Vai ai contenuti. | Spostati sulla navigazione | Spostati sulla ricerca | Vai al menu | Contatti | Accessibilità

| Crea un account


Full text disponibile come:

Documento PDF (Tesi di dottorato)

Abstract (inglese)

The present thesis comprises two main parts: one theoretical and one experimental. The first part, composed of two chapters, is an in-depth introduction to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and its simultaneous use with neuroimaging techniques (coregistration). The second part is composed of some of the studies I conducted during my PhD. I chose to include three studies representing the different aspects of my research in the last three years, mainly regarding the study and the application of TMS-EEG coregistration in research (study 1), clinics (study 2) and technical methodology (study 3). The first study (study 1), conducted at the Department of General Psychology of Padova, was aimed to investigate the neuromodulatory effects of an rTMS protocol on healthy volunteers. The second study (study 2) was conducted at the Institute of Neurology of University College London in the context of the international “TrackOnHD” longitudinal project aimed to investigate Huntington disease (HD) in a multimodal approach. The target of this study was to investigate possible TMS-EEG markers of inhibition deficits in Huntington patients. The third study (study 3), conducted in collaboration with the Department of Information Engineering of Padova, was aimed to develop an algorithm of correction to remove an artefact induced by TMS during EEG recordings.

In the last twenty years the development of new techniques able to investigate the brain function in vivo during cognitive and motor tasks lead to impressive advances in understanding the human brain. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a tool whose popularity has grown progressively thanks to its ability to stimulate the brain in a focal and non-invasive way (Barker et al., 1985), permitting to establish a causal link in the brain-cognition/motor-behaviour relationship (Pascual-Leone et al., 2000).
In the first chapter of this thesis the possible applications of TMS in the field of cognition, physiology and rehabilitation are discussed. Specifically, the first part focuses on the operating mechanisms of TMS and on the different stimulation parameters that define the effects of the stimulation. In the second part of the first chapter, the three main TMS protocols are discussed: single-pulse TMS, which is used in the temporal and spatial characterization of cognitive processes, in the study of motor cortex reactivity, and in the investigation of the cortico-spinal tract functioning; paired-pulse TMS, that investigates the connectivity and the interaction of cerebral networks at rest or during a task performance; and repetitive TMS (rTMS), that explores the cerebral plasticity processes both in relation to cognitive processing and for rehabilitation treatments.

Despite the widespread use of TMS in current research, its mechanism of action is still poorly understood (Miniussi et al., 2010). This lack in comprehension results from missing a firsthand “visible” marker of cortical response and a need for secondary measures of primary motor and visual cortex stimulation. In the last twenty years, thanks to the progressive improvements in neuroimaging technology, the first attempts to simultaneously use TMS with other neuroimaging techniques have been made possible (e.g. TMS-EEG, Ilmoniemi et al., 1997; TMS-PET, Paus et al., 1997). On one hand, the possibility to actively stimulate the brain with TMS allows to establish “causal” inferences in neuroimaging studies, in which, traditionally, only “correlational” inferences were possible. On the other hand, neuroimaging techniques potentially provide an important contribution through the spatial and temporal information of the neural activation evoked by TMS.
In the second chapter of this thesis, the strong and the weak points of different TMS-neuroimaging coregistration approaches are depicted. Specifically, the middle part of the chapter focuses on the main topic of this thesis, i.e. the TMS-EEG coregistration. TMS-EEG, among the different approaches, is the most successful and widespread, thanks to its promising value in the investigation of brain dynamics. Indeed, EEG is able to record the post-synaptic potentials following the neuronal depolarization evoked by TMS at a high temporal resolution (Ilmoniemi et al., 1997). The analysis of the TMS-evoked EEG activity in terms of time, space, frequency and power, potentially provides important and accurate information in the local activation induced by the stimulation (cerebral reactivity), in the spread of such activation (cerebral connectivity), and in the long-lasting neuromodulatory effects following rTMS protocols (cerebral plasticity).
On the other hand, the TMS-EEG coregistration, presents several technical difficulties mainly due to the different artefacts that electromagnetic stimulation induces in the EEG signal. These aspects are discussed thoroughly in the second chapter. Finally, the last part of the second chapter is dedicated to the other TMS coregistration approaches with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

The neuromodulatory effects of rTMS have been mostly investigated by means of peripheral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). However, MEPs are an indirect measure of cortical excitability, also being affected by spinal excitability. The development of new TMS-compatible EEG systems allowed the direct investigation of the stimulation effects through the cortical responses evoked by TMS (TEPs). In this study, we investigated the effects of a repetitive TMS (rTMS) protocol delivered at low frequency (1 Hz), which is known to produce an inhibitory effect on cortical excitability (Chen et al., 1997). The protocol was applied over the primary motor cortex of 15 healthy volunteers and, as a control, over the primary visual cortex of 15 different healthy volunteers to examine the spatial specificity of the stimulation. The effects of the stimulation were analyzed in both groups through the single-pulse stimulation of the primary motor cortex, before and immediately after the rTMS protocol. Different measures were tested: MEPs, TEPs, local mean field power and scalp maps of the activity distribution.
Results on MEPs amplitude showed a significant reduction following the rTMS over the primary motor cortex. Results on TEPs, showed a well-known TEPs pattern evoked by single-pulse stimulation of the motor cortex: P30, N45, P60 and N100. Following the motor cortex rTMS, we observed a significant increase of P60 and N100 amplitude, whose origin has been linked to the GABAb-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (Ferreri et al., 2011; Premoli et al, 2014). Results on LMFP, showed an increase of general activity induced by the single-pulse stimulation of the motor cortex, starting from 90 ms after the TMS pulse. This latency actually corresponds to the peak of GABAb inhibition. No significant effects were detected after rTMS of the primary visual cortex.
The results of this study are relevant in three main aspects: (1) we confirmed the inhibitory effect of 1-hz rTMS, also providing a central correlate of such effect (TEPs); (2) we defined the spatial specificity and the origin of the inhibitory effect of 1-Hz rTMS; (3) we confirmed the possible role of the TMS-evoked N100 as a cortical inhibitory marker. The present findings could be of relevance both for therapeutic purposes, especially for pathologies characterized by inhibitory deficits (e.g. Parkinson’s disease; Huntington’s disease); and for basic research, especially in studies aimed to correlate a behavioral performance to the amount of cerebral excitability.

Recent studies have shown the potential value of combining TMS and EEG for clinical and diagnostic purposes. Several TMS-EEG measures in terms of evoked potentials (i.e. TEPs), brain sources analysis, oscillatory activity and global power has been used in the assessment of brain dynamics deficits in several pathologies, such as: schizophrenia (Ferrarelli et al., 2008); psychotic disorders (Hoppenbrouwers et al., 2008); depression (Kähkönen et al., 2005); awareness disorders (Massimini et al., 2005); epilepsy (Rotenborg et al., 2008) and autism (Sokhadze et al., 2012). For instance, the potential contribution of TEPs in the investigation of the cerebral facilitatory/inhibitory balance has been demonstrated, given their origin from different GABAergic neuronal populations (Ferreri et al., 2011; Premoli et al., 2014). In particular, the TMS-evoked N100 has been related to the amount of GABAergic inhibition, as shown by pharmacological (e.g. Kähkönen et al., 2003) and behavioral research (e.g. Bender et al., 2005; Bonnard et al., 2009) as well as studies in patients (e.g. Helfrich et al., 2013).
As a part of the multi-site international “TrackOnHD” project, we used TMS-EEG to investigate the electrophysiological markers of motor cortex stimulation in Huntington patients. In Huntington’s disease (HD) the progressive degeneration of GABAergic neurons in the striatum lead to a strong reduction of inhibition, resulting in an excessive increase in glutamatergic excitability (i.e. excitoxicity). Our study compared a group of 12 HD patients with a group of 12 healthy volunteers over several different TMS-EEG, EMG, fMRI and clinical measures (in the chapter only the TMS-EEG results are reported).
We found a specific and significant decrease of the N100 as assessed by the time point-by-time point permutation analysis of TEPs and from the analysis of the global activity from 90 to 104 ms after the TMS pulse. Scalp maps of the activity distribution showed a bilateral decrease of negativity, such effect was stronger over the site of stimulation. Event-related spectral perturbation and inter-trial coherence analysis showed a significant difference in the oscillatory activity of the two groups within the GABAb-ergic time window (i.e. 60-110 ms after the TMS pulse). We speculated that the observed results might be produced by the deficit in GABAergic inhibition as a consequence of the striatum neuronal degeneration in HD patients. Although preliminary, these results provided potentially useful TMS-EEG markers for inhibitory deficits in HD patients. Further analyses are needed to correlate the present findings with the other measures collected.

