Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Scozzari, Simona (2008) Valutazione psicofisiologica della reattivitĂ  emozionale nell'ipertensione arteriosa essenziale. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

Documento PDF

Abstract (english)

Essential Hypertension is a pathology with high prevalence in developed society. It has a multi factorial etiology, comprising genetic, environmental and psychological factors.
In recent years research focused on the role played by emotional factors in determining cardiovascular hyperreactivity, which in turn seems to play an important role in hypertension pathogenesis.
Aim of these studies was to investigate differences in emotional reactivity between initial stage hypertensives and normotensives, by means of active and passive emotional tasks.
Results confirmed previous data, finding an enhanced cardiovascular reactivity in hypertensives, specifically ß-adrenergic, compared to normotensives, in response to active tasks involving a psychosocial component (Speech test).
Moreover, hypertensives showed an enhanced cardiovascular reactivity in response to psychosocial tasks with a negative emotional connotation compared with a neutral connotation. In particular, among activation indexes, heart rate was able to discriminate between different negative emotions.
In response to a passive task (emotional picture viewing), a different activation pattern was highlighted in response to different emotional connotations of the stimuli, showing an alteration of pressor response affective modulation in hypertensives. This alteration did not seem to be located at subcortical level, as startle reflex affective modulation did not differ between hypertensives and normotensives. Subcortical circuits involved in affective modulation of the startle reflex seemed to be affected not by baseline blood pressure levels, but by cardiovascular reactivity elicited by emotional stimuli. In particular, results showed a lack in startle potentiation during unpleasant picture viewing in subjects who showed higher systolic blood pressure reactivity in response to both pleasant and unpleasant picture viewing.
In conclusion, data support the hypothesis of a possibile role played by enhanced emotional reactivity in etiology and maintenance of essential hypertension.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Palomba, Daniela
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 20 > Scuole per il 20simo ciclo > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PSICOBIOLOGIA
Data di deposito della tesi:31 January 2008
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 January 2008
Key Words:Ipertensione arteriosa, reattivitĂ  emozionale, reattivitĂ  cardiovascolare, squilibrio autonomo, processamento emozionale
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:771
Depositato il:14 Nov 2008
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. Adrogué, H.J., Madias, M.E.(2007). Sodium and potassium in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The New England Journal of Medicine. 356 1966 78. Cerca con Google

2. Al’ Absi M., Bongard S. Buchanan T., Pincomb G.A., Licinio J, Lovallo W.R. (1997). Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine adjustment to public speaking and mental arithmetic stressors. Psychophysiology; 34: 266 275. Cerca con Google

3. Al’ Absi, M., Wittmers, M.E.Jr. (2003). Enhanced adrenocortical responses to stress in hypertension prone men and women. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 25 (1). 25 33. Cerca con Google

4. Al’Absi, M., Petersen, K.L. (2003). Blood pressure but not cortisol mediates stress effects on subsequent pain perception in healthy men and women. Pain, 106, 285 295 Cerca con Google

5. Alexander, F. (1939). Emotional factors in essential hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 1, 175 179. Cerca con Google

6. Amarena J., Julius S. (1995). The role of the autonomic nervous system in hypertension. Hypertension Research, 18 (2), 99 110 Cerca con Google

7. Armario, P., Del Rey, R.H., Martin Baranera, M., Almendros, M.C., Ceresuela, L.M., Pardell, H. (2003). Blood pressure reactivity to mental stress task as a determinant of sustained hypertension after 5 years of follow up. Journal of Human Hypertension, 17 (3), 181 186. Cerca con Google

8. Atallah, A., Inamo, J., Larabi, L., Chatellier, G., Rozet, J.E., Machuron, C., de Gaudemaris, R., Lang, T. (2007). Reducing the burden of arterial hypertension: what can be expected from an improved access to health care? Results from a study in 2420 unemployed subjects in the Caribbean. Journal of Human Hypertension. 21(4), 316 322. Cerca con Google

9. BarĂĄth, A., TÃÂșri, S., NĂ©meth, I., Bereczki, C., GellĂ©n, B., Haszon, I., Monostori, P. (2006). Different pathomechanisms of essential an obesity associated hypertension in adolescents. Pediatric Nephrology, 21, 1419 1425. Cerca con Google

10. Baumann, M., Megens, R., Bartholome, R., Dolff, S., Van Zandvoort, M.A.J.M., Smits, J.F.M., Struijker Boudier, H.A.J., De Mey, J.G.R. (2007). Prehypertensive renin angiotensin aldosterone system blockade in spontaneously hypertensive rats ameliorates the loss of long term vascular function. Hypertension Research, 30, 853 861. Cerca con Google

11. Bedi, M., Varshney, V.P., Babbar, R. (2000). Role of cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress in predicting future hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 22, 1 22. Cerca con Google

12. Berntson, G.G., Boysen, S.T., Cacioppo, J.T. (1992). Cardiac orienting and defensive responses: potential origins of autonomic space. In Campbell B.A:, Hayne, H., Richardson, R. (Eds.). Attention and information processing in infants and adults. Perspectives from human and animal research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Cerca con Google

13. Biglieri, E.G., Irony, I., Cater, C.E. (1990). Adrenocortical forms of human hypertension. In Laragh, J.H., Brenner, B.M. (Eds). Hypertension: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis and Management. New York, Raven, 1609 1623. Cerca con Google

14. Bongard, S., al’Absi, M., Lovallo, W.R. (1998). Interactive effects of trait hostility and anger expression on cardiovascular reactivity in young men. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 28, 181 191. Cerca con Google

15. Bradley M.M., Cuthbert B.N. e Lang P.J. (1990). Startle reflex modification: emotion or attention? Psychophysiology, 27, 513 523 Cerca con Google

16. Bradley, M. M., Cuthbert, B. N., Lang, P. J. (1993). Pictures as prepulse: Attention and emotion in startle modification. Psychophysiology, 30, 541 545. Cerca con Google

17. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1994). Measuring emotion: The self assessment manikin and the semantic differential. Journal of Behavioral Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 25, 49 59. Cerca con Google

18. Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2000). Measuring emotion: behavior, feeling, and physiology. In R. Lane & L. Nadel (Eds.), Cognitive neuroscience of emotion (pp. 242 276). New York: Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

19. Bradley, M.M. (2000). Emotion and motivation. In: Cacioppo, J.T., Tassinary, L.G., Berntson, G.G. (Eds.) Handbook of Psychophysiology. Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

20. Bradley, M.M., Codispoti, M., Cuthbert, B.N., Lang, P.J. (2001). Emotion and motivation I: defensive and appetitive reactions in picture processing. Emotion, 1 (3), 276 298. Cerca con Google

21. Bradley, M.M., Codispoti, M., Lang, P.J. (2006). A multi process account of starle modulation during affective perception. Psychophysiology, 43, 486 497. Cerca con Google

22. Brener, J., Connally, G. (1986). Psicofisiologia cardiovascolare. In: L. Stegagno (a cura di) Psicofisiologia: Indicatorifisiologici del comportamento. Bollati Boringhieri: Torino Cerca con Google

23. Brook R.D., Julius S. (2000). Autonomic imbalance, hypertension, and cardiovascular risk. American Journal of Hypertension, 13, 112 122. Cerca con Google

