entrepreneurial System: On Entrepreneurship in the Context of a Mega-Event. Journal of Business Research. (36), pp. 91-103. Cerca con Google

SPRING, A. and MCDADE, B. (eds). (1998) African Entrepreneurship: Theory and Reality. Gainesville, FL: University Press of Florida. Cerca con Google

STACEY, R. D. (1995) The Science of Complexity: An Alternative Perspective for Strategic Change Processes. Strategic Management Journal, 16, pp. 477-495. Cerca con Google

STACEY, R. D., GRIFFIN, D. and SHAW, P. (2000) Complexity and Management: Fad or Challenge to System Thinking? London, UK: Routledge. Cerca con Google

STALEY, E. and MORSE, R. (1971) Developing Entrepreneurship: Elements for a program. In: KILBY, P. (ed.). Entrepreneurship and Economic Development. New York Free Press, pp. 357-384. Cerca con Google

STARBUCK, W. H. (1976) Organizations and their environments. In: DUNNETTE, M. (ed.). Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology. Chicago: Rand McNally. pp. 1069-1123. Cerca con Google

STENHOLM, P., ACS, Z. J., and WUEBKER, R. (2013) Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurship activities. Journal of Business Venturing, 28, pp. 176-193. Cerca con Google

STEVENSON, H. H. and JARILLO, J. C. (1990) A paradigm of entrepreneurship: entrepreneurial management. Strategic Management Journal, 11, pp. 17-27. Cerca con Google

STEVENSON, L. and LUNDSTRÖM. A. (2001) Patterns and trends in entrepreneurship/SME policy and practice in ten economies, Entrepreneurship Policy for the Future Series, 3. Swedish Foundation for Small Business Research. Cerca con Google

STEWARD, J. H. (1955) Theory of culture change; the methodology of multilinear evolution, Urbana, IL, University of Illinois Press. Cerca con Google

STEYAERT, C. (2007) Entrepreneuring’ as a conceptual attractor? A review of process theories in 20 years of entrepreneurship studies. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 19, pp. 453-477. Cerca con Google

STIGLITZ, J. (2000), ‘Creating and harnessing social capital’, In: DASGUPTA, P. and SERAGELDIN, I (eds.). Social Capital: A Multifaceted Perspective, Washington, D.C.: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, 59-68. Cerca con Google

STOREY, D. J. (1994) Understanding the small business sector. Routledge. London. Cerca con Google

STOREY, D. J. (2000) Six steps to heaven: Evaluating the impact of public policies to support small businesses in developed economies. In: SEXTON, D. L. and H. LUNDSTROM, H (eds.) Handbook of entrepreneurship. Malden, MA: Blackwell. pp. 176-192. Cerca con Google

STUART, T. E., and SORENSON, O. (2003) The Geography of Opportunity: Spatial Heterogeneity in Founding Rates and the Performance of Biotechnology Firms. Research Policy 32, pp. 229-253. Cerca con Google

SWEDBERG, R. (2000). The social science view of entrepreneurship: introduction and practical applications. In: SWEDBERG, R. (ed.). Entrepreneurship-The Social Science View (pp. 7-44). Oxford: Oxford Management Readers. Cerca con Google

TAKYI-ASIEDU, S. (1993) Some socio-cultural factors retarding entrepreneurial activity in sub- Saharan Africa. Journal of Business venturing, 8, pp. 91-98. Cerca con Google

TANSLEY A. G. (1935) The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16, pp. 284-307. Cerca con Google

TEAL, F. (1998) The Ghanaian manufacturing sector 1991–1995: Firm growth, productivity and convergence, CSAEWPS/98-17. Cerca con Google

TEDDLIE, C. and YU, F. 2007 Mixed Methods Sampling: A Typology With Examples. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1 (1), pp. 77-100. Cerca con Google

TEMKO, S. (2009) An Overview to Entrepreneurial Ecosystems. Centre for Business Education, Innovation and Development. Cerca con Google

THADDEUS, E. (2012) Perspectives: Entrepreneurship Development & Growth of Enterprises in Nigeria. Entrepreneurial Practice Review. 2 (2). Cerca con Google

THE ECONOMIST (2014) Nigeria Africa’s New Number One [Online] Available from: http://www.economist.com/news/leaders/21600685-nigerias-suddenly- [Accessed: 22/08/2014]. Vai! Cerca con Google