During EEG recording the discharge of the TMS coil may generate an artefact that can last for tens of milliseconds, known as “decay artefact” (Rogasch et al., 2014). This can represent a problem for the analysis of the TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). So far, two main strategies of correction have been proposed involving the use of a linear detrend or independent component analysis (ICA). However, none of these solutions may be considered optimal: firstly, because in most of the cases the decay artefact shows a non-linear trend; secondly, because the ICA correction (1) might be influenced by individual researcher’s choices and (2) might cause the removal of physiological responses.
Our aim is to verify the feasibility of a new adaptive detrend able to discriminate the different trends of the decay (linear or non-linear). Forty healthy volunteers were stimulated with 55 TMS pulses over the left M1. The TMS-EEG responses were compared among five conditions: RAW (no correction of the decay artefact was applied); INFOMAX29 (the decay components were extracted and removed by the INFOMAX ICA algorithm, using 31 electrodes); FASTICA (the decay components were extracted and removed by the fastICA ICA algorithm, using 31 electrodes); INFOMAX15 (the decay components were extracted and removed by the INFOMAX ICA algorithm, using 15 electrodes) and ALG (the decay artefact was corrected through the use of an adaptive algorithm). To assess whether the artefact correction significantly affected the physiological responses to TMS as well, we examined the differences in the -100 + 400 ms time window around the TMS pulse by means of a non-parametric, cluster-based, permutation statistical test. Then we compared the peak-to-peak TEPs amplitude within the detected time windows. The grand-averaged EEG response revealed five main peaks: P30, N45, P60, N100 and P180. Significant differences (i.e. Monte Carlo p-values < 0.05) were detected in a cluster nearby the TMS coil, and specifically over FC1, CP1, C3 and FC2. Repeated-measures ANOVA revealed a significant corruption of the peak-to-peak amplitude after INFOMAX29 (3 TEPs out of 8), FASTICA (4 TEPs out of 12), INFOMAX15 (5 TEPs out of 15) and ALG correction (2 TEPs out of 15), compared to the original signal. Furthermore, abnormal LMFP and TEPs scalp distribution were detected following the INFOMAX29 and FASTICA correction. When our algorithm was used, however, the TEPs amplitude, morphology and distribution was in line with the literature and not significantly different from the original signal. Also the decay artefact was correctly removed.
The main contribution of this study is the proposal of a new adaptive algorithm to correct the decay artefact induced by TMS in the EEG signal. Our results demonstrated that the proposed adaptive detrend is a reliable solution for the correction of this artefact, especially considering that, contrary to ICA, (1) it is not dependent from the number of recording channels; (2) it does not affect the physiological responses and (3) it is completely independent from the experimenter’s choices.

Abstract (italiano)

La presente tesi si compone di due parti principali: una teorica e una sperimentale. La prima parte, suddivisa in due capitoli, è un approfondimento teorico sullo strumento stimolazione magnetica transcranica (TMS) e sul suo utilizzo simultaneo (ossia, in coregistrazione) con le tecniche di neuroimaging. La seconda parte comprende alcuni degli studi condotti durante il mio dottorato. Nello specifico, si tratta di tre studi che coprono i diversi aspetti applicativi delle ricerche che ho condotto in questi tre anni, ossia lo studio e l’utilizzo della coregistrazione TMS-EEG in ricerca (studio 1), in ambito clinico (studio 2) e per aspetti tecnico-metodologici (studio 3). Il primo studio (studio 1), condotto nel Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale di Padova, era volto all’analisi degli effetti neuromodulatori di un protocollo rTMS su volontari sani. Il secondo studio (study 2) è stato condotto all’Istituto di Neurologia dello University College London (Londra, Regno Unito) all’interno del progetto internazionale “TrackOnHD”, uno studio longitudinale avente come obiettivo l'indagine approfondita della Malattia di Huntington (HD) attraverso un approccio multimodale. L’obiettivo di questo studio era la ricerca di potenziali marker TMS-EEG che riflettessero il deficit di inibizione cerebrale che caratterizza questa patologia. Il terzo studio (study 3), svolto in collaborazione col Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione di Padova, aveva l’obiettivo di sviluppare un algoritmo di correzione in grado di rimuovere un artefatto indotto dalla TMS durante la registrazione EEG.

Negli ultimi anni lo sviluppo di nuove tecniche in grado di analizzare l’attivazione cerebrale durante processi cognitivi e motori, ha portato ad un avanzamento progressivo delle conoscenze sul cervello umano. La stimolazione magnetica transcranica (TMS) è stata uno degli strumenti la cui popolarità è cresciuta in questi ultimi anni, grazie alla possibilità di stimolare, in modo focale e non invasivo, il cervello in vivo (Barker et al., 1985). Tale capacità ha consentito, per la prima volta, la straordinaria possibilità di inferire delle relazioni causali tra cervello, processi cognitivi e motori, e comportamento (Pascual-Leone et al., 2000).
Nel primo capitolo della presente tesi vengono passate in rassegna tutte le possibili applicazioni della TMS in campo cognitivo, fisiologico e riabilitativo. Nello specifico, la prima parte è dedicata ai meccanismi di funzionamento della TMS e ai parametri di stimolazione che ne definiscono i diversi effetti sul cervello. Nella seconda parte vengono invece passati in rassegna i tre principali protocolli di stimolazione: la TMS a singolo impulso, utilizzata per la caratterizzazione spaziale e temporale dei processi cognitivi, per analizzare la reattività della corteccia motoria primaria, e per verificare l’integrità del tratto cortico-spinale; la TMS a doppio impulso, per studiare la connettività e l’interazione di network cerebrali a riposo e durante lo svolgimento di un task; e la TMS ripetitiva (rTMS), utilizzata per analizzare i fenomeni di plasticità cerebrale sia durante processi cognitivi, sia in relazione a trattamenti riabilitativi.

Nonostante la grande popolarità che la TMS ha conosciuto negli ultimi anni, molti aspetti del suo meccanismo d’azione sono ancora poco chiari (Miniussi et al., 2010). Tale ambiguità è dovuta al fatto che, fatta eccezione per la corteccia motoria e visiva primaria, la stimolazione TMS non fornisce dei marker “visibili” di eccitabilità corticale. Negli ultimi anni, grazie al miglioramento tecnologico degli strumenti di indagine neuroscientifica, si è iniziato a utilizzare simultaneamente (in coregistrazione) la TMS con diverse tecniche di neuroimaging. Ciò ha consentito di trarre delle inferenze di tipo “causale” e non più solo “correlazionale” (come nei tradizionali studi di neuroimaging) grazie alle informazioni spaziali e temporali sull’effetto della TMS che le tecniche di neuroimaging offrono.
Nel secondo capitolo della presente tesi, vengono trattati dettagliatamente le potenzialità e i limiti delle diverse coregistrazioni TMS-neuroimaging. In particolare, nella parte centrale del capitolo è dato ampio spazio all’argomento centrale di questa tesi, ossia la coregistrazione TMS-EEG. L’approccio TMS-EEG, tra i vari metodi di coregistrazione, è stato quelli che negli ultimi anni ha riscontrato maggiore successo e diffusione, dovuto all’enorme potenzialità che questo metodo garantisce nello studio delle dinamiche cerebrali. L’EEG, infatti, è in grado di registrare, ad altissima risoluzione temporale, i potenziali post-sinaptici indotti dalla depolarizzazione neuronale evocata dalla TMS (Ilmoniemi et al., 1997). L’analisi dell’attività EEG indotta dalla TMS - in termini di tempo, spazio, frequenza e potenza - è in grado di fornire delle preziose informazioni sia sull’attivazione locale indotta dalla stimolazione (reattività cerebrale), sia su quella distale (connettività cerebrale), sia sulle modificazioni a seguito di protocolli di stimolazione ripetitiva (plasticità cerebrale).
D’altra parte, la coregistrazione TMS-EEG presenta numerose difficoltà di tipo tecnico, dovuto ai numerosi artefatti che la stimolazione elettromagnetica induce sul segnale EEG (così come sui segnali delle altre tecniche di neuroimaging), questi aspetti sono trattati in maniera dettagliata all’interno del capitolo. Infine, l’ultima parte del capitolo è dedicata agli altri metodi di coregistrazione TMS con risonanza magnetica (MRI), risonanza magnetica funzionale (fMRI), tomografia a emissione di positroni (PET), tomografia a emissione di fotone singolo (SPECT) e spettroscopia del vicino infrarosso (NIRS).

Tradizionalmente gli effetti neuromodulatori della rTMS sono stati studiati attraverso l’analisi dei potenziali motori evocati (MEP). Tuttavia, come noto, i MEP sono una misura indiretta dell’eccitabilità corticale avendo una forte componente anche spinale. Con lo sviluppo di nuovi sistemi EEG compatibili con la TMS, è stato possibile analizzare gli effetti della stimolazione in modo più diretto, tramite l’analisi dei potenziali corticali evocati dalla TMS (TEPs). In questo studio abbiamo analizzato l’effetto di un protocollo di TMS ripetitiva (rTMS) a bassa frequenza (1 Hz) molto noto, soprattutto in ambito riabilitativo, per sortire un effetto di inibizione dell’eccitabilità corticale. Il protocollo è stato applicato sulla corteccia motoria primaria di quindici volontari sani e sulla corteccia visiva primaria di altri quindici volontari sani, assunti come gruppo di controllo per analizzare la specificità spaziale della stimolazione. Gli effetti della stimolazione ripetitiva sono stati testati su diverse misure elettrofisiologiche evocate da una stimolazione a singolo impulso della corteccia motoria, prima e subito dopo il protocollo rTMS, ossia: MEP, TEPs, local mean field power (LMFP) e distribuzione dell’attività sullo scalpo.
I risultati sui MEP hanno mostrato una diminuzione significativa dell’ampiezza a seguito del protocollo rTMS sulla corteccia motoria. I risultati sui TEP hanno mostrato un pattern noto composto di quattro principali picchi: P30, N45, P60 e N100. A seguito del protocollo rTMS sulla corteccia motoria si è osservato un incremento significato dell’ampiezza dei TEP P60 e N100, la cui origine è legata all’attività dei potenziali post-sinaptici inibitori GABAb (Ferreri et al., 2011; Premoli et al., 2014). I risultati sul LMFP hanno mostrato un incremento di attività generale indotta dalla TMS sulla corteccia motoria a partire da circa 90 ms dalla stimolazione, ossia la latenza del picco massimo di inibizione GABAb. A seguito del protocollo di stimolazione di controllo, applicato sulla corteccia visiva, non si è riscontrato nessun cambiamento significativo.
I risultati di questo studio hanno una rilevanza su tre aspetti: (1) si è confermato l’effetto inibitorio del protocollo rTMS a 1-Hz, offrendo anche un correlato centrale di inibizione (TEPs) oltre che periferico (MEPs); (2) sono state definite la spazialità e l’origine dell’inibizione indotta dalla rTMS a bassa frequenza; (3) la N100 evocata dalla TMS si conferma essere un marker affidabile del grado di inibizione corticale. I risultati di questo studio potrebbero avere una rilevanza sia in campo terapeutico e riabilitativo, specie per i disturbi alla cui base si suppone vi sia un deficit di inibizione corticale (ad es. malattia di Parkinson, malattia di Huntington); sia in campo di ricerca, specie in studi in cui si vogliano correlare performance a task cognitivi o motori con il grado di eccitazione/inibizione corticale.