24. Brown, J. S., Kalish, H. I., & Farber, I. E. (1951). Conditioned fear as revealed by magnitude of startle response to an auditory stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41, 317 328. Cerca con Google

25. Brownley, K.A., Hurwitz, B.E., Schneiderman, N. (2000). Cardiovascular Psychophysiology. In: Cacioppo, J.T., Tassinary, L.G., Berntson, G.G. (a cura di) Handbook of Psychophysiology. Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

26. Buchholtz, K., SchÀchinger, H, Wagner, M., Schorr, U., Sharma, A.M., Deter, H.C. (2001). Enhanced affective startle modulation in salt sensitive subjects. Hypertension, 38, 1325 1329. Cerca con Google

27. Burns, J.W., Katkin, E.S. (1993). Psychological, situational, and gender predictors of cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16, 445 465. Cerca con Google

28. Carroll, D., Davey Smith, G., Shipley, M.J.(2001). Blood pressure reactions to acute psychological stress and future blood pressure status: a 10 year follow up of men in the Whitehall II Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 737 743 Cerca con Google

29. Chapman, J. (2006). Therapeutic elevation of HDL cholesterol to prevent atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 111, 893 908. Cerca con Google

30. Chobanian, A.V. (1992). Vascular effects of systemic hypertension. American Journal of Cardiology, 69, 3E 7E. Cerca con Google

31. Chobanian, A.V., Bacris, G.L., Black H.R., Cushman, W.C., Green, L.A., Izzo, J.L. Jr et al. (2003). The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Hypertension. 42; 1206 1252. Cerca con Google

32. Cohn, J.N. (1966). Relationship of plasma volume changes to resistance and capacitance vessel effects of sympathomimetic amines and angiotensine in Men. Clinical Science, 30, 267 278. Cerca con Google

33. Cook W.W., Medley D.M. (1954). Proposed hostility and pharisaic virtue scales for the MMPI. Journal of Applied Psychology, 38, 414 418. Cerca con Google

34. Cook E.W. III (1997). VPM reference manual. Birmingham, AL: Author Cerca con Google

35. Cooper,C.L., Parry, G. D., Saul, C., Alyn H Morice, A.H., Bruce J Hutchcroft, B.J., Moore1, J. , Esmonde, L.(2007). Anxiety and panic fear in adults with asthma: prevalence in primary care. BMC Family Practice, 8:62. Cerca con Google

36. Corazzi, T., Leone, M., Maucci, R., Corazzi, L., Gresele, P. (2005). Direct and irreversibile inhibition of cyclooxygenase 1 by nitroaspirin (NCX 4016). Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental therapy, 315, 1331 1337. Cerca con Google

37. Critchley, J.A., Capewell, S. (2003) Mortality risk reduction associated with smoking cessation in patients with coronary heart disease. JAMA, 290, 86 97. Cerca con Google

38. Davidson, K., Jonas, B.S., Dixon, K.E., Markowitz, J.H. (2000). Do depression symptoms predict early hypertension incidence in young adults in the CARDIA study? Archives of Internal Medicine, 160, 1495 1500. Cerca con Google

39. Davis, M. (1986). Pharmacological and anatomical analysis of fear conditioning using the fear potentiated startle paradigm. Behavioral Neuroscience, 100, 814 824. Cerca con Google

40. Davis, M. (1989). The role of the amygdala and its efferent projections in fear and anxiety. In P. Tyrer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology of Anxiety, 52 79. Oxford University Press. Cerca con Google

41. Dembroski, T.M., Williams, R.B. (1989). Definition and assessment of coronary prone behavior. In Schneiderman, N., Weiss, S.M., Kauffmann. Handbook of Research Methods in Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine, P.G. New York, Plenum Press. Cerca con Google

42. Dembrosky, T.M., MacDougl, J.M. (1983). Behavioral and psychophysiological perspectives on coronary prone behavior. In Dembrosky, T.M., Schimdt, T.H., Blumchen, G. (Eds), Biobeavioral Bases of Coronary Heart Disease. Karger, Basel, 106 129. Cerca con Google

43. Deter, H.C., Micus, C., Wagner, M., Sharma, A.M., Buchholz, K. (2006) Salt Sensitivity, Anxiety, and Irritability Predict Blood Pressure Increase over Five Years in Healty Males. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 28, 17 27. Cerca con Google

44. Deter, H.C., Wolf, C., Blecher, A., Thomas, A., Zimmermann, F., Weber, C. (2007). Cardiovascular Reactivity in Patients with Essential or Renal Hypertension Under Standardized Mental Stress. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 29, 301 310. Cerca con Google

45. Deter, H.C., Blecher, A, Weber, C.S. (2007). Cardiovascular reactivity of patients with essential and renal hypertension in an emotion triggering interview. Behavioral Medicine, 32, 117 125. Cerca con Google

46. Devereux, R.B., Pickering, T.G., Harshfield, G.A., Kleinert, H.D., Denby, L., Clarck, L., Pregibon, D., Jason, M., Kleiner, B., Borer, J.S., Laragh, J.H. (1983). Left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with hypertension: importance of blood pressure response to regularly recurring stress. Hypertension, 68, 470 476. Cerca con Google

47. Ditto, B. (1986). Parental history of essential hypertension, active coping, and cardiovascular reactivity. Psychophysiology ; 23, 62 70. Cerca con Google

48. Duprez, D.A:, Cohn, J.N. (2007). Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerosis. Current Atherosclerosis Report. 9, 139 144. Cerca con Google

49. Ebbesen, B.L., Prkachin, K.M., Mills, D.E., Green, H.J. (1992). Effects of acute exercise on cardiovascular reactivity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 15, 489 507. Cerca con Google

50. Edwards, J.R., Baglioni, A.J.Jr. (1991). Relationship between Type A behavior pattern and mental and physical symptoms : a compariosn of global and component measures. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76 (2), 276 290. Cerca con Google

51. Elbert, T e Rau, H. (1995). What goes up (fron heart to brain) must calm down (from brain to heart)! Studies on the interaction between baroreceptor activity and cortical excitability. In Vaitl, D., Schandry, From the Heart to the Brain: the Psychophysiology of Circulation Brain Intraction (eds.) Frankfurt am R. Main: P.Lang. Cerca con Google

52. Esler M., Julius S., Zweifler A., Randall O., Gardiner H., DeQuattro V. (1977). Mild high renin essential hypertension: neurogenic human hypertension? New England Journal of Medicine, 296, 405 411. Cerca con Google

53. Esler M. (2000). The sympathetic sSystem and hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension, 13, S99 S105. Cerca con Google

54. Engebretson, T.O., Matthews, K.A., Scheier M.F. (1989). Relations between anger expression and cardiovascular reactivity: reconciling inconsistent findings through a matching hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 513 521. Cerca con Google

55. Everson, S.A., Gordberg, D.E., Kaplan, G.A., Julkunen, J., Salonen, J.T. (1998). Anger expression and incident hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 730 735. Cerca con Google

56. Ewart, C.K., Kolodner, K.B. (1994). Negative affect, gender and expressive style predict elevated ambulatory blood pressure in adolescents. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 (3) 596 605. Cerca con Google

