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Guazzo, Riccardo (2015) Nuove frontiere in implantologia e rigenerazione ossea in campo odontoiatrico. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The work focused on bone regeneration, membranes and implant surfaces in dentistry.
Starting from a clinical need widely shared in the dental field such as that of guided bone regeneration, were studied the development of biomaterials, membranes and implant surfaces. As for the biomaterials, were first analyzed the characteristics of autologous samples. The samples were stored at different time intervals and processed for analysis of cell viability, protein synthesis and gene expression. The results show how the preservation prolonged periods in conditions ex vivo induces an increased synthesis of inflammatory proteins such as TNF-α. Was recreated in an animal model a situation of sheep bone regeneration in the presence of TNF-α, indicating that such a state causes a slowdown in new bone formation also in qualitative terms.
Within the study of biomaterials have been studied different decellularization protocols for withdrawals heterologous bone. Later in vitro and animal model was used to evaluate the bone substitutes trade enriched with stem cells (SC). On the dog has been employed a biomaterial enriched in stem cell associated with dental implant. It was found that at sites enriched with SC has taken place better bone integration. On ovine model were performed in which the maxillary sinus lifts have tested other materials enriched with SC or less in order to investigate the presence of different cell populations and the ability of the anti-inflammatory SC. In sites with SC healing and formation of new bone matrix appear to be more rapid and more moderate inflammatory reaction.
Were also carried out studies of biocompatibility of synthetic bone substitutes. Regarding the membranes were developed and tested in vitro different decellularization protocols for treat membranes developed from bovine pericardium. Later the same have been tested in vivo mouse model.
In parallel has been studied in vitro a synthetic membrane of polyethylene glycol with MTT assay and with arrays for genetic control. The results show be sure the application and PCR confirmation cell differentiation osteoblastic and endothelial. About dental implants has been studied a new implant surface ionized and treated with SC. These tests were performed in vitro and PCR tests to investigate the type of protein that was developed in contact with the surface. This treatment allows a greater cell proliferation, a higher cell differentiation with cells that adhere with good osteocitary morphology and that are genetically stable.

Abstract (italiano)

Il lavoro si è focalizzato sulla rigenerazione ossea, le membrane e le superfici implantari in campo odontoiatrico.
Partendo da una necessità clinica ampiamente condivisa nel settore odontoiatrico come quella della rigenerazione ossea guidata a fini implantologici, è seguito lo sviluppo di biomateriali, di membrane e di superfici implantari.
Per quanto riguarda i biomateriali sono state prima di tutto analizzate le caratteristiche di prelievi autologhi. I campioni raccolti sono stati conservati a diversi intervalli di tempo e processati per analisi di vitalità cellulare, sintesi proteica e per l’espressione genica. Dai risultati emerge come la conservazione a tempi prolungati in condizioni ex vivo induca un aumento della sintesi di proteine infiammatorie come il TNF-α. E’ stato ricreato in un modello animale ovino una situazione di rigenerazione ossea in presenza di TNF-α indicando che tale stato induce un rallentamento nella formazione di nuovo osso anche in termini qualitativi. Nell’ambito dello studio dei biomateriali sono stati studiati differenti protocolli di decellularizzazione per prelievi di osso eterologo. Successivamente in vitro e su modello animale si sono valutati dei sostituti ossei del commercio arricchiti con cellule staminali (SC). Sul cane è stato impiegato un biomateriale arricchito di cellule staminali associato ad impianto dentale. Ne è emerso che nei siti arricchiti con SC sia avvenuta una migliore integrazione. Su modello ovino sono stati effettuati rialzi del seno mascellare in cui si sono testati altri materiali arricchiti o meno con SC al fine di indagare la differente presenza di popolazioni cellulari e la capacità antinfiammatoria delle SC. Nei siti con presenza di SC la guarigione e la formazione di nuova matrice ossea appaiono più rapide e la reazione infiammatoria più contenuta.
Sono stati inoltre effettuati studi di biocompatibilità di sostituti ossei sintetici. Riguardo le membrane sono stati sviluppati e testati in vitro differenti protocolli di decellularizzazione per il tattamento di membrane sviluppate da pericardio bovino. Successivamente le stesse sono state testate in vivo su modello murino. Parallelamente è stata studiata in vitro una membrana sintetica di polietilene glicole con test MTT e con array per il controllo genetico. I risultati dimostrano esserne sicura l’applicazione e la PCR conferma il differenziamento cellulare in senso osteoblastico ed endoteliale.
Riguardo gli impianti dentali è stata studiata una nuova superficie implantare ionizzata e trattata con SC. Sono stati effettuati test in vitro e test PCR per indagare la tipologia di proteine che si sviluppava a contatto con la superficie. Tale trattamento consente una maggiore proliferazione cellulare, un maggior differenziamento cellulare con cellule che aderiscono con buona morfologia osteocitaria e che sono geneticamente stabili.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Zavan, Barbara
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > BIOLOGIA E MEDICINA DELLA RIGENERAZIONE
Data di deposito della tesi:29 Gennaio 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:29 Gennaio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):dentistry stem cells bone regeneration dental implant
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/28 Malattie odontostomatologiche
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze del Farmaco
Codice ID:7689
Depositato il:12 Nov 2015 15:44
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