Evidenze recenti hanno mostrato le potenzialità dell’utilizzo della coregistrazione TMS-EEG in ambito clinico e diagnostico. Diverse misure TMS-EEG in termini di potenziali evocati (TEPs), analisi di sorgenti, attività oscillatoria e potenza dell’attività globale, sono state utilizzate per lo studio di dinamiche cerebrali deficitarie in diverse patologie, come: schizofrenia (Ferrarelli et al., 2008); disordini psicotici (Hoppenbrouwers et al., 2008); depressione (Kähkönen et al., 2005); disturbi di coscienza (Massimini et al., 2005); epilessia (Rotenborg et al., 2008) e autismo (Sokhadze et al., 2012). Ad esempio, diverse evidenze hanno mostrato il potenziale contributo dei TEPs nello studio degli equilibri eccitatori/inibitori corticali, data la loro origine GABAergica (Ferreri et al., 2011; Premoli et al., 2014). In particolare, la N100 TMS-evocata sembra essere strettamente correlata al grado di inibizione GABAergica, come mostrato da evidenze a carattere farmacologico (ad es. Kähkönen et al., 2003; Premoli et al., 2014); studi comportamentali (ad es. Bender et al., 2005; Bonnard et al., 2009) e studi in pazienti (ad es. Helfrich et al., 2013).
Nel presente studio, facente parte di un ampio progetto internazionale multicentrico (“TrackOnHD”), abbiamo utilizzato la coregistrazione TMS-EEG per analizzare dei possibili marker elettrofisiologici della malattia di Huntington, tramite stimolazione della corteccia motoria primaria. La malattia di Huntington (HD) è caratterizzata da una progressiva degenerazione dei neuroni striatali di natura GABAergica. Tale degenerazione porta a un eccessivo incremento del tono eccitatorio mediato dal glutammato, un fenomeno noto come eccitossicità. Nel presente studio sono stati analizzati dodici pazienti HD e dodici volontari sani su varie misure TMS-EEG, EMG, fMRI e cliniche (nel capitolo sono riportati solo i risultati relativi alle misure TMS-EEG).
I risultati hanno mostrato una riduzione significativa e specifica della N100, come rilevato dall’analisi dei TEP per permutazioni punto-per-punto e dall’analisi dell’attività media globale da 94 a 104 ms dopo l’impulso TMS. Le mappe dello scalpo della distribuzione dell’attività hanno mostrato una riduzione della negatività su entrambi gli emisferi, con un effetto maggiore sul sito di stimolazione. Le analisi di perturbazione dello spettro evento-relata e della coerenza inter-trial hanno mostrato una differenza significativa nell’attività oscillatoria dei due gruppi all’interno della finestra di interesse GABAb-ergico (60-110 ms dopo l’impulso TMS). I risultati osservati potrebbero essere prodotti dal deficit di inibizione GABAergica nei pazienti HD conseguente alla degenerazione neuronale nello striato. Anche se preliminari, i risultati dello studio hanno rilevato dei marker TMS-EEG potenzialmente d’interesse per la valutazione dei deficit inibitori in pazienti HD. Ulteriori analisi sono necessarie per correlare i risultati ottenuti con le altre misure raccolte all’interno del progetto.

Durante un EEG, la stimolazione TMS può generare un artefatto a lunga latenza, noto come artefatto “decay”. Tale artefatto rappresenta un problema per l’analisi dei potenziali evocati dalla TMS (TEP). In letteratura, per risolvere il problema, sono comunemente utilizzate due principali strategie: l’utilizzo di un detrend lineare e l’utilizzo dell’independent component analysis (ICA). Tuttavia, nessuna di queste soluzioni può essere considerata ottimale. Per quanto riguarda l’utilizzo di un detrend lineare, dal momento che nella maggior parte dei casi l’artefatto decay non segue un andamento lineare, questo tipo di correzione risulta inefficiente. Per quanto invece riguarda l’ICA, anche questa procedura presenta dei limiti intrinseci: (1) può essere eccessivamente influenzato dalle scelte dello sperimentatore e (2) può causare la rimozione di componenti fisiologiche, oltre che artefattuali.
Il nostro obiettivo è di verificare l’efficienza di un nuovo detrend adattivo, sviluppato su MATLAB, in collaborazione col dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica di Padova, capace di discriminare i diversi trend dell’artefatto decay (ossia lineare e non-lineare). Quaranta volontari sani sono stati stimolati con 55 impulsi TMS singoli sulla corteccia motoria primaria di sinistra. Le risposte EEG indotte dalla TMS sono state analizzate in cinque condizioni: RAW (in cui non veniva applicata nessuna correzione dell’artefatto decay); INFOMAX29 (in cui l’artefatto decay veniva corretto con un algoritmo ICA-INFOMAX, considerando tutti i 29 canali); FASTICA (in cui l’artefatto decay veniva corretto con un algoritmo fastICA, considerando tutti i 29 canali); INFOMAX15 (in cui l’artefatto decay veniva corretto con un algoritmo ICA-INFOMAX, considerando solo 15 canali) e ALG (in cui l’artefatto decay veniva corretto tramite il nostro algoritmo adattivo). Per verificare se la correzione dell’artefatto avesse influenzato anche i TEP, sono state analizzare le differenze in una finestra temporale da -100 a +400 ms dall’impulso TMS attraverso l’utilizzo di un test per permutazioni, non-parametrico e corretto per cluster. Successivamente, sono state comparate le ampiezze e le latenze picco-picco dei TEP all’interno delle finestre temporali negli elettrodi risultati significativi. La risposta grand-average ha rilevato cinque picchi principali: P30, N45, P60, N100 e P180. Sono state rilevate delle differenze significative (i.e. Monte Carlo p < 0.05) in un cluster di elettrodi vicino alla stimolazione, comprendente i canali FC1, CP1, C3 e FC2. Le analisi sull’ampiezza picco-picco hanno rilevato una significativa modulazione dell’ampiezza dopo la correzione INFOMAX29 (in 3 TEP su 8), FASTICA (in 4 TEP su 12), INFOMAX15 (in 5 TEP su 15) e ALG (in 2 TEP su 15), rispetto al segnale RAW originale. I risultati LMFP e delle mappe di distribuzione sullo scalpo hanno rilevato diverse anomalie a seguito della correzione INFOMAX29 e FASTICA.
I risultati hanno mostrato che la correzione ICA modifica in modo significativo l’ampiezza, la morfologia e la distribuzione di una parte dei TEP analizzati e nello stesso tempo non garantisce una completa rimozione dell’artefatto decay. Al contrario, a seguito della correzione col nostro algoritmo (condizione ALG), l’ampiezza, la morfologia e la distribuzione dei TEP rimanevano fedeli a quella originale, con una rimozione pressoché completa dell’artefatto decay. Il principale contributo di questo studio è stato la proposta di un nuovo algoritmo di correzione per un artefatto a lunga latenza che la TMS induce sul segnale EEG (artefatto decay) rendendo difficoltosa l’analisi. I risultati hanno dimostrato che questo metodo è più efficiente delle strategie attualmente in utilizzo in letteratura, non avendo i limiti intrinseci presentati dall’algoritmo ICA.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Bisiacchi, Patrizia Silvia
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:30 Gennaio 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:30 Gennaio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):TMS EEG coregistration plasticity connectivity reactivity
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:7848
Depositato il:13 Nov 2015 09:05
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

Aguirre GK (2003) Functional imaging in behavioral neurology and cognitive neuropsychology. In Feinberg TE, Farah MJ Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuropsychology, 35–46, McGraw-Hill Cerca con Google

Amassian VE, Stewart M, Quirk GJ, Rosenthal JL (1987) Physiological basis of motor effects of a transient stimulus to cerebral cortex. Neurosurgery 20, 74-93 Cerca con Google

Amassian VE, Cracco RQ, Maccabee PJ, Cracco JB (1992) Cerebello-frontal cortical projections in humans studied with the magnetic coil. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 85:265–272 Cerca con Google

Antal A, Kincses TZ, Nitsche MA, Bartfai O, Demmer I, Sommer M, et al., (2002) Pulse configuration dependent effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on visual perception. Neuroreport, 13:1-5 Cerca con Google

Arai N, Okabe S, Furubayashi T, Terao Y, Yuasa K, Ugawa Y (2005) Comparison between short train, monophasic and biphasic repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human motor cortex. Clinical Neurophysiology, 116:605-613 Cerca con Google

Ashbridge E, Walsh V, Cowey A (1997) Temporal aspects of visual search studied by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 35:1121-1131 Cerca con Google

Aurora SK, Ahmad BK, Welch KMA, Bhardhwaj P, Ramadan NM (1998) Transcranial magnetic stimulation confirms hyperexcitability of occipital cortex in migraine. Neurology, 50:1111-1114 Cerca con Google

Barker AT (1991) An introduction to the basic principles of magnetic nerve stimulation. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 8:26-37 Cerca con Google