57. Ewart, C.K., Suchdays, S. (2002). Discovering how urban poverty and violence affect health: development and validation of a Neighborhood Stress Index. Health Psychology, 21(3):254 62. Cerca con Google

58. Ferrier, C., Jennings, G.L., Eisenhofer, G., Lambert, G., Cox., H.S., Kalff, V., Kelly, M., Esler, M.D. (1993). Evidence for increased noradrenaline release from subcortical brain regions in essential hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 11, 1217 1227. Cerca con Google

59. Filipovsky, J., Ducimetiere, P., Safar, M.E. (1992). Prognostic significance of exercise blood pressure and heart rate in middle aged men. Hypertension, 20, 333 339. Cerca con Google

60. Folkow B. (1995). Hypertensive structural changes in systemic precapillary resistance vassels: how important are they for in vivo hemodynamics? Journal of Hypertension, 13, 1546 15 49. Cerca con Google

61. Fredrikson, M., Tuomisto, M, Lundberg, U., Melin, N. (1990). Blood pressure in healty men and women under laboratory and naturalistic conditions. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 34, 675 686. Cerca con Google

62. Fredrickson M., Matthews K.A. (1990). Cardiovascular responses to behavioral stress and hupertension: a meta analytic review. Annals of Behavioral Medicine; 12: 30 9. Cerca con Google

63. Fredrikson M.(1991) Psychophysiological theories on sympathetic nervous system reactivity in the development of essential hypertension. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology. 1991;32:254 274. Cerca con Google

64. Friedman, M., Rosenman, R.H. (1974). Type A behaviour and your heart. New York: Knopf.. Cerca con Google

65. Friedman R., Schwartz J.E., Shnall P.L., Landsbergis P.A., Pieper C., Gerin W., Pickering T.G. (2001). Psychological variables in hypertension: relationship to casual or ambulatory blood pressure in men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 19 31 Cerca con Google

66. Gallo L., Smith T.W., Kircher J.C. (2000). Cardiovascular and electrodermal responses to support and provocation: interpersonal methods in the study of psychophysiological reactivity. Psychophysiology, 37, 289 301 Cerca con Google

67. Gautier, C.H., & Cook III, E.W. (1997). Relationship between startle and cardiovascular reactivity. Psychophysiology, 34, 87 96. Cerca con Google

68. Gerin, W., Christenfeld, N., Pieper, C., DeRafael, D.A., Su, O., Stroessner, S.J., Deich, J., Pickering, T.G. (1998).The generalizability of cardiovascular responses across settings. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 44, 209 18. Cerca con Google

69. Girdler, S.S., Turner, J.R., Sherwood, A., Light, K.C. (1990). Gender Differencesin Blood Pressure Control During a Variety of Behavioral Stressors. Psychosomatic Medicine, 52, 571 591. Cerca con Google

70. Glass, D.C., Krakoff, L.R., Contrada, R., Hiltn, W.F., Kehoe, K., Mannucci, E.G., Collins, C., Snow, B., Elting, E. (1980). Effects of harassment and competition upon cardiovascular and plasma catecholamine responses in type A and type B individuals. Psychophysiology, 17, 453 463. Cerca con Google

71. Goldstein I.B. (1981). Assessment of hypertension. In: Bradley L.A., Prokop C.K. (editors). Medical psychology: a new perspective. Academic press, New York, pag. 37 54 Cerca con Google

72. Gordon,D., Guyton, J.R., Karnovsky, M.J., (1981). Intimal alterations in rat aorta induced by stressful stimuli. Laboratory Investigation, 45, 14 27. Cerca con Google

73. Graham, F.K. (1979). Distinguishing among Orienting, Defense and Startle Reflexes. In Kimmel, H.D.,Van Olst, E.H., Orlebeke, J.F. (Eds). The Orienting Reflex in Humans (Conference Sponsored by the Scientific Affairs Division of NATO), 137 167. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Cerca con Google

74. Grassi, G. (1998). Role of the sympathetic nervous system in human Hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 16:1979 1987 Cerca con Google

75. Gregg, M.E., Matyas, T.A:, James, J.E. (2002). A new model of individual differences in hemodynamic profile and blood pressure reactivity. Psychophysiology, 39, 64 72. Cerca con Google

76. Grossman, S.P. (1967). A Textbook of Physiological Psychology. New York: Wiley. Cerca con Google

77. Grossman P., Wilhelm F.H., Kawachi I., Sparrow D. (2001). Gender differences in psychophysiologica responses to speech stress among older social phobics: congruence and incongruence between self evaluative and cardiovascular reactions. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 765 777 Cerca con Google

78. Guyton, A.C (1987) Trattato di fisiologia medica. III Edizione Italiana a cura di A. Curatolo e P. D’Arcangelo. Piccin Nuova Libraria. Cerca con Google

79. Guyton, A.C. (1991) Blood pressure control special role of the kidneys and body fluids. Science, 252, No.5014, 1813 1816. Cerca con Google

80. Guyton, A.C., Hall, J.E. (2000). Textbook of Medical Physiology, rev. ed. Philadelphia: Saunders. Cerca con Google

81. Hagberg, J.M., Park, J.J., Brown, M.D. (2000). The role of exercise training in the treatment of hypertension. An update. Sports Medicine, 30 (3), 193 206. Cerca con Google

82. Hall, J.E. (1997). Mechanisms of abnormal renal sodium handling in obesity hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension. 10, 49S 55S. Cerca con Google

83. Hamm, A., Vaitl, D. (1986). Kardiovasculare und elektrodermale Reaktionspezififat bei essentiellen Grenzwert Hyper tonikern: Ein Konditionierungsexperiment. Zeitung Klinische Psychologie. 15, 201 216 Cerca con Google

84. Hamm, A. O., Cuthbert, B. N., Globisch, J., & Vaitl, D. (1997). Fear and startle reflex: Blink modulation and autonomic response patterns in animal and mutilation fearful subjects. Psychophysiology, 34, 97 107. Cerca con Google

85. Hastrup J.L., Light K.C., Obrist P.A. (1982). Parental hypertension and cardiovascular response to stress in healthy young adults. Psychophysiology, 19, 615 622 Cerca con Google

86. Hastrup J.L., Light K.C., Obrist P.A. (1986). Parental hypertension and cardiovascular response to stress in healty young adults. Psychophysiology; 23:62. Cerca con Google

87. Hawkley L., Burleson M.H., Poehlmann K.M., Berntson G.G., Malarkey W.B., Cacioppo J.T. (2001). Cardiovascular and endocrine reactivity in older females: intertask consistency. Psychophysiology, 38, 863 872 Cerca con Google

88. Haynes, S.G., Levine, S., Scotch, N., Feinleib, M., KAnnel, W.B. (1978). The relationship of psychosocial factors to coronary heart disease in the framingham study, I: methods and risk factors. American journal of Epidemiology. 107, 362 383. Cerca con Google

89. Hejl, Z. (1957). Changes in cardiac output and peripheral resistance during simple stimuli influencing blood pressure. Cardiologia. 31, 375 381. Cerca con Google