THOMAS, D. (2013) A general inductive approach for qualitative data analysis. School of Population Health, University of Aukland, New Zealand. Cerca con Google

THORNTON, P. (1999) The sociology of entrepreneurship. Annual Review of Sociology, 19. Cerca con Google

THORNTON, P. H. and FLYNN, K. H. (2003) Entrepreneurship, Networks, and Geographies In: ACS, Z. J. Acs and AUDRETSCH, D. B. (eds.). Handbook of Entrepreneurship Research, 401-433. Cerca con Google

THURIK, A. R. (1999) Entrepreneurship, industrial transformation and growth. In: LIBECAP, G. P. (ed.). The Sources of Entrepreneurial Activity: Advances in the Study of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Economic Growth: 11, pp. 29-65. Stamford, CT: JAI Press. Cerca con Google

THURIK, A. R. (2008) The managed and the entrepreneurial economy. World Entrepreneurship Forum, Erasmus University Rotterdam, EIM/Panteia Zoetermeer, Max Plank Institute of Economics Jena, Free University Amsterdam. Cerca con Google

THURIK, R. (2009) Entrepreneurship, Economic Growth and Policy in Emerging Economies. Research Paper No. UNU-WIDER 2009/12 United Nations University. Cerca con Google

TIMMONS, J. A. (1994) New Venture Creation. Entrepreneurship for the 21st. Century. Revised 4th ed. Irwin/McGraw Hill: US. Cerca con Google

TISDALE, C. (2004) Economic competition and evolution: are there lessons from ecology? Contemporary Economic Policy, 22, 179-194. Cerca con Google

TRACY, P. and PHILLIPS, N. (2011) Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets: Strategies for New Venture Creation in Uncertain Institutional Contexts. Management International Review, 51, pp. 23-39. Cerca con Google

TRANFIELD, D., DENYER, D. and SMART, P. (2003) Towards a Methodology for Developing Evidence-Informed Management Knowledge by Means of Systematic Reviews. British Journal of Management, 14. pp. 207-222. Cerca con Google

TRUSSON, P. (1997) Strategies of Entrepreneurship: Understanding industrial entrepreneurship and structural change in Northern Tanzania, Linkoping, Sweden. Cerca con Google

TSHIKUKU, K. (2001) Culture, Entrepreneurship and Development in Africa. International conference on the cultural approach to development in Africa. Dakar, Senegal. Cerca con Google

TYLECOT, A. (1991) The Long Wave in the World Economy, Routledge, London UK. Cerca con Google

UCSBASARAN, D. et al. (2008) Habitual Entrepreneurship Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, 4 (4), pp. 309-450. Cerca con Google

UNITED NATIONS CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (2014) Economic Development in Africa. 2014 Report: Catalysing Investment for Transformative Growth in Africa. Cerca con Google

UNITED NATIONS DEVELPOMENT PROGRAM (2004) Unleashing Entrepreneurship: Making Business Work for the Poor. Report to the Secretary General of the United Nations. UNDP New York, NY. Cerca con Google

UNITED NATIONS GENERAL ASSEMBLY, (2013) Entrepreneurship for Development. High Level Thematic Debate: 67th Session of the United Nations General Assembly. Entrepreneurship for Development. New York. Cerca con Google

UNITED NATIONS DEPARTMENT OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL AFFAIRS (2009) Rethinking Poverty, Report on the world social situation 2010 ST/ESA/324 United Nations Publications, New York. Cerca con Google

VALLIERE, D. and PETERSON, R. (2009) Entrepreneurship and economic growth: Evidence from emerging and developing countries. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 21 (5-6), pp. 459-480. Cerca con Google

VAN DE VEN, A. H. (1993) The development for an infrastructure for entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8 (3), pp. 211-230. Cerca con Google

VAN DE VEN, A. H. and POOLE, M. S. (1995) Explaining development and change in organizations. Academy of Management Review, 20, pp. 510. Cerca con Google

VAN STEL, A., CARREE, M., and THURIK, R. (2005) The Effect of Entrepreneurial Activity on National Economic Growth. Small Business Economics, 24, pp. 311-321. Cerca con Google

VENABLES, A. J. (2010) Economic geography and African development. Papers in Regional Science. 89 (3) Cerca con Google