Barker AT, Jalinous R, Freeston IL (1985) Non-invasive magnetic stimulation of human motor cortex. Lancet, 1:1106–1107 Cerca con Google

Bastiaansen MC, Böcker KBE, Cluitmans PJM, Brunia CH (1999) Event-related desynchronization related to the anticipation of a stimulus providing knowledge of results. Clinical Neurophysiology, 110:250-260 Cerca con Google

Bender S, Basseler K, Sebastian I, Resch F, Kammer T, Oelkers-Ax R, et al. (2005) Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Evokes Giant Inhibitory Potentials in Children. Annals of Neurology, 58:58-67 Cerca con Google

Berg P e Scherg M (1994) A multiple source approach to the correction of eye artifacts. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 90:229–241 Cerca con Google

Bestmann S, Baudewig J, Frahm J (2003) On the synchronization of trans- cranial magnetic stimulation and functional echo-planar imaging. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 17:309-31 Cerca con Google

Bestmann S, Baudewig J, Siebner HR, Rothwell JC, Frahm J (2004) Functional MRI of the immediate impact of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical and subcortical motor circuits. European Journal of Neuroscience, 19:1950-1962 Cerca con Google

Bikmullina R, Kičić D, Carlson S, Nikulin VV (2009) Electrophysiological correlates of short-latency afferent inhibition: a combined EEG and TMS study. Experimental Brain Research, 194:517-526 Cerca con Google

Bisiacchi PS, Cona G, Schiff S, Basso D (2011) Modulation of a fronto-parietal network in event-based prospective memory: an rTMS study. Neuropsychologia, 49:2225-2232 Cerca con Google

Bohning DE, Pecheny AP, Epstein CM, Speer AM, Vincent DJ, Dannels W, George M (1997) Mapping transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) fields in vivo with MRI. Neuroreport, 8:2535-2538 Cerca con Google

Bonato C, Miniussi C, Rossini PM (2006) Transcranial magnetic stimulation and cortical evoked potentials: a TMS/EEG coregistration study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117:1699-1707 Cerca con Google

Bonnard M, Spieser L, Meziane HB, De Graaf JB, Pailhous J (2009) Prior intention can locally tune inhibitory processes in the primary motor cortex: direct evidence from combined TMS-EEG. European Journal of Neuroscience, 30:913-932 Cerca con Google

Boorman ED, O’Shea J, Sebastian C, Rushworth MF, Johansen-Berg H (2007) Individual differences in white-matter microstructure reflect variation in functional connectivity during choice. Current Biology, 17:1426-1431 Cerca con Google

Boroojerdi B, Battaglia F, Muellbacher W, Cohen LG (2001) Mechanisms influencing stimulus-response properties of the human corticospinal system. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112:931-937 Cerca con Google

Boroojerdi B, Topper R, Foltys H, Meincke U (1999) Transcallosal inhibition and motor conduction studies in patients with schizophrenia using transcranial magnetic stimulation. British Journal of Psychiatry, 175:375-379 Cerca con Google

Brasil-Neto JP, Cohen LG, Panizza M, Nilsson J, Roth BJ, Hallett M (1992) Optimal focal transcranial magnetic activation of the human motor cortex: effects of coil orientation, shape of the induced current pulse, and stimulus intensity. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 9:132–136 Cerca con Google

Brignani D, Manganotti P, Rossini PM, Miniussi C (2008) Modulation of Cortical Oscillatory Activity During Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Human Brain Mapping, 29:603-612 Cerca con Google

Bruckmann S, Hauk D, Roessner V, Resch F, Freitag CM, Kammer T et al. (2012) Cortical inhibition in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: new insights from the electroencephalographic response to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Brain, 135:2215-2230 Cerca con Google

Bungert A, Chambers CD, Phillips M, Evans CJ (2012) Reducing image artefacts in concurrent TMS/fMRI by passive shimming. Neuroimage, 59:2167-2174 Cerca con Google

Cappa SF, Sandrini M, Rossini PM, Sosta K, Miniussi C (2002) The role of the left frontal lobe in action naming: rTMS evidence. Neurology, 59:720–723 Cerca con Google

Caramia MD, Palmieri MG, Giacomini P, Iani C, Dally L, Silvestrini M (2000) Ipsilateral activation of the unaffected motor cortex in patients with hemiparetic stroke. Clinical Neurophysiology 111, 1990-1996. Cerca con Google

Casula EP, Tarantino V, Basso D, Bisiacchi PS (2013) Transcranial magnetic stimulation and neuroimaging coregistration. INTECH Open Access Publisher, 2013 Cerca con Google

Casula EP, Tarantino V, Basso D, Arcara G, Marino G, Toffolo GM, Rothwell JC, Bisiacchi PS (2014) Low-frequency rTMS inhibitory effects in the primary motor cortex: insights from TMS-evoked potentials. Neuroimage, 98:225-232 Cerca con Google

Chen R (2000) Studies of human motor physiology with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Muscle and Nerve Supplement 9, S26-32 Cerca con Google

Chen R, Classen J, Gerloff C, Celnik P, Wassermann EM, Hallett M, Cohen LG (1997) Depression of motor cortex excitability by low-frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology, 48:1398-1403 Cerca con Google

Chen R, Tam A, Bütefisch C, Corwell B, Ziemann U, Rothwell JC et al. (1998) Intracortical inhibition and facilitation in different representations of the human motor cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 80:2870-2881 Cerca con Google

Chen R, Lozano AM, Ashby P (1999) Mechanism of the silent period following transcranial magnetic stimulation evidence from epidural recordings. Experimental Brain Research, 128:539-542 Cerca con Google

Chen R, Yung D, Li JY (2003) Organization of ipsilateral excitatory and inhibitory pathways in the human motor cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 89:1256-1264 Cerca con Google

Chiang TC, Vaithianathan T, Leung T, Lavidor M, Walsh V, Delpy DT (2007) Elevated haemoglobin levels in the motor cortex following 1 Hz transcranial magnetic stimulation: a preliminary study. Experimental Brain Research, 181:555-560 Cerca con Google

Civardi C, Cantello R, Asselman P, Rothwell JC (2001) Transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to test connections to primary motor areas from frontal and medial cortex in humans. NeuroImage 14:1444-1453 Cerca con Google

Cohen LG, Roth BJ, Nilsson J, Dang N, Panizza M, Bandinelli S (1990) Effects of coil design on delivery of focal magnetic stimulation: technical considerations. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 75:350-357 Cerca con Google

Cohen D, Cuffin BN (1991) Developing a more focal magnetic stimulator. Part I: Some basic principles. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology 8:102-111 Cerca con Google

Cohen LG, Celnik P, Pascual-Leone A, Corwell B, Falz L, Dambrosia J et al. (1997) Functional relevance of cross-modal plasticity in blind humans. Nature, 389:180–183 Cerca con Google

Cohen E, Bernardo M, Masana J, Arrufat FJ, Navarro V, Valls-Solé, et al. (1999) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of chronic negative schizophrenia: a pilot study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 67:129-130 Cerca con Google

Correa A, Cona G, Arbula S, Vallesi A, Bisiacchi PS (2014) Neural dissociation of automatic and controlled temporal preparation by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 65:131-136 Cerca con Google

Corthout E, Barker AT, Cowey A (2001) Transcranial magnetic stimulation. Which part of the current waveform causes the stimulation?. Experimental Brain Research, 141:128-132 Cerca con Google

Cowey A and Walsh V (2000) Magnetically induced phosphenes in sighted, blind and blindisighted observers. Neuroreport, 11:3269-3273 Cerca con Google

Cracco RQ, Amassian VE, Maccabee PJ, Cracco JB (1989) Comparison of human transcallosal responses evoked by magnetic coil and electrical stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 74:417–424 Cerca con Google

Daskalakis ZJ, Farzan F, Barr MS, Maller JJ, Chen R, Fitzgerald PB (2008) Long-interval cortical inhibition from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex: a TMS-EEG study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33:2860-2869 Cerca con Google

Daskalakis ZJ, Möller B, Christensen BK, Fitzgerald PB, Gunraj C, Chen R (2006) The effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical inhibition in healthy human subjects. Experimental brain research, 174:403-412. Cerca con Google

Davare M, Rothwell JC, Lemon RN (2010) Causal Connectivity between the Human Anterior Intraparietal Area and Premotor Cortex during Grasp. Current Biology, 26:176-181 Cerca con Google

Davey NJ, Hazel CS, Wells E, Maskill DW, Gordana S, Ellaway PH, Frankel HL (1998) Responses of thenar muscles to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in patients with incomplete spinal cord injury. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 65:80-87 Cerca con Google

Davies CH, Davies SN, Collingridge GL (1990) Paired-pulse depression of monosynaptic GABA-mediated inhibitory post- synaptic responses in rat hippocampus. Journal of Physiology, 424:513–531 Cerca con Google

Deisz RA (1999) GABA(B) receptor-mediated effects in human and rat neocortical neurones in vitro. Neuropharmacology, 38:1755–1766 Cerca con Google

Delorme A, Makeig S (2004) EEGLAB: an open source toolbox for analysis of single-trial EEG dynamics including independent component analysis. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 134:9-21 Cerca con Google

Di Lazzaro V, Oliviero A, Mazzone P, Insola A, Pilato F, Saturno E, Accurso A, Tonali P, Rothwell JC (2001a) Comparison of descending volleys evoked by monophasic and biphasic magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in conscious humans. Experimental Brain Research 141: 121-127 Cerca con Google

Eichhammer P, Johann M, Kharraz A, Binder H, Pittrow D, Wodarz N, Hajak G (2003) High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation decreases cigarette smoking. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64:951-953 Cerca con Google

Epstein CM (1998) Transcranial magnetic stimulation: language function. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 15:325-332 Cerca con Google