90. Hines, E.A.jr, Brown, G.E. (1936). The cold pressor test for measuring the reactibility of blood pressure: data concerning 571 normal and hypertensive subjects. American Heart Journal, 11, 1 9. Cerca con Google

91. Hohnloser, S.H., Klingenheben, T., van de Loo, A., Hablawetz, E., Just, H., Schwartz, P.J. (1994). Reflex versus tonic vagal activity as a prognostic parameter in patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. Circulation, 89, 1068 1073. Cerca con Google

92. Hull, C.L. (1943). Principles of Behavior. New York, Appleton Century. Cerca con Google

93. Hurwitz, B.E., Nelesen, R.A., Saab, P.G., Nagel, J.H., Spitzer, S.B., Gellman, M.D., McCabe, P.M., Phillips, D.J., Schneiderman, N. (1993). Differential patterns of dynamic cardiovascular regulation as a function of task. Biological Psychology, 36, 75 95. Cerca con Google

94. Husain, K., Mejia, J., Lalla, J. (2006). Physiological basis for effect of physical conditioning on chronic ethanol induced hypertension in a rat model. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, 289, 175 183. Cerca con Google

95. Iaccarino, G., Babato, E., Cipolletta, E., Fiorillo, A, Trimarco, B. (2001). Role of the sympathetic nervous system in cardiac remodelling in hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 23, 35 43. Cerca con Google

96. Jamerson, K.A., Julius, S., Gudbrandsson, T. (1993). Reflex sympathetic activation induces acute insulin resistance in the human forearm. Hypertension, 21, 618 623. Cerca con Google

97. Jamerson, K.A. (1994). Vasoconstriction with norepinephrine causes less forearm insulin resistance than a reflex sympathetic vasoconstriction. Hypertension, 23, 813 817. Cerca con Google

98. James, M.A:, Robinson, T.G., Potter, J.F. (2001). The effect of systemic blood pressure on cardio vascular reflexes in elderly subjects. Clinical Physiology, 21, 67 76. Cerca con Google

99. Jatoi, N.A., Jerrard Dunne, P., Feely, J., Mahmud, A. (2007). Inpact of smoking and smoking cessation on arterial stiffness and aortic wave reflection in hypertension. Hypertension, 49, 981 985. Cerca con Google

100. JNC 6 (1997). National high blood pressure education program. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Archives of International Medicine, 157, 2413 2445. Cerca con Google

101. Johannesen, L., Strudsholm, U., Foldager, L, Munk J?rgensen, P. (2005) Increased risk of hypertension in patients with bipolar disorder and patients with anxiety compared to background population and patients with schizophrenia. Journal of Affective Disorders 95, 13 17. Cerca con Google

102. Jonas, B.S., Lando, J.F. (2000). Negative affect as a prospective risk factor for hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62, 188 196. Cerca con Google

103. Jorgensen, R. S., Johnson, B. T., Kolodziej, M. E., and Schreer, G. E. (1996). Elevated blood pressure and personality: A meta analytic review. Psychological Bulletin 120: 293 320. Cerca con Google

104. Juhlin Dannfelt, A., Frisk Holmberg, F., Karlsson, J., Tesch, P. (1979). Central and peripheral circulation in relation to muscle fibre composition in normo and hypertensive man. Clinical Science, 56, 335 340. Cerca con Google

105. Julius, S., Weder, A.B., Egan, B.M. (1983) Pathophysiology of early hypertension: implication for epidemiologic research. In Gross, F., Strasser, T. (Eds), Mild Hypertension: Recent Advances. Raven press, New York, 219 236. Cerca con Google

106. Julius, S., Jamerson, K., Mejia, A., (1990). The Association of Borderline Hypertension with Target Organ Changes and Higher Coronary Risk. Tecumseh Blood Pressure Study. JAMA, 264, 354 358. Cerca con Google

107. Julius, S., Gudbrandsson, T., Jamerson, K.A.(1991). The hemodynamic link between insulin resistance and hypertension (hypothesis). Journal of Hypertension, 9, 983 986. Cerca con Google

108. Julius, S. (1993). Corcoran lecture. Sympathetic hyperactivity and coronary risk in hypertension. Hypertension, 21, 886 893. Cerca con Google

109. Julius S., Nesbitt S. (1996). Sympathetic overactivity in hypertension: a moving target. American Journal of Hypertension, 9, 113s 120s Cerca con Google

110. Julius S. (1996). The evidence for pathophysiologic significance of the sympathetic overactivity in hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension, 18, 305 321 Cerca con Google

111. Jung, R.T., Shetty, P.S:, Barrand, M., Callingham, B.A., James, W.P. (1979). Role of catecholamine in hypotensive response to dieting. British Medical Journal, 1, 12 13. Cerca con Google

112. Kamark, T.W., Lovallo, W.R. (2003). Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological challenge: conceptual and measurement considerations. Psychosomatic Medicine 65, 9 21 Cerca con Google

113. Kannel, W.B., Kannel, C., Paffenbarger, R.S.Jr, Cupples L.A. (1987). Heart rate and cardiovscular mortelity: the Framingham study. American Heart Journal, 113, 1489 1494. Cerca con Google

114. Kaplan, J.R., Manuck, S.B., Clarckson, T.B., Prichard, R.W. (1985). Animal models of behavioral influences on atherogenesis. In Katkin, E.S., Manuck, S.B. (Eds.), Advances in behavioral medicine (Vol 1). Greenwich, CT, JAI. Cerca con Google

115. Kaplan, J.R., Manuck, S.B., Adams, M.R., Weingand, K.W., Clarkson, T.B (1987). Inhibition of coronary atherosclerosis by propranolol in behaviorally predisposed monkeys fed an atherogenic diet. Circulation, 76, 1364 1372. Cerca con Google

116. Kaplan, N.M. (1990). Clinical Hypertension. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins Cerca con Google

117. Kaplan M.S.,. Nunes, A. (2003). The psychosocial determinants of hypertension. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 13, 52 59 Cerca con Google

118. Kaushik R.M., Mahajan S.K., Rajash V., Kaushik R. (2004). Stress profile in Essential Ipertension. Hypertension Research, 27: 619 624. Cerca con Google

119. Kelly, J.J., Mangos, G., Williamson,P.M., Whitworth, J.A. (1998). Cortisol and hypertension. Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology and Physiology Supplement, 25, S51 S56. Cerca con Google

120. Kim J., Kiefe C.I., Liu K., Williams O.D., Jacobs Jr D.R., Oberman A. (1999). Heart rate and subsequent blood pressure in young adults. The CARDIA study. Hypertension, 33, 640 646 Cerca con Google

121. Kimura, G., Saito, F., Kojima, S., Yoshimi, H., Abe, H., Kawano, Y., Yoshida, K., Ashida, T., Kawamura, M., Kuramochi, M. (1987) Renal function curve in patients with secondary forms of hypertension. Hypertension, 10 (1): 11 15. Cerca con Google

122. Kimura, G., Assida, T., Abe, H., Kawano, Y., Yoshimi, H., Sanai, T., Imanishi, M., Yoshida, K., Kawamura, M., Kojima, S., et al.(1990). Sodium sensitive and sodium retaining hypertension. American journal of Hypertension, 3(11): 854 858. Cerca con Google