VENKATARAMAN, S. (2004) Regional Transformation through Technological Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, pp. 153-167. Cerca con Google

VERHEUL, I. et al. (2001) An eclectic theory of entrepreneurship: policies, institutions and culture. Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper TI2001-030/3. Cerca con Google

VERNON, R. (1970) Organization as a scale factor in the growth of firms, In: MARKHAM, J. W. and PAPANEK, G. F. (eds.). Industrial Organization and Economic Development, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, pp. 47-66. Cerca con Google

VESPER, K. H. (1983) Entrepreneurship and national policy. Pittsburg, PA: Carnegie-Mellon University. Cerca con Google

VISSAK, T. (2010) Recommendations for Using the Case Study Method in International Business Research. The Qualitative Report, 15 (2), pp. 370-388. Cerca con Google

VON HIPPLE, E. (1994) Sticky Information and the Locus of Problem Solving: Implications for Innovation. Management Science, 40, pp. 429-439. Cerca con Google

WAGNER, J. and STERNBERG, R. (2004) Start-up activities, individual characteristics, and the regional milieu: Lessons for entrepreneurship support policies from German micro data. The Annals of Regional Science, 38 (2), pp. 219-240. Cerca con Google

WAHYUNI, D. (2012) The Research Design Maze: Understanding Paradigms, Cases, Methods and Methodologies. Journal of Applied Management Accounting Research, 10 (1), pp. 69-80. Cerca con Google

WALKER, G., KOGUT, B and SHAN, W. (1997) Social capital, structural holes and the formation of an industry network. Organization Science, 8 (2), pp.109-125. Cerca con Google

WEBB, J. W. et al. (2009) You say illegal, I say legitimate: entrepreneurship in the informal economy. Academy of Management Review, 34 (3), pp. 492-510. Cerca con Google

WEBER, M. (1904) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, New York, NY: Charles Scribner's Sons. Cerca con Google

WEICK, K. E. (1979) The social psychology of organizing (2nd.ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. Cerca con Google

WELCH, C. (2000). The archaeology of business networks: The use of archival records in case study research. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 8 (2), pp. 197-208. Cerca con Google

WELTER, F. (2011) Conceptualizing entrepreneurship – Conceptual challenges and Ways Forward. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30 (1) pp. 165-184. Cerca con Google

WENNEKERS, A. R. M., UHLANER, L. M. and THURIK, A. R. (2002) Entrepreneurship and its conditions: a macro perspective. International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 1, pp. 25-64. Cerca con Google

WENNEKERS, S. and THURIK, R. (1999) Linking Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth. Small Business Economics 13, pp. 27-55. Cerca con Google

WEST, P. G. and BAMFORD, C. (2005) Creating a Technology-Based Entrepreneurial Economy: A Resource Based Theory Perspective. Journal of Technology Transfer, 30 (4), pp. 433-451. Cerca con Google

WESTHEAD, P. (1990) A Typology of manufacturing firms in Wales: Performance measures and public policy implications. Journal of Business Venturing, 5, pp. 103-122. Cerca con Google

WHETTEN, D. A. (1989) What constitute a theoretical contribution? Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), pp. 490-495. Cerca con Google

WHITE, H. (2009) Theory Based Impact Evaluation: Principles and Practice. International Initiative for Impact Evaluation. Working Paper 3. Washington, DC. Cerca con Google

WILKEN, P. H. (1979) Entrepreneurship: a comparative and historical study, Norwood, NJ: Ablex Pub. Corp. Cerca con Google

WILLIAMSON, O. E. (1985) The economic institutions of capitalism. New York: The Free Press. Cerca con Google

WILLIG, C. (2001) Introducing Qualitative Research in Psychology: Adventures in Theory and Method. Buckingham: Open University Press. Cerca con Google

WILLMOTT, H. (1993) Breaking the paradigm mentality. Organization Studies, 14 (5), pp. 681-719. Cerca con Google

WONG, P. K., HO, Y. P. and AUTIO, E. (2005) Entrepreneurship, innovation and economic growth: evidence from GEM data. Small Business Economics, 24 (3), pp. 335–350. Cerca con Google

WORLD BANK (2007) Challenges of African Growth Opportunities, Constraints and Strategic Directions. The World Bank Group. Cerca con Google

WORLD BANK (2013) Countries Overview. The World Bank Group. [Online] Available from ww Cerca con Google

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record