Eriksen BA and Eriksen CW (1974) Effects of noise letters upon the identification of a target letter in nonsearch task. Perception & Psychophysics, 16:143-149 Cerca con Google

Esser SK, Huber R, Massimini M, Peterson MJ, Ferrarelli F, Tononi G (2006) A direct demonstration of cortical LTP in humans: a combined TMS/EEG study. Brain Research Bulletin, 69:86-94 Cerca con Google

Farzan F, Barr MS, Levinson AJ, Chen R, Wong W, Fitzgerald PB, et al. (2010) Reliability of long-interval cortical inhibition in healthy human subjects: a TMS-EEG study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 104:1339-1346 Cerca con Google

Ferbert A, Priori A, Rothwell JC, Day BL, Colebatch JG, Marsden CD (1992) Interhemispheric Inhibition of the Human Motor Cortex. Journal of Physiology, 453:525-546 Cerca con Google

Ferreri F, Pasqualetti P, Maatta S, Ponzo D, Ferrarelli F, Tononi G, Mervaala E, Miniussi C, Rossini PM (2011) Human brain connectivity during single and paired pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuroimage, 54:90–102 Cerca con Google

Fitzgerald PB, Fountain S, Daskalakis ZJ (2006) A comprehensive review of the effects of rTMS on motor cortical excitability and inhibition. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117:2584-2596 Cerca con Google

Fitzgerald PB, Daskalakis ZJ, Hoy K, Farzan F, Upton DJ, Cooper NR, et al. (2008) Cortical inhibition in motor and non-motor regions: a combined TMS-EEG study. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 39:112-117 Cerca con Google

Fregni F, Boggio PS, Valle AC, Rocha RR, Duarte J, Ferreira MJ, et al. (2006) A sham-controlled trial of a 5-day course of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the unaffected hemisphere in stroke patients. Stroke, 37:2115-2122 Cerca con Google

Fuhr P, Agostino R, Hallett M (1991) Spinal motor neuron excitability during the silent period after cortical stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 81:257-262 Cerca con Google

Greenberg BD, Ziemann U, Harmon A, Murphy DL, Wassermann EM (1998) Decreased neuronal inhibition in cerebral cortex in obsessive-compulsive disorder on transcranial magnetic stimulation. Lancet, 352:881-882 Cerca con Google

Hamada M, Galea JM, Di Lazzaro V, Mazzone P, Ziemann U, Rothwell JC (2014) Two distinct interneuron circuits in human motor cortex are linked to different subsets of physiological and behavioural plasticity. Journal of Neuroscience, 34: 12837-12849 Cerca con Google

Hamidi M, Slagter HA, Tononi G, Postle BR (2010) Brain responses evoked by high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: An event-related potential study. Brain Stimulation, 3:2–14 Cerca con Google

Hamzei F, Liepert J, Dettmers C, Weiller C, Rijntjes M (2006) Two Different Reorganization Patterns After Rehabilitative Therapy: An Exploratory Study with fMRI and TMS. Neuroimage 31:710-720 Cerca con Google

Hanajima R, Ugawa Y, Machii K, Mochizuki H, Terao Y, Enomoto H, et al. (2001) Interhemispheric facilitation of the hand motor area in humans. Journal of Physiology, 531:849–859 Cerca con Google

Hasan A, Galea JM, Casula EP, Falkai P, Bestmann S, Rothwell JC (2012) Muscle and timing-specific functional connectivity between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the primary motor cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25:558-570 Cerca con Google

Helfrich C, Pierau SS, Freitag CM, Roeper J, Ziemann U, Bender S (2013) Monitoring cortical excitability during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in children with ADHD: a single-blind, sham-controlled TMS-EEG study. Plos One, 7:e50073 Cerca con Google

Helfrich RF, Schneider TR, Rach S, Trautmann-Lengsfeld SA, Engel AK, Herrmann CS (2014) Entrainment of brain oscillations by transcranial alternating current stimulation. Current Biology, 24:333-339 Cerca con Google

Herrmann CS, Rach S, Neuling T, Strüber (2013) Transcranial alternating current stimulation: a review of the underlying mechanisms and modulation of cognitive processes. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7 Cerca con Google

Huang Y-Z, Edwards MJ, Rounis E, Bhatia KP, Rothwell JC (2005) Theta Burst Stimulation of the Human Motor Cortex. Neuron, 45:201-206 Cerca con Google

Huang Y-Z, Chen RS, Rothwell JC, Wen HY (2007) The after-effect of human theta burst stimulation is NMDA receptor dependent. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118:1028–1032 Cerca con Google

Ilmoniemi RJ, Virtanen J, Ruohonen J, Karhu J, Aronen HJ, Näätänen R, et al. (1997) Neuronal responses to magnetic stimulation reveal cortical reactivity and connectivity. Neuroreport, 8:3537-3540 Cerca con Google

Ilmoniemi RJ e Kičić D (2010) Methodology for Combined TMS and EEG. Brain Topography, 22:233-248 Cerca con Google

Inghilleri M, Conte A, Curra A, Frasca V, Lorenzano C, Berardelli A (2004) Ovarian hormones and cortical excitability. An rTMS study in humans. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115:1063-1068 Cerca con Google

Iramina K, Maeno T, Nohaka Y, Ueno S (2003) Measurement of evoked electroencephalography induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Applied Physics, 93:6718–6720 Cerca con Google

Ives JR, Rotenberg A, Poma R, Thut G, Pascual-Leone A (2006) Electroencephalographic recording during transcranial magnetic stimulation in humans and animals. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117:1870–1875 Cerca con Google

Johnson JS, Hamidi M, Postle BR (2010) Using EEG to explore how rTMS produces its effects on behaviour. Brain Topography, 22:281-293 Cerca con Google

Julkunen P, Pääkkönen A, Hukkanen T, Könönen M, Tiihonen P, Vanhatalo S, Karhu J (2008) Efficient reduction of stimulus artifact in TMS–EEG by epithelial short- circuiting by mini-punctures. Clinical Neurophysiology, 119:475–481 Cerca con Google

Kähkönen S, Kesäniemi M, Nikouline VV, Karhu J, Ollikainen M, Holi M, et al. (2001) Ethanol modulates cortical activity: direct evidence with combined TMS and EEG. NeuroImage, 14:322–328 Cerca con Google

Kähkönen S, Komssi S, Wilenius J, Ilmoniemi RJ (2005a) Prefrontal TMS produces smaller EEG responses than motor-cortex TMS: implications for rTMS treatment in depression. Psychopharmacology, 181:16–20 Cerca con Google

Käkhönen S, Komssi S, Ilmoniemi RJ (2005b) Prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation produces intensity-dependent EEG responses in humans. Neuroimage, 24: 955-960 Cerca con Google

Kähkönen S, Wilenius J (2007) Effects of alcohol on TMS-evoked N100 responses. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 166:104-108 Cerca con Google

Kammer T, Beck S, Thielscher A, Laubis-Hermann U, Topka H (2001) Motor thresholds in humans: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study comparing different pulse waveforms, current directions and stimulator types. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112:250-258 Cerca con Google

Kandel ER and Spencer WA (1961) Excitation and inhibition of single pyramidal cells during hippocampal seizure. Experimental Neurology, 4:162-179 Cerca con Google

Kiers L, Cros D, Chiappa KH, Fang J (1993) Variability of motor potentials evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 89:415-423 Cerca con Google

Kimiskidis VK, Papagiannopoulos S, Kazis DA, Vasiliadis G, Oikonomidi A, Sotirakoglou K, et al. (2008) Silent period (SP) to transcranial magnetic stimulation: the EEG substrate. Brain Stimulation 1. Abstracts from 3rd international conference on transcranial magnetic stimulation and direct current stimulation, 315-316 Cerca con Google

Kirschen MP, Davis-Ratner MS, Jerde TE, Schraedley-Desmond P, Desmond JE (2006) Enhancement of phonological memory following transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Behavioural Neurology, 17:187-194 Cerca con Google

Kleim JA, Chan S, Pringle E, Schallert K, Procaccio V, Jimenez R, Cramer SC (2006) BDNF val66met polymorphism is associated with modified experience-dependent plasticity in human motor cortex. Nature, 9:735-737 Cerca con Google

Klimesch W, Sauseng P, Gerloff C (2003) Enhancing cognitive performance with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at human individual alpha frequency. European Journal of Neuroscience, 17:1129–1133 Cerca con Google

Knops A, Nuerk HC, Sparing R, Foltys H, Willmes K (2006) On the functional role of human parietal cortex in number processing: how gender mediates the impact of a ‘virtual lesion’ induced by rTMS. Neuropsychologia 44, 2270-2283 Cerca con Google

Koch G, Ponzo V, Di Lorenzo F, Caltagirone C, Veniero D (2013) Hebbian and anti-hebbian spike-timing-dependent plasticity of human cortico- cortical connections. Journal of Neuroscience, 33:9725-9733 Cerca con Google

Koch G, Franca M, Del Olmo MF, Cheeran B, Milton R, Alvarez Sauco M, et al. (2006) Time course of functional connectivity between dorsal premotor and contralateral motor cortex during movement selection. Journal of Neuroscience, 26:7452-7459 Cerca con Google

Kohler S, Paus T, Buckner RL, Milner B (2004) Effects of left inferior pre- frontal stimulation on episodic memory formation: a two-stage fMRI-rTMS study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16:178-188. Cerca con Google

Komssi S, Aronen HJ, Huttunen J, Kesäniemi M, Soinne L, Nikouline VV, et al. (2002) Ipsi- and contralateral EEG reactions to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113:175–184 Cerca con Google