123. Kjeldsen, S.E., Gjesdal, K., Eide, I. et al. (1983). Increased betathromboglobulin in essential hypertension: interaction between arterial plasma adrenaline, platelet function and blood lipids. Acta Medica Scandinava, 213, 369 373. Cerca con Google

124. Kjeldsen, S.E., Lande, K., Gjesdal, K., Leren, P., Eide, I.K. (1988). Plasma adrenaline: relations to blood pressure, blood platelet function and blood lipids in essential hypertension. Pharmacology and Toxicology, 63(suppl I), 35 37. Cerca con Google

125. Koch, M., Schnitzler, H.U. (1997). The acoustic startle response in rats circuits mediating evocation, inhibition and potentiation. Behavioural Brain Research, 89, 35 49. Cerca con Google

126. Kodavanti, U.P., Schladweiler, M.C., Ledbetter, A. D., Watkinson, W. P., Campen, M. J., Winsett, D. W., Richards, J. R., Crissman, K. M., Hatch, G.E., Costa, D.L. (2000) The spontaneously hypertensive rat as a model of human cardiovascular disease: evidence of exacerbated cardiopulmonary injury and oxidative stress from inhaled emission particulate matter. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 164, 250 263 Cerca con Google

127. Kohler T., Fricke T., Ritz T., Scherbaum N. (1997) Psychophysiological reactivity of borderline hypertensives and their recovery after mental stress. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics; 66(5): 261 267. Cerca con Google

128. Lacey, J.J.(1967). Somatic response patterning and stress: some revisions of activation theory. In Appley, M.H., Trumbull, R. (eds.) Psychological Stress: Issues in Research. New York, Appleton Century Crofts. Cerca con Google

129. Lacey, J.I., Lacey, B.C. (1970). Some autonomic central nervous system interrelationship. Black, P. (Ed.), Physiological correlates of emotion, New York: Academic press. Cerca con Google

130. Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. (1990). Emotion, attention and the startle reflex. Psychological Review, 97, 377 398. Cerca con Google

131. Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., Cuthbert, B.N. (2001). International affective picture system (IAPS): technical manual and affective ratings. Gainesville, FL: The Center for Research in Psychophysiology, University of Florida. Cerca con Google

132. Lassner J.B., Matthews K.A., Stoney C.M. (1994). Are cardiovascular reactors to asocial stress also reactors to social stress? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66, 69 77 Cerca con Google

133. Lawler, K.A., Wilcox, Z.C., Anderson, F.S. (1995). Gender differences in patterns of dynamic cardiovascular regulation. Psychosomatic medicine, 57, 357 365. Cerca con Google

134. Lawler, K.A., Kline, K., Seabrook, E., Krishnamoorthy, J., Anderson, S.F., Wilcox, Z.C., Craig, F., Adlin, R., Thomas, S. (1998). Family history of hypertension: a psychophysiological analysis. International Journal of Psychophysiology 28, 207 222. Cerca con Google

135. Lawler, K.A., Kline, K.A:, Adlin, R.F., Wilcox, Z.C., Craig F.W., Krishnamoorty, J.S., Piferi, R.L. (2001). Psychophysiological correlates of individual differences in patterns of hemodynamic reactivity. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 40, 93 107. Cerca con Google

136. Lazarus S.R., Folkman S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. Springer publishing company, New York Cerca con Google

137. LePailleur, C., Montgermont, P., Feder, J.M., Metzger, J.P., Vacheron, A. (2001). Talking effect and white coat effect in hypertensive patients: physical effort or emotional content? Behavioral Medicine, 26, 149 157. Cerca con Google

138. Lewington, S., Clarke, R., Qizilbash, N., Peto, R., Collins, R. (2002). Age specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies. Lancet, 360, 1903 1913. Cerca con Google

139. Li, J. S., Schiffrin, E.L. (1996). Effect of calcium channel blockade or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition on structure of coronary, renal and other small artarteries in SHR. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology; 28:68 74. Cerca con Google

140. Light, K.C., Sherwood, A. (1989). Race, borderline hypertension, and hemodynamic responses to behavioral stress before and after beta adrenergic blockade. Health Psychology, 8, 577 595. Cerca con Google

141. Light, K.C., Dolan, C.A., Davis, M.R., Sherwood, A., (1992). Cardiovascular responses to an active coping challenge as predictor of blood pressure patterns 10 to 15 years later. Psychosomatic medicine, 54, 217 230 Cerca con Google

142. Light, K.C., Turner, J.R:, Hinderliter, A.L., Sherwood, A. (1993a). Race and gender comparison: I. hemodynamic responses to a series of stressors. Health Psychology, 12, 354 365. Cerca con Google

143. Light, K.C., Turner, J.R:, Hinderliter, A.L., Sherwood, A. (1993b). Race and gender comparison: II. predictions of work blood pressure from laboratory baseline and cardiovascular reactivity measures. Health Psychology, 12, 366 375. Cerca con Google

144. Light, K. L., Girdler, S. S., Sherwood, S., Bragdon, E. E., Brownley, K. A., West, S. G., Hinderliter, A. L., (1999). High stress responsivity predicts later blood pressure only in combination with positive familiy history and high life stress. Hypertension, 33, 1458 1464 Cerca con Google

145. Light, K. C., (2001) Hypertension and the reactivity hypothesis: the next generation, Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 744 746. Cerca con Google

146. Linden, W., Rutledge, T., Con, A. (1998). A case for the usefulness of laboratory social stressors. Annals of Behavioural Medicine, 20, 310 6. Cerca con Google

147. Lovallo, W.R., al’Absi, M. (1998). Hemodynamics during rest and behavioral stress in normotensive men at high risk for hypertension. Psychophysiology, 35, 47 53. Cerca con Google

148. Lovallo, W.R., Thomas, T.L. (2000). Stress hormones in psychophysiological research: emotional, behavioural, and cognitive implications. In Cacioppo, J.T., Tassinary, L.G., Berntson, G.G. (Eds.), Handbook of Psychophysiology, Cambridge University Press, New York. Cerca con Google

149. Lovallo, W.R., Gerin, W.G. (2003). Psychophysiological reactivity: mechanisms and pathways to cardiovascular disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 65, 36 45. Cerca con Google

150. Lovallo, W.R. (2005). Cardiovascular reactivity: Mechanisms and pathways to cardiovascular disease. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 58 ,119 132 Cerca con Google

151. Lucini, D., Di Fede G., Parati, G., Pagani, M. (2005). Impact of chronic psychosocial stress on autonomic cardiovascular reulation in otherwise healthy subjects. Hypertension, 46, 1201 1206. Cerca con Google

152. Majahalme, S., Turjanmaa, V., Weder, A.B., Lu, H., Tuomisto, M., Uusitalo, A. (1998). Office and laboratory blood pressure as predictors of daily blood pressure levels in normotensive subjects and borderline and mild hypertensive subjects. Clinical Physiology, 18, 215 223. Cerca con Google

153. Manuck, S. B., Krantz, D. S., (1986). Psychophysiologic reactivity in coronary heart disease and essential hypertension. In: Matthews, K. A., Weiss, S. M., Detre, T., Dembroski, T. M., Falkner, B., Manuck, S. B., Williams, R. B. Jr, Handbook of Stress, Reactivity, & Cardiovascular Disease, Wiley Interscience, pp. 11 34 Cerca con Google

