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Ravazzolo, Diego (2015) NATURE AND DYNAMICS OF LARGE WOOD AND INTERACTIONS WITH VEGETATION IN GRAVEL-BED RIVERS. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Until very recently, rivers have been considered as the result of the interaction between water and sediments, thus simplifying this very complex system. In doing so, one important component was missed. This is vegetation, namely trees growing on banks, floodplains, and bars/islands; as well as dead trees lying on river beds. Both living and dead vegetation can play a very important in determining the morphology and dynamics of a river system and they also create ecological habitats for a variety of organisms. On the other side, if wood in-channel is transported during high-magnitude events, large wood pieces can increase flood hazards in sensitive places such as bridges and narrow cross sections prone to outbank flows. However, the dynamics and mobility of logs in rivers is still poorly understood, especially in wide gravel-bed rivers. Recent studies have employed fixed video cameras to assess logs velocity, but little evidence is still available about travel length during flood events of different magnitude.
During my PhD studies, several investigations were carried out to provide a better knowledge about the various degrees of morphological impact of large wood in three gravel-bed rivers located in north-eastern Italy (Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento). The Piave river is a gravel-bed river, which suffered intense and multiple human impacts, especially due to dam building and in-channel gravel mining. The same alterations can also be observed in the Brenta River, which also presents bank protections, hydropower schemes and water diversions. On the other hand, the Tagliamento River is a gravel-bed river characterized by a high level of naturalness and very low human pressures. A series of field surveys were carried out to analyse the physical characteristics, quantity and geomorphic effects of in-channel wood on the three gravel-bed rivers mentioned. Overall, 3430 woody elements were measured in the study sites, 535, 1049, and 1846 of which were measured in the Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento rivers, respectively. As to jams, 591 accumulations were surveyed, 89, 189, and 313 of which were found in the Brenta, Piave, and Tagliamento rivers, respectively. In addition to the ecological and morphological importance of wood in rivers, its quantification is also of the higher importance for the assessment of flood hazards potentially linked to the transportation of the wood during extreme flood events and their accumulation near the piers of bridges. Furthermore, to fully understand how vegetation living or dead can influence many and interrelated aspects of braided river dynamics, a series of data collected from the experiments conducted in laboratory flume observing varying presence/absence of vegetation and large wood were analysed. An improved understanding of how vegetation and large wood interact to determine the forms and processes of braided rivers was underlined on the research. An increase of ability to understand the wood mobility in gravel-bed rivers. The results can be considered an important advance in our understanding of how rivers function, particularly with a background of indirect environmental change and direct basin scale human-impacts.

Abstract (italiano)

Fino poco tempo fa, i fiumi sono stati considerati come il risultato dell’interazione tra acqua e sedimenti, semplificando così il complesso sistema fluviale e tralasciando un importante componente: la vegetazione. Questa componente comprende alberi ed arbusti che crescono sulle barre, isole, sponde e sulle pianure alluvionali; così come gli elementi legnosi morti che giacciono sul letto del fiume. Sia la vegetazione viva che quella morta esercitano un importante ruolo sulla morfologia e la dinamica di un sistema fluviale. Inoltre, evidenze hanno dimostrato la sua importanza ecologica attraverso la creazione di habitat per una varietà di organismi. Oltre agli aspetti positivi che il materiale legnoso in alveo può apportare, è fondamentale tenere in considerazione il potenziale pericolo connesso al suo trasporto durante eventi di piena di elevata magnitudo. Il materiale legnoso, ad esempio, può essere un fattore di pericolo per le strutture sensibili come i ponti, nonché lungo le sezioni trasversali soggette ad esondazione. Per queste ragioni ed altri problemi idraulici, così come l’incremento della rugosità, la tradizionale strategia di gestione della rete fluviale adottata, è stata quella di rimuovere dall’alveo il materiale legnoso morto e tagliare la vegetazione da isole e piane alluvionali. Evidenze di recenti ricerche, hanno dimostrato i positivi effetti che il legname esercita in alveo. Queste osservazioni, suggerirono di intervenire sulle strategie di gestione, agendo sulla reintroduzione del legname in alveo. Tuttavia, è evidente la necessità di rivisitare la gestione del legname nei sistemi fluviali e delle aree ripariali, le quali sono potenziali fonti di legname in alveo.
Di fondamentale importanza, per raggiungere tale obbiettivo, è la determinazione delle dinamiche del materiale legnoso presente in alveo e delle interazioni di esso con la vegetazione ripariale. In questo elaborato di tesi vengono svolte delle prime analisi in campo, necessarie per valutare se le diverse pressioni antropiche in un sistema fluviale, hanno conseguenze sulla natura del materiale legnoso in alveo. I fiumi in considerazione sono, dal più al meno antropizzato, il fiume Brenta, Piave e Tagliamento. Inoltre, attraverso analisi sulla distanza e velocità di spostamento di alcuni elementi legnosi durante eventi di piena di diversa magnitudo nel fiume Tagliamento, si vuole incrementare la conoscenza dei processi di trasporto e deposizione del materiale legnoso in larghi fiumi ghiaiosi. Vista la simultaneità delle dinamiche osservabili in campo tra vegetazione e legname in alveo, risulta opportuno ricorrere ad analisi di laboratorio in modo da riuscire a scindere le due componenti. La serie di simulazioni, condotte in una canaletta artificiale, hanno lo scopo di rappresentare un significativo contributo alla comprensione degli effetti reciprocamente connessi tra la vegetazione e legname in alveo, nel contesto della morfologia fluviale. Con questo elaborato di tesi si vuole esprimere un importante punto di inizio per un migliore approccio alla gestione del materiale legnoso nei sistemi fluviali, aumentando le conoscenze sulle sue dinamiche ed interazioni con la vegetazione ripariale in fiumi ghiaiosi.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Lenzi, Mario Aristide
Correlatore:Mao, Luca - Picco, Lorenzo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > TERRITORIO, AMBIENTE, RISORSE E SALUTE
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Wood dynamics, Wood characteristics, Wood transport, Gravel-bed rivers, Wood abundance, Log displacement, Tracking systems, geomorphic effects
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/08 Idraulica agraria e sistemazioni idraulico-forestali
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Codice ID:7644
Depositato il:23 Nov 2015 14:37
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