Komssi S, Kähkönen S, Ilmoniemi RJ (2004) The effect of stimulus intensity on brain responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Human Brain Mapping, 21:154–164 Cerca con Google

Komssi S and Kähkönen S (2006) The novelty value of the combined use of electroencephalography and transcranial magnetic stimulation for neuroscience research. Brain Research Reviews, 52:183-192 Cerca con Google

Korhonen RJ, Hernandez-Pavon JC, Metsomaa J, Mäki H, Ilmoniemi RJ, Sarvas J (2011) Removal of large muscle artifacts from transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked EEG by independent component analysis. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 49:397-407 Cerca con Google

Kozel FA, Nahas Z, deBrux C, Molloy M, Lorberbaum JP, Bohning D, et al. (2000) How coil–cortex distance relates to age, motor threshold, and antidepressant response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 12:376-384 Cerca con Google

Kraus KH, Gugino LD, Levy WJ, Cadwell J, Roth BJ (1993) The use of a cap-shaped coil for transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 10:353-362 Cerca con Google

Kujirai T, Caramia MD, Rothwell JC, Day BL, Thompson PD, Ferbert A, et al. (1993) Cortico-cortical inhibition in human motor cortex. Journal of Physiology, 471:501-519 Cerca con Google

Kuo MF, Paulus W, Nitsche MA (2008) Boosting focally-induced brain plasticity by dopamine. Cerebral Cortex, 18, 648-651 Cerca con Google

Kuwabara S, Cappelen-Smith C, Lin CS, Mogyoros I, Burke D (2002) Effects of voluntary activity on the excitability of motor axons in the peroneal nerve. Muscle Nerve, 25:176-184 Cerca con Google

Lang N, Harms J, Weyh T, Lemon RN, Paulus W, Rothwell JC, et al. (2006) Stimulus intensity and coil characteristics influence the efficacy of rTMS to suppress cortical excitability. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117:2292-2301 Cerca con Google

Lee L, Siebner HR, Rowe JB, Rizzo V, Rothwell JC, Frackowiak RSJ, et al. (2003b) Acute remapping within the motor system induced by low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Neuroscience, 23:5308-5318 Cerca con Google

Lee SH, Kim W, Chung YC, Jung KH, Bahk WM, Jun TY, et al. (2005) A double blind study showing that two weeks of daily repetitive TMS over the left or right temporoparietal cortex reduces symptoms in patients with schizophrenia who are having treatment-refractory auditory hallucinations. Neuroscience Letters, 376:177-181 Cerca con Google

Lehmann D and Skrandies W (1980) Reference-free identification of components of checkerboard-evoked multichannel potential fields. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 48: 609-621 Cerca con Google

Lewald J, Foltys H, Töpper R (2002) Role of the posterior parietal cortex in spatial hearing. Journal of Neuroscience, 22:RC207 Cerca con Google

Li X, Large CH, Ricci R, Taylor JJ, Nahas Z, Bohning DE, et al. (2011) Using Interleaved Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation/Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Dynamic Causal Modeling to Understand the Discrete Circuit Specific Changes of Medications: Lamotrigine and Valproic Acid Changes in Motor or Prefrontal Effective Connectivity. Psychiatry Research, 194:141-148 Cerca con Google

Li X, Nahas Z, Kozel FA, Anderson B, Bohning DE, George MS (2004) Acute left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed patients is associated with immediately increased activity in prefrontal cortical as well as subcortical regions. Biological Psychiatry, 55:882-890 Cerca con Google

Liepert J, Schwenkreis P, Tegenthoff M, Malin JP (1997) The glutamate antagonist riluzole suppresses intracortical facilitation. Journal of neural transmission, 104:1207-1214 Cerca con Google

Lioumis P, Kičić D, Savolainen P, Mäkelä JP, Kähkönen S (2009) Reproducibility of TMS-Evoked EEG Responses. Human Brain Mapping, 30:1387-1396 Cerca con Google

Litvak V, Komssi S, Scherg M, Hoechstetter K, Classen J, Zaaroor M, et al. (2007) Artifact correction and source analysis of early electroencephalographic responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex. Neuroimage, 37:56–70 Cerca con Google

Luber B, Kinnunen LH, et al. (2006) Facilitation of performance in a working memory task with rTMS stimulation of the precuneus: frequency- and time-dependent effects. Brain Research, 1128:120-129 Cerca con Google

Luber B, Kinnunen LH, Rakitin BC, Ellsasser R, Stern Y, Lisanby SH (2007) Facilitation of performance in a working memory task with rTMS stimulation of the precuneus: frequency- and time-dependent effects. Brain Research, 1128:120-129 Cerca con Google

Maeda F, Keenan JP, Tormos JM, Topka H, Pascual-Leone A (2000) Modulation of corticospinal excitability by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, 111:800-805 Cerca con Google

Massimini M, Ferrarelli F, Huber R, Esser SK, Singh H, Tononi G (2005) Breakdown of cortical effective connectivity during sleep. Science, 309:2228–2232 Cerca con Google

Mattavelli G, Rosanova M, Casali AG, Papagno C, Romero LJ (2013) Top-down interference and cortical responsiveness in face processing: A TMS-EEG study. NeuroImage, 76:24-32 Cerca con Google

McConnell KA, Nahas Z, Shastri A, Lorberbaum JP, Kozel FA, Bohning DE, George MS (2001) The transcranial magnetic stimulation motor threshold depends on the distance from coil to underlying cortex: a replication in healthy adults comparing two methods of assessing the distance to cortex. Biological Psychiatry, 49:454–459 Cerca con Google

McDonnell MN, Orekhov Y, Ziemann U (2006) The role of GABA(B) receptors in intracortical inhibition in the human motor cortex. Experimental Brain Research, 173:86-93 Cerca con Google

Mills KR, Boniface SJ, Schubert M (1992) Magnetic brain stimulation with a double coil: the importance of coil orientation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 85:17–21 Cerca con Google

Mills KR, Nithi KA (1997) Corticomotor threshold is reduced in early sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Muscle Nerve, 20:1137–41 Cerca con Google

Mills KR (1999) Magnetic brain stimulation: a review after 10 years experience. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology 49(Suppl):239-244. Cerca con Google

Miniussi C, Ruzzoli M, Walsh V (2010) The mechanism of transcranial magnetic stimulation in cognition. Cortex, 46:128-130 Cerca con Google

Miniussi C, Thut G (2010) Combining TMS and EEG Offers New Prospects in Cognitive Neuroscience. Brain Topography, 22:249-256 Cerca con Google

Mochizuki H, Furubayashi T, Hanajima R, Terao Y, Mizuno Y, Okabe S, et al. (2007) Hemoglobin concentration changes in the contralateral hemisphere during and after theta burst stimulation of the human sensorimotor cortices. Experimental Brain Research, 180:667-675 Cerca con Google

Mochizuki H, Ugawa Y, Terao Y, Sakai KL (2006) Cortical hemoglobin concentration changes under the coil induced by single-pulse TMS in humans: a simultaneous recording with near-infrared spectroscopy. Experimental Brain Research, 169:302–310 Cerca con Google

Moll GH, Heinrich H, Trott G-E, Wirth S, Rothenberger A (2000) Deficient intracortical inhibition in drug-naive children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is enhanced by methylphenidate. Neuroscience Letters, 284:121-125 Cerca con Google

Moll GH, Heinrich H, Rothenberger A (2003) Methylphenidate and intracortical excitability: opposite effects in healthy subjects and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 107:69-72 Cerca con Google

Morbidi F, Garulli A, Prattichizzo D, Rizzo C, Manganotti P, Rossi S (2007) Off-line removal of TMS-induced artifacts on human electroencephalography by Kalman filter. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 162:293-302 Cerca con Google

Mottaghy FM, Hungs M, Brugmann M, Sparing R, Boroojerdi B, Foltys H, Huber W, Topper R (1999) Facilitation of picture naming after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology, 53:1806-1812 Cerca con Google

Mottaghy FM, Keller CE, Gangitano M, Ly J, Thall M, Parker JA et al. (2002) Correlation of cerebral blood flow and treatment effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in depressed patients. Psychiatry Research, 115:1-14. Cerca con Google

Mottaghy FM, Krause BJ, Kemna LJ, Töpper R, Tellmann L, Beu M, Pascual-Leone A, Müller-Gärtner HW (2000) Modulation of the neuronal circuitry subserving working memory in healthy human subjects by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuroscience Letters, 280:167-170 Cerca con Google

Mull BR and Seyal M (2001) Transcranial magnetic stimulation of left prefrontal cortex impairs working memory. Clinical Neurophysiology, 112:1672-1675 Cerca con Google

Münchau A,Bloem BR, Irlbacher M, Trimble MR, Rothwell JC (2002) Functional Connectivity of Human Premotor and Motor Cortex Explored with Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Journal of Neuroscience, 22:554-561 Cerca con Google

Mutanen T, Mäki H, Ilmoniemi RJ (2013) The effect of stimulus parameters on TMS-EEG muscle artifacts. Brain Stimulation, 6:371-376 Cerca con Google

Näätänen R, Picton T (1987) The N1 wave of the human electric and magnetic response to sound: a review and an analysis of the component structure. Psychophysiology, 24:375-425 Cerca con Google

Nadeau SE, McCoy KJ, Crucian GP, Greer RA, Rossi F, Bowers D et al. (2002) Cerebral blood flow changes in depressed patients after treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: evidence of individual variability. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology and Behavioral Neurology, 15:159-175 Cerca con Google

Nahas Z, McConnell K, Collins S, Molloy M, Oliver NC, Risch SC, Christie S, Arana GW, George MS (1999) Could left prefrontal rTMS modify negative symptoms and attention in Schizophrenia? Biological Psychiatry, 45:1s-147s Cerca con Google