154. Manuck, S.B., Kasprowicz, A.L., Muldoon, M.F. (1990). Behaviorally evoked cardiovascular reactivity and hypertension: conceptual issues and potential associations. Annals of Behavioral Medicine 12, 17 29. Cerca con Google

155. Manuck, S.B. (1994). Cardiovascular reactivity in cardiovascular disease: “once more onto the breach”. International Journal of Behavioural Medicine, 1, 4 31. Cerca con Google

156. Markovitz, J.H., Matthews, K.A., Kannel, W.B., Cobb, J.L., D’Agostino, R.B. (1993). Psychological predictors of hypertension in the framingham study. Is there tension in hypertension? JAMA, 270 (20), 2439 2443. Cerca con Google

157. Matthews, K.A, Woodall, K.L., Allen, M.T. (1993). Cardiovascular reactivity to stress predicts future blood pressure status. Hypertension 22, 479 485. Cerca con Google

158. Matthews, K.A., Katholi, C.R., McCreath, H., Whooley, M.A., Williams, D.R., Zhu, S., Makovitz, J.H. (2004). Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress predicts hypertension in the CARDIA Study. Circulation, 110, 74 78. Cerca con Google

159. McKinney, M., Miner, M., Ruddel, H., McIlvain, H., Witte, H., Buell, J., Eliot, R.(1985). The standardized mental stress test protocol. Test retest reliability and comparison wit ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Psychophysiology, 22, 453 463. Cerca con Google

160. Meijs, M.F.L., Bots, M.L., Vonken, E J.A., Cramer, M J.M., Melman, P.G., Velthuis, B.K., Van der Graaf, Y., Mali, W.P.Th.M., Doevendans, P.A. (2007). Rationale and design of the SMART heart study. Netherlands Heart Journal, 15, 295 298 Cerca con Google

161. MillgÄrd, J, Lind, L., (1998). Acute hypertension impairs endothelium dependent vasodilation. Clinical Science, 94, 601 607 Cerca con Google

162. Mills, P.J., Farag, N.H., Hong, S., Kennedy, B.P., Berry, C.C., Zieglerc, M.G. (2003). Immune cell CD62L and CD11a expression in response to a psychological stressor in human hypertension. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity 17, 260 267. Cerca con Google

163. Mitchell, J.H., Kaufman, M.P., Iwamoto, G. (1983). The exercise pressor reflex: its cardiovascular effects, afferent mechanisms, and central pathways. Annual review of Physiology, 45, 229 242. Cerca con Google

164. Miyajima, E., Yamada, Y., Yoshida, Y., et al. (1991). Muscle sympathetic nerve activity in renovascular hypertension and primary aldosteronism. Hypertension, 17, 1057 1062. Cerca con Google

165. Moreno, C., Kaldunsky, M.L., Wang, T., Roman, R.J., Greene, A.S., Lazar, J., Jacob, H.J., Cowley, A. W. Jr. (2007). Multiple blood pressure loci on rat chromosome 13 attenuate the development of hypertension in the Dahl S hypertensive rat. Physiological Genomics 12. Cerca con Google

166. Morrison, A.C., Cooper, R., Hunt, S., Lewis, C.E., Luke, A., Mosley, T.H., Boerwinkle, E. (2004). Genome wide scan for hypertension in nonobese african americans. The national heart, lung and blood institute family blood pressure program. American Journal of Hypertension 17, 834 838. Cerca con Google

167. Morrison, R.L., Belack, A.S., Manuck, S.B. (1985). Role of social competence in borderline essential hypertension. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53 (2) , 248 255. Cerca con Google

168. Mullins, L.J., Bailey, M.A., Mullins, J.J. (2006). Hypertension, kidney and transgenic: a fresh perspective. Physiological Review, 86, 709 746. Cerca con Google

169. Mulvany, M.(1996). Effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors on vascular remodeling of resistance vessels in hypertensive patients. Journal of Hypertension, 14(suppl 6):S21 S24. Cerca con Google

170. Murphy, F.C., Nimmo Smith, I., Lawrence, A.D. (2003). Functional neuroanatomy of emotions. Cognitive and Affective Behavior Neuroscience, 3, 207 233. Cerca con Google

171. North, C.S., Hong, B.A., Alpers, D.H. (2007). Relationship of functional gastrointestinal disorders and psychiatric disorders: implication for treatment. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 13, 2020 2027. Cerca con Google

172. NyklĂŹ?ek, I., Wijnen, V., Rau, H. (2005). Effects of baroreceptor stimulation and opioids on the auditory startle reflex. Psychophysiology, 42, 213 222. Cerca con Google

173. Obrist, P. A., (1981). Cardiovascular psychophysiology: A perspective. Plenum Press, New York. Cerca con Google

174. Orth Gomer, K., Wamala, S.P., Horsten, M., Schenck Gustafsson, K., Schneiderman, N., Mittleman, M.A. (2000) Marital stress worsens prognosis in women with coronary heart disease: the Stockholm female coronary risk study. JAMA, 284, 3008 14. Cerca con Google

175. Ottaviani, C., Shapiro, D., Goldstein, I.B., James, J.E., Weiss, R. (2006). Hemodynamic profile, compensation deficit, and ambulatory blood pressure. Psychophysiology, 43, 46 56. Cerca con Google

176. Palatini, P. (1988). Blood pressure behaviour during physical activity. Sports Medicine, 5, 353 374. Cerca con Google

177. Palatini, P., Palomba, D., Bertolo, O., Minghetti, R., Longo, D., Sarlo, M., Pessina, A.C. (2003) The white coat effect is unrelated to the difference between clinic and daytime blood pressure and is associated with greater reactivity to public speaking. Journal of Hypertension, 21:545 553. Cerca con Google

178. Palatini, P., Julius, S. (2004). Elevated heart rate: a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Clinical and experimental hypertension, 26, 637 644. Cerca con Google

179. Palatini, P., Benetos, A:, Julius, S. (2006). Inpact of increased heart rate on clinical outcomes in hypertension: implications for antihypertensive drug therapy. Current opinion. Drugs, 66, 133 144. Cerca con Google

180. Parati, G.F., Pomidossi,G., Casadei, R., Rasogli, A., Groppelli, A:, Cesana, B., Mancia, G. (1988). Comparison of the cardiovascular effects of different laboratori stressor and their relationship with blood pressare variabilità . Journal of Hypertension, 6, 481 488. Cerca con Google

181. Pennisi, P., Sarlo, M. (1998). Indici Elettrofisiologici in Psicologia. CLEUP Editrice: Padova. Cerca con Google

182. Perini, G., Zara, M., Cipriani, M., Carraio, C., Preti, A., Gava, F., Coghi, P., Peserico, A. (1994). Imipramine in alopecia areata. A double blind, placebo controlled study. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 61, 195 198. Cerca con Google

183. Perkins, K.A., Dubbert, P.M., Martin, J.E., Faulstich, M.E., Harris, J.K. (1986). Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress in aerobically trained versus untrained mild hypertensives and normotensives. Health Psychology, 5 (4), 407 421. Cerca con Google

184. Quigley, K.S., Berntson, G.G. (1990).Autonomic origins of cardiac responses to nonsignal stimuli in the rat. Behavioral Neuroscience, 104, 751 762. Cerca con Google

185. Radloff, L.S. (1977). The CES D Scale. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 383 401. Cerca con Google

186. Ramsay, L.E., Williams, B., Johnston, G.D., MacGregor, G.A., Poston, L., Potter, J.F., Poulter, N.R., Russell, G. (1999). Guidelines for management of hypertension: report of the third working party of the British Hypertension Society. Journal of Human Hypertension 13, 569 592. Cerca con Google

187. Rau, H., (1989). Beispiele kardiovaskular zentralnervo ser Interaktionen. Peter Lang, Frankfurt. Cerca con Google

188. Redman, R., Schwartz, J.E., Schnall, P.L., Landbergis, P.A., Pieper, C., Gerin, W., Pickering, T.G. (2001). Psychological variables in hypertension: relationship to casual or ambulatory blood pressure in men. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 19 31. Cerca con Google

189. Roberts R.J., Weerts T.C. (1982). Cardiovascular responding during anger and fear imagery. Psychological reports, 50, 219 230 Cerca con Google

190. Rockstroh, B., Dworkin, B.R., Lutzenberger, W., Ernst, M., Elbert T, Birbaumer, N. (1988). The Influence of baroreceptor activation on pain perception. In: Elbert, T., Langosch, W., Steptoe, A., Vaitl, D. (eds.). Behavioral medicine in cardiovascular disorders. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons. Cerca con Google

191. Rutledge, T., Linden, W., Paul, D. (2001). The stability of cardiovascular reactivity: effects of task type and family history over a 3 year interval. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 8, 293 303. Cerca con Google

192. Rutledge, T., Hogan, B.E. (2002). A quantitative review of prospective evidence linking psychological factors with hypertension development. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 758 766. Cerca con Google

193. Saab, P.G. (1989). Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to challenge in males and females. In Schneiderman, S.M., Weiss, S.M., Kauffmenn, P.G. Handbook of Research Methods in Cardiovascular Behavioral Medicine. New York, Plenum Press. Cerca con Google

194. Saab P.J., Llabre M.M., Frame C.A., Reinejke L.J., Fins A.I., Mc Calla J., Gieply C.K., Scheiderman N. (1992) Miocardial and peripheral vascular responses to behavioral challenges and their stability. Psychophisiology; 29: 384 397. Cerca con Google

195. Sacks, F.M., Svetkey, L.P., Vollmer, W.M., Appel, L.J., Bray, G.A., Harsha, D., Obarzanek, E., Conlin, P.R., Miller, E.R. III, Simons Morton, D.G., Karanja, N., Lin, P.H., For the DASH Sodium Collaborative Group (2001). Effects on blood pressure of reduced dietary sodium and the dietary approaches to stop hypertension (DASH) Diet. The New England Journal of Medicine. 344(1) 3 10. Cerca con Google

196. Samani, N.J. (2003) Genome scans for hypertension and blood pressure regulation. American Journal of Hypertension 16, 167 171. Cerca con Google

197. Sarlo M., Palomba D., Buodo G., Minghetti R., Stegagno L. (2005). Blood pressure changes highlight gender differences in emotional reactivity to arousing pictures. Biological Psychology, 70,188 196. Cerca con Google

198. Schnall, P.L., Schwartz, J.E., Landsbergis, P.A., Warren, K., Pickering, T.G. (1998). A longitudinal study of job strain and ambulatory blood pressure: results from a three year follow up. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60, 697 706. Cerca con Google

199. Schneiderman, N., Weiss, S.M., Kauffmann, P.G. (1989). Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular bahavioral medicine. Plenum Press New York. Cerca con Google

200. Schneiderman, N.,McCabe, P.M. (1989). Psychophysiologic strategies in laboratory research. In Schneiderman, N., Weiss, S.M., Kauffmann, P.G. (Eds.). Handbook of research methods in cardiovascular bahavioral medicine. Plenum Press New York Cerca con Google

201. Schneirla, T. (1959). An evolutionary and developmental theory of biphasic processes underlying approach and withdrawal. In Jones, M. (eds.) Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Lincoln, University of Nebraska Press. Cerca con Google

202. Schulz, R., Beach, S.R. (1999). Caregiving as a risk factor for mortality: the caregiver health effects study. JAMA 1999;282:2215 9. Cerca con Google

203. Schum, J.L., Jorgense, R.S., Verhaeghen, P., Sauro, M., Thibodeau, R. (2003) Trait anger, anger expression, and ambulatory blood pressure: a meta analytic review. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 26 (5), 395 415. Cerca con Google

204. Schwartz G.E., Weinberger D.A., Singer J.A. (1981). Cardiovascular differentiation of happiness, sadness, anger and fear following imagery and exercise. Psychosomatic Medicine, 43, 343 364 Cerca con Google

205. Schwartz, P.J., LaRovere, M.T., Vanoli, E. (1992). Autonomic nervous system and sudden death. Circulation, 85 (suppl 1):77 91. Cerca con Google

206. Schwartz, A.R., Gerin, W., Davidson, K.W., Pickering, T.G., Brosschot, J.F., Thayer, J.F., Christenfeld, N., Linden, W. (2003). Toward a causal model of cardiovascular responses to stress and the development of cardiovascular disease. Psychosomatic Medicine. 65, 22 35. Cerca con Google

207. Sherwood, A., Dolan, C.A., Light, K.C. (1990). Hemodynamics of blood pressure responses during active and passive coping. Psychophysiology, 27, 656 668. Cerca con Google

208. Sherwood A., Turner J.R. (1995). Hemodynamic responses during psychological stress: implications for studying disease processes. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 2, 193 218 Cerca con Google

209. Shiffrin, E.L. (2004). Remodeling of resistance arteries in essential hypertension and effects of antihypertensive treatment. American Journal of Hypertension, 17, 1192 2000. Cerca con Google

210. Shinn, E.H., Carlos Poston, W.S., Kimball, K.T., St.Jeor, S.T., Foreyt, J.P. (2001). Blood pressure and symptoms of depression and anxiety: a prospective study. American Journal of Hypertension, 14, 660 664) Cerca con Google

211. Sinha R, Lovallo W.R., Parsons O.A. (1992). Cardiovascular differentiation of emotion. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 422 435. Cerca con Google

212. Smith,T.W., and Christensen, A. J. (1992). Cardiovascular reactivity and interpersonal relations: psychosomatic processes in social context. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology 11: 279 301. Cerca con Google

213. Sokolov, E.N. (1963). Perception and the conditioned reflex. Oxford, U.K.. Pergamon. Cerca con Google

214. Sokolov E.N., Cacioppo J.T. (1997). Orienting and defense reflexes: vector coding the cardiac response, in P.J. Lang, R.F. Simons (eds.), Attention and orienting: sensory and motivational processes. Mahwah: Lawrence Earl Baum Associates. Cerca con Google

215. Spielberger, C.D. (1983). Manual for the state trait anxiety inventory (STAI). Palo Alto, CA. Consulting Psychologists Press. Cerca con Google