Niehaus L, Meyer B-U, Weyh T (2000) Influence of pulse configuration and direction of coil current on excitatory effects of magnetic motor cortex and nerve stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, 111:75-80 Cerca con Google

Nikouline V, Ruohonen J, Ilmoniemi RJ (1999) The role of the coil click in TMS assessed with simultaneous EEG. Clinical Neurophysiology, 110:1325-1328 Cerca con Google

Nikulin VV, Kičić D, Kähkönen S, Ilmoniemi RJ (2003) Modulation of electroencephalographic responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation: evidence for changes in cortical excitability related to movement. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18:1206-1212 Cerca con Google

Nikulin VV, Kičić D, Kähkönen S, Ilmoniemi RJ (2003) Modulation of electroencephalographic responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation: evidence for changes in cortical excitability related to movement. European Journal of Neuroscience, 18:1206-1212 Cerca con Google

Noguchi Y, Watanabe E, Sakai KL (2003) An event-related optical topography study of cortical activation induced by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuroimage, 19:156-162 Cerca con Google

Okamoto M, Dan H, Sakamoto K, Takeo K, Shimizu K, Kohno S et al. (2004) Three-dimensional probabilistic anatomical cranio-cerebral correlation via the international 10–20 system oriented for transcranial functional brain mapping. NeuroImage, 21:99-111 Cerca con Google

Oliviero A, Di Lazzaro V, Piazza O, Profice P, Pennisi MA, Della Corte F, et al. (1999) Cerebral blood flow and metabolic changes produced by repetitive magnetic brain stimulation. Journal of Neurology, 246:1164-1168 Cerca con Google

Pascual-Leone A, Gates JR, Dhuna A (1991) Induction of speech arrest and counting errors with rapid rate transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neurology, 41:697-702 
 Cerca con Google

Pascual-Leone A, Cohen LG, Brasil-Neto JP, Hallett M (1994) Non-invasive differentiation of motor cortical representation of hand muscles by mapping of optimal current directions. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 93:42–48 Cerca con Google

Pascual-Leone A, Tormos JM, Keenan J, Tarazona F, Cañete C, Català MD (1998) Study and Modulation of Human Cortical Excitability With Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 15:333-343 Cerca con Google

Paus T, Jech R, Thompson CJ, Comeau R, Peters T, Evans AC (1997) Transcranial magnetic stimulation during positron emission tomography: a new method for studying connectivity of the human cerebral cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 17:3178-3184 Cerca con Google

Paus T, Castro-Alamancos MA, Petrides M (2001) Cortico-cortical connectivity of the human mid-dorsolateral frontal cortex and its modulation by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, 14:1405-1411 Cerca con Google

Pellicciari MC, Brignani D, Miniussi C (2013) Excitability modulation of the motor system induced by transcranial direct current stimulation: a multimodal approach. Neuroimage, 8:569-580 Cerca con Google

Perez MA, Tanaka S, Wise SP, Sadato N, Tanabe HC, Willingham DT, Cohen LG (2007) Neural substrates of intermanual transfer of a newly acquired motor skill. Current Biology, 17:1896-1902 Cerca con Google

Peterchev AV, Murphy DL, Lisanby SH (2010) Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation with controllable pulse (cTMS). 32nd Annual International Conference of the IEEE EMBS, 2922-2926 Cerca con Google

Peterchev AV, Goetz SM, Westin GG, Luber B, Lisanby SH (2013) Pulse width dependence of motor threshold and input–output curve characterized with controllable pulse parameter transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, 124:1364-1372 Cerca con Google

Pobric G, Jefferies E, Ralph MA (2010) Amodal semantic representations depend on both anterior temporal lobes: Evidence from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Neuropsychologia, 48:1336-1342 Cerca con Google

Poldrack RA (2005) Can cognitive processes be inferred from neuroimaging data?. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10:59-63 Cerca con Google

Ponton CW, Vasama JP, Tremblay K, Khosla D, Kwong B, Don M (2001) Plasticity in the adult human central auditory system: evidence from late-onset profound unilateral deafness. Hearing Research, 154:32-44 Cerca con Google

Premoli I, Castellanos N, Rivolta D, Belardinelli P, Bajo R, Zipser C,
 Espenhahn S, Heidegger T, Müller-Dahlhaus F, Ziemann U (2014) TMS-EEG Signatures of GABAergic Neurotransmission in the Human Cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 34:5603-5612 Cerca con Google

Raichle ME (1998) Behind the scenes of functional brain imaging: a historical and physiological perspective. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States, 95:765–772 Cerca con Google

Ridding MC, Rothwell JC (2007) Is there a future for therapeutic use of transcranial magnetic stimulation? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8:559-567 Cerca con Google

Rogasch NC and Fitzgerald PB (2012) Assessing cortical network properties using TMS-EEG. Human Brain Mapping, 34:1652-1669 Cerca con Google

Rogasch NC, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB (2013) Mechanisms underlying long-interval cortical inhibition in the human motor cortex: a TMS-EEG study. Journal of Neurophysiology, 109:89-98 Cerca con Google

Rogasch NC, Thomson RG, Farzan F, Fitzgibbon BM, Bailey NW, Hernandez-Pavon JC, Daskalakis ZJ, Fitzgerald PB (2014). Removing artefacts from TMS-EEG recordings using independent component analysis: Importance for assessing prefrontal and motor cortex network properties. Neuroimage, 101:425-439 Cerca con Google

Romei V, Brodbeck V, Michel C, Amedi A, Pascual-Leone A, Thut G (2008) Spontaneous fluctuations in posterior alpha-Band EEG activity reflect variability in excitability of human visual areas. Cerebral Cortex, 18:2010–2018 Cerca con Google

Rossi S, Hallett M, Rossini PM, Pascual-Leone A, The safety of TMS Consensus Group (2009) Safety, ethical considerations, and application guidelines for the use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in clinical practice and research. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120:2008-2039 Cerca con Google

Rossini PM, Barker AT, Berardelli A, Caramia MD, Caruso G, Cracco RQ, et al. (1994) Non-invasive electrical and magnetic stimulation of the brain, spinal cord and roots—basic principles and procedures for routine clinical application. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 91:79–92 Cerca con Google

Rossini PM, Rossi S (1998) Clinical applications of motor evoked potentials. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 106:180-194 Cerca con Google

Rossini D, Magri L, Lucca A, Giordani S, Smeraldi E, Zanardi R. (2005) Does rTMS hasten the response to escitalopram, sertraline, or venlafaxine in patients with major depressive disorder? A double-blind, randomized, sham-controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 66:1569-1575. Cerca con Google

Roth BJ, Pascual-Leone A, Cohen LG, Hallett M (1992) The heating of metal electrodes during rapid-rate magnetic stimulation: a possible safety hazard. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 85:116–123 Cerca con Google

Roth Y, Zangen A, Hallett M (2002) A coil design for transcranial magnetic stimulation of deep brain regions. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 19:361–370 Cerca con Google

Rothwell JC (2010) Using transcranial magnetic stimulation methods to probe connectivity between motor areas of the brain, Human Movement Science, 30:906-915 Cerca con Google

Rudiak D e Marg E (1994) Finding the depth of magnetic brain stimulation: a re-evaluation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 93:358–371 Cerca con Google

Rumi DO, Gattaz WF, Rigonatti SP, Rosa MA, Fregni F, Rosa MO et al. (2005) Transcranial magnetic stimulation accelerates the antidepressant effect of amitriptyline in severe depression: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. Biological Psychiatry 57:162-166. Cerca con Google

Sach M, Winkler G, Glauche V, Liepert J, Heimbach B, Koch MA, et al. (2003) Diffusion tensor MRI of early upper motor neuron involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain, 127:340-350 Cerca con Google

Sack AT and Linden EJD (2003) Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation and functional imaging in cognitive brain research: possibilities and limitations. Brain Research Reviews, 43:41-56 Cerca con Google

Sack AT, Kohler A, Bestmann S, Linden DEJ, Dechent P, Goebel R, et al. (2007) Imaging the brain activity changes underlying impaired visuospatial judgments: simultaneous fMRI, TMS, and behavioural studies. Cerebral Cortex, 17:2841-2852 Cerca con Google

Sadato N, Pascual-Leone A, Grafman J, Ibañez V, Deiber MP, Dold G, Hallett M (1996) Activation of the primary visual cortex by Braille reading in blind subjects. Nature, 380:526-528 Cerca con Google

Sandrini M, Umiltà CA, Rusconi E (2011) The use of transcranial magnetic stimulation in cognitive neuroscience: A new synthesis of methodological issues. Neuroscience and Behavioural Reviews, 35:516-536 Cerca con Google

Sauseng P, Klimesch W, Gerloff C, Hummel FC (2009) Spontaneous locally restricted EEG alpha activity determines cortical excitability in the motor cortex. Neuropsychology, 47:284-288 Cerca con Google

Schall JD, Morel A, King DJ, Bullier J (1995) Topography of visual cortex connections with frontal eye field in macaque: convergence and segregation of processing streams. Journal of Neuroscience, 15:4464-4487 Cerca con Google

Sekiguchi H, Takeuchi S, Kadota H, Kohno Y, Nakajima Y (2011) TMS-induced artifacts on EEG can be reduced by rearrangement of the electrode’s lead wire before recording. Clinical Neurophysiology, 122:984-990 Cerca con Google

Shimizu T, Hosaki A, Hino T, Sato M, Komori T, Hirai S, et al. (2002) Motor cortical disinhibition in the unaffected hemisphere after unilateral cortical stroke. Brain 125, 1896-1907 Cerca con Google

Siebner HR, Tormos JM, Ceballos-Baumann AO, Auer C, Catala MD, Conrad B, et al. (1999) Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex in writer’s cramp. Neurology, 52:529–537 Cerca con Google

Siebner HR, Bergmann TO, Bestmann S, Massimini M, Johansen-Berg H, Mochizuki H, et al. (2009) Consensus paper: Combining transcranial magnetic stimulation with neuroimaging. Brain Stimulation, 2:58-80 Cerca con Google

Silvanto J, Muggleton NG, Cowey A, Walsh V (2007) Neural activation state determines behavioral susceptibility to modified theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation. European Journal of Neuroscience, 26:523-528 Cerca con Google

Sommer M, Lang N, Tergau F, Paulus W (2002) Neuronal tissue polarization induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation?., 13:809–811 Cerca con Google

Sommer M, Arànzazu A, Rummel M, Speck S, Lang N, Tings T, et al. (2006) Half sine, monophasic and biphasic transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. Clinical Neurophysiology, 117:838-844 Cerca con Google

Sommer M, D’Ostilio K, Ciocca M, Hannah R, Hammond P, Goetz S, Rothwell JC (2014) TMS can selectively activate and condition two different sets of excitatory synaptic inputs to corticospinal neurons in humans. SFN society for Neuroscience 2014 Cerca con Google

Sparing R, Hesse MD, Fink GR (2010) Neuronavig NeuroReport ation for transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS): Where we are and where we are going. Cortex, 46:118-120 Cerca con Google

Speer AM, Benson BE, Kimbrell TK, Wassermann EM, Willis MW, Herscovitch P, et al. (2009) Opposite Effects of High and Low Frequency rTMS on Mood in Depressed Patients: Relationship to Baseline Cerebral Activity on PET. Journal of Affective Disorders, 115:386-394 Cerca con Google

Speer AM, Kimbrell TA, Wassermann EM, Repella JD, Willis MW, Herscovitch P, et al. (2000) Opposite effects of high and low frequency rTMS on regional brain activity in depressed patients. Biological Psychiatry, 48:1133-1141 Cerca con Google

Starck J, Rimpiläinen I, Pyykkö I, Toppila E (1999) The noise level in magnetic stimulation. Scandinavian Audiology, 25:223-226 Cerca con Google

Stefan K, Kunesch E, Cohen LG, Benecke R, Classen J (2000) Induction of plasticity in the human motor cortex by paired associative stimulation. Brain, 123:572-584 Cerca con Google

Stefan K, Wycislo M, Classen J (2004) Modulation of associative human motor cortical plasticity by attention. Journal of Neurophysiology, 92:66-72 Cerca con Google

Stewart LM, Battelli L, Walsh V, Cowey A (1999) Motion perception and perceptual learning studied by magnetic stimulation. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 51:334-350 Cerca con Google

Steward LM, Walsh V, Rothwell JC (2001) Motor and phosphene thresholds: a transcranial magnetic stimulation correlational study. Neuropsychologia, 39:415-419 Cerca con Google

Stokes MG, Chambers CD, Gould IC, Henderson TR, Janko NE, Allen NB, Mattingley JB (2005) Simple metric for scaling motor threshold based on scalp–cortex distance: application to studies using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Journal of Neurophysiology, 94:4520–4527 Cerca con Google

Strafella AP, Ko JH, Grant J, Fraraccio M, Monchi O (2005) Corticostriatal functional interactions in Parkinson’s disease: a rTMS/[11C]raclopride PET study. European Journal of Neuroscience, 22:2946-2952 Cerca con Google

Tallgreen P, Vanhatalo S, Kaila K, Voipio J (2005) Evaluation of commercially available electrodes and gels for recording of slow EEG potentials. Clinical Neurophysiology, 116:799-806 Cerca con Google

Tamás G, Lorincz A, Simon A, Szabadics J (2003) Identified sources and targets of slow inhibition in the neocortex. Science, 21:1902-1905
 Cerca con Google

Taylor PC, Nobre AC, Rushworth MFS (2007) Subsecond changes in top down control exerted by human medial frontal cortex during conflict and action selection: a combined transcranial magnetic stimulation electroencephalography study. Journal of Neuroscience, 27:11343–11353 Cerca con Google

Taylor PCJ, Nobre AC, Rushworth MFS (2006) FEF TMS Affects Visual Cortical Activity. Cerebral Cortex, 17:391-399 Cerca con Google

Tegenthoff M, Ragert P, Pleger B, Schwenkreis P, Förster AF, Nicolas V, et al. (2005) Improvement of tactile discrimination performance and enlargement of cortical somatosensory maps after 5 Hz rTMS. PLoS Biology, 3:e362 Cerca con Google

Ter Braack EM, De Vos CC, Van Putten MJ (2013) Masking the auditory evoked potential in TMS-EEG: a comparison of various methods. Brain Topography, 1-9 Cerca con Google

Terao Y, Ugawa Y, Suzuki M, Sakai K, Hanajima R, Gemba-Shimuzu K, et al. (1997) Shortening of simple reaction time by peripheral electrical and submotor-threshold magnetic cortical stimulation. Experimental Brain Research, 115:541-545 Cerca con Google

Thielscher A e Kammer T (2004) Electric field properties of two commercial figure-8 coils in TMS: calculation of focality and efficiency. Clinical Neurophysiology, 115:1697-1708 Cerca con Google

Thut G e Miniussi C (2009) New insights into rhythmic activity from TMS-EEG studies. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13:182-189 Cerca con Google

Thut G e Pascual-Leone A (2010) A Review of Combined TMS-EEG Studies to Characterize Lasting Effects of Repetitive TMS and Assess Their Usefulness in Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience. Brain Topography, 22:219-232 Cerca con Google

Thut G, Ives JR, Kampmann F, Pastor MA, Pascual-Leone A (2005) A new device and protocol for combining TMS and online recordings of EEG and evoked potentials. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 141:207–217 Cerca con Google

Thut G, Northoff G, Ives JR, Kamitani Y, Pfennig A, Kampmann F et al. (2003) Effects of single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on functional brain activity: a combined event-related TMS and evoked potential study. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114:2071-2080 Cerca con Google

Thut G, Veniero D, Romei V, Miniussi C, Schyns P, Gross J (2011) Rhythmic TMS causes local entrainment of natural oscillatory signatures. Current Biology, 21:1176-1185 Cerca con Google

Tiitinen H, Virtanen J, Ilmoniemi RJ, Kamppuri J, Ollikainen M, Ruohonen J, et al. (1999) Separation of contamination caused by coil clicks from responses elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Clinical Neurophysiology, 110:982-985 Cerca con Google

Tings T, Lang N, Tergau F, Paulus W, Sommer M (2005) Orientation-specific fast rTMS maximizes corticospinal inhibition and facilitation. Experimental Brain Research, 164:323-33 Cerca con Google

Ueno S, Tashiro T, Harada K (1998) Localised stimulation of neural tissues in the brain by means of a paired configuration of time-varying magnetic fields. Journal of Applied Physiology, 64:5862-5864 Cerca con Google

Ugawa Y, Uesaka Y, Terao Y, Hanajima R, Kanazawa I (1995) Annals of Neurology 37:703-713. Cerca con Google

Van Der Werf YD, Paus T (2006) The neural response to transcranial magnetic stimulation of the human motor cortex. I. Intracortical and cortico-cortical contributions. Experimental Brain Research, 175:231-245 Cerca con Google

Veniero D, Bortoletto M, Miniussi C (2009) TMS-EEG co-registration: On TMS-induced artefact. Clinical Neurophysiology, 120:1392-1399 Cerca con Google

Veniero D, Ponzo P, Koch G (2013) Paired associative stimulation enforces the communication between interconnected areas. The Journal of Neuroscience, 33:13773-13783 Cerca con Google

Vernet M, Bashir S, Yoo W-K, Perez JM, Najib U, Pascual-Leone A (2013) Insights on the neural basis of motor plasticity induced by theta burst stimulation from TMS–EEG. European Journal of Neuroscience, 37:598-606 Cerca con Google

Virtanen J, Ruohonen J, Naatanen R, Ilmoniemi RJ (1999) Instrumentation for the measurement of electric brain responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation. Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing, 37:322–326 Cerca con Google

Walsh V e Cowey A (2000) Transcranial magnetic stimulation and cognitive neuroscience. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1:73-79 Cerca con Google

Walsh V, Ellison A, Battelli L, Cowey A (1998) Task-specific impairments and enhancements induced by magnetic stimulation of human visual area V5. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 265:537–543 Cerca con Google

Wassermann EM (1998) Risk and safety of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation: report and suggested guidelines from the International Workshop on the Safety of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation, Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 108:1-16 Cerca con Google

Weiskopf N, Josephs O, Ruff CC, Blankenburg F, Featherstone E, Thomas A, et al. (2009) Image artifacts in concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and fMRI caused by leakage currents: Modeling and compensation. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 29:1211-1217 Cerca con Google

Werhahn KJ, Kunesch E, Noachtar S, Benecke R, Classen J (1999) Differential effects on motorcortical inhibition induced by blockade of GABA uptake in humans. Journal of Physiology, 517:591-597 Cerca con Google

Wolters A, Sandbrink F, Schlottmann A, et al. (2003) A temporally asymmetric Hebbian rule governing plasticity in the human motor cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 89:2339-2345. Cerca con Google

Ziemann U, Lönnecker S, Steinhoff BJ, Paulus W (1996a) Effects of antiepileptic drugs on motor cortex excitability in humans: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study. Annals of Neurology, 40:367-378 Cerca con Google

Ziemann U, Lönnecker S, Steinhoff BJ, Paulus W (1996b) The effect of lorazepam on the motor cortical excitability in man. Experimental Brain Research 109:127-135 Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record