216. Spielberger, C.D., Johnson E.H., Russel F.S., Crane, R., Jacobs, G.A., Worden, T.J. (1985). The experience and expression of anger: construction and validation of an anger expression scale. In: Chesney, M.A., Rosenmann, R.H. (a cura di). Anger and hostility in cardiovascular and behavioral disorders. Hemisphere, Washington D.C. Cerca con Google

217. Stefanick, M.L., Mackey, S., Sheehan, N., Ellsworth, N., Haskell, W.L., Wood, P.D. (1998). Effects of diet and exercise in men and postmenopausal women with low levels of HDL cholesterol and high levels of LDL cholesterol. The New England Journal of Medicine. 339 (1), 12 20. Cerca con Google

218. Steptoe, A. (1981). Psychophysiological factors in cardiovascular disorders. Academic Press, London. Cerca con Google

219. Steptoe A, Melville D, Ross A (1984): Behavioral response demands, cardiovascular reactivity and essential hypertension. Psychosomatic Medicine; 46: 33 48. Cerca con Google

220. Stevens, V. J., Obarzanek, E., Cook N. R., Lee I.M., Appel L. J., Smith West D.,Milas N.C., Mattfeldt Beman, M., Belden, L., Bragg, C., Millstone, M.,Raczynski, J., Brewer, A., Singh, B., Cohen, J., for the Trials of Hypertension Prevention Research Group (2001). Long term weight loss and changes in blood pressure: results of the trials of hypertension prevention, phase II. Annals of Internal Medicine, 134 1 11. Cerca con Google

221. Strawn, W.B., Bonjers, G., Kaplan, J.R., Manuck, S.B., Schwenke, D.C:, Hansson, G.K., Shively, C.A:, Clarkson, T.B. (1991). Endothelial dysfunction in response to psychosocial stress in monkeys. Circulation research, 68, 1270 1279. Cerca con Google

222. Stroop, J.R. (1935). Studies of interference in serial verbal reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18, 643 662. Cerca con Google

223. Suls, J., Wan, C.K., Costa, P.T.(1995). Relationship of trait anger to resting blood pressure: a meta analysis. Health Psychology, 14, 444 456. Cerca con Google

224. Tomson, J., Lip, G.Y.H. (2005). Blood pressure demographics: nature or nurture
Genes or environment? BMC Medicine, 3:3. Cerca con Google

225. Tousoulis, D., Tsarpalis, K., Cokkinos, D., Stefanadis, C. (2007). Effects of insulin resistance on endothelial function: possible mechanisms and clinical implications. Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, in press. Cerca con Google

226. Van Doornen, L.J.P., Van Blokland, R.W. (1992). The relationship between cardiovascular and catecholamine reactions to laboratory and real life stress. Psychophysiology, 29, 173 181. Cerca con Google

227. Vila, J., Guerra, P., Munoz, M.A., Vico, C., Viedma del Jesus, M.I., Delgado, L.C., Perakakis, P., Kley, E., Mata, J.L., Rodriguez, S. (2007). Cardiac defense: from attention to action. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 66, 169 182 Cerca con Google

228. Vrana S.R., Lang P.J. (1990). Fear imagery and the startle probe reflex. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99, 189 197. Cerca con Google

229. Vrana, S. R., Spence, E. L., & Lang, P. J. (1988). The startle probe response: A new measure of emotion? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 487 491. Cerca con Google

230. Vural, M., Ć atirolu, Ö., Akba?, Göksel, I., Karabay, Ö. (2007). Association between depression and anxiety symptoms and major atherosclerosis risk factors in patients with chest pain. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine. 212, 169 175. Cerca con Google

231. Weiss, S. M., (1986) Introduction and overview. In: Matthews, K. A., Weiss, S. M., Detre, T., Dembroski, T. M., Falkner, B., Manuck, S. B., Williams, R. B. Jr, Handbook of Stress, Reactivity, & Cardiovascular Disease, Wiley Interscience, pp. 1 7. Cerca con Google

232. Whelton, P.K., He, J., Appel, L.J., Cutler, J.A:, Havas, S., Kotchen, T.A., Roccella, E.J., Stout, R., Vallbona, C., Winston, M.C., Karimbakas, J. (2002). Primary prevention of hypertension: clinical and public health advisory from the national high blood pressure education program. JAMA, 288, 1882 1888. Cerca con Google

233. Whitworth, J.A., Kelly, J.J., Brown, M.A., Williamson, P.M., Lawson, J.A. (1997). Glucocorticoids and hypertension in man. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension Part A Theory and Practice, 19, 871 884 Cerca con Google

234. Wilhelmsen, I. (2005). Biological sensitisation and psychological amplification: Gateways to subjective health complaints and somatoform disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30, 990 995. Cerca con Google

235. Williams, S.S. (2007). Advances in genetic hypertension. Current Opinion in Pediatrics 19, 192 198. Cerca con Google

236. Wilson, J.D., Foster, D.W. (1992). Williams textbook of endocrinology. Philadelphia, Saunders. Cerca con Google

237. Wolf, S., Wolff, H.G. (1951). A summary of experimental evidence relating life stress to the pathogenesis of essential hypertension in man. In Bell, E.T. (Ed.), Hypertension: A Symposium. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 288 322. Cerca con Google

238. Wolf, S. (1955). Life stress and essential hypertension: a study of circulatory adjustment in man. Williams and Wilkins. Cerca con Google

239. Wong, T.J.; Klein, R., Sharrett, A.R., Duncan, B.B., Couper, D.J., Tielsch, J.M., Klein, B.E., Hubard, L.D. (2002). Retinal arteriolar narrowing and risk of coronary heart disease in men and women. The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. JAMA. 287, 1153 1159. Cerca con Google

240. Wong, T.Y., Mitchell, P. (2004). Hypertensive retinopathy. New England Journal of Medicine. 351 2310 2317. Cerca con Google

241. World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Guidelines Subcommitee (1999). 1999 World Health Organization International Society of Hypertension Guidelines for the management of hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 17(2), 151 183. Cerca con Google

242. World Health Organization, International Society of Hypertension Writing Group (2003). 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. Journal of Hypertension, 21, 1983 1992. Cerca con Google

243. Xin, X., He, J., Frontini, M.G., Ogden, L.G., Motsamai, O.I., Whelton, P.K. (2001). Effects of alcool reduction on blood pressure: a meta analysis of randomized controlled trials. Hypertension 38 (5) 1112 1117. Cerca con Google

244. Yan, L.L., Liu, K., Matthews, K.A., Daviglus, M.L., Ferguson, T.F., Kiefe, C.I. (2003). Psychosocial factors and risk of hypertension: coronary artery risk development in young adults (CARDIA) study. JAMA, 290, 2138 2148. Cerca con Google

245. Zamir, N., Schuber, E. (1980). Hypertension induced analgesia: changes in pain sensitivity in experimental hypertensive rats. Brain Research. 160, 170 173. Cerca con Google

246. Zeman, R.J., Ludemann, R., Easton, T.G.(1988). Slow to fast alterations in skeletal muscle fibers caused by clenbuterol, a beta 2 receptor agonist. American Journal of Physiology, 254:E726 E732. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record