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Mabilia, Diana (2015) Psychological functioning in non-clinical young adults:
Protective and risk factors for internalizing symptoms.
[Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The present research proposes the analysis of specific aspects of psychosocial functioning and development with a focus on issues related to internalizing symptoms, attachment styles and interpersonal dimensions of interpersonal functioning.
Developmental theories emphasized the importance of transitions, as periods of biologically and socially characterized changes (Arnett, 1997; Gurevitz Stern, 2004; Schulenberg, Magges, Hurrelmann, 1997; Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006).
The developmental phase of young adulthood, which can be detectable between 18 and 30 years of age, represents the transition from the dependency and social marginality of childhood and adolescence, to the independent and fully recognized social position of adulthood (Aldermen & Iafrate, 2003; Neyer & Asendorpf, 2001; Scabini & Iafrate, 2003).
Thie crucial developmental stage of young adulthood involves the progressive articulation of decision-making and planning skills, which will shape health and psychosocial well-being of the young adult (Savage, 2010; Schulenberg & Schoon, 2012). Symptoms belonging to the internalizing spectrum, particularly depressive and anxiety are among the most common during this period (Quintana, Kerr, 1993; Guttmannova, Szanyi, & Cali, 2007). Within this context of individual development, the relational dimension is central in the lives of young adults (Chicken, 2006). Although the protective role of the parents is reduced when young adults become independent, they still need support which intimate personal relationships, such as romantic ones, are able to provide (Jones, 2005). Otherwise, insecure attachment styles may cause separation anxiety and make the individual vulnerable to future psychological disorders (Manicavasagar, Silove, Marnane, & Wagner, 2009; Silove et al., 1993).
Even if university life may have a beneficial effect for students (Andrews & Wilding, 2004), life in the university environment presents many social and emotional challenges, such as academic, relational, and financial ones, which can negatively influence students’ psychological healt, eliciting the onset of internalizing symptoms (Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Cooke, Bewick, Barkham, Bradley & Audin 2006; Grant, 2002; Monaco, 2004; Negovan, 2010; Roberts & Zelenyanski, 2002). In turn, levels of anxiety and depression can represent a risk of poor academic achievement or impaired social functioning (e.g. Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Cooke et al., 2006; Monk, 2004; Misra & McKean, 2000; Roberts & Zelenyanski, 2002; Ross, Cleland, Macleod, 2006; Verger, et al. 2009).
Attachment security, both to family and peers, showed associations with psychosocial adjustment (Wei, Russell, Zakalik, 2005) and emotional regulation (Love et al., 2009), while insecure attachment of the anxious/preoccupied spectrum was associated with internalizing symptoms, such as anxiety and depression (Bonab & Haddadi Koohsar, 2011; Dozier et al., 2008).
Insecure attachment style was found to be strongly related with separation anxiety (SAD) (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010), which can represent a core form of anxiety, which operates as a general vulnerability factor for internalizing disorders and symptoms in young adults (Shear, Jin, Ruscio, Walters, & Kessler, 2006; Silove et al., 1993).
Dimensional approach was considered accurate and valid with regards to several psychological constructs, such as personality, psychopathology, and attachment (Fraley & Spieker, 2003; Fraley & Shaver, 2000; Krueger et al., 2011; Krueger & Markon, 2013; Silove et al., 2007; Widiger & Simonsen, 2006).
The present work analyzed the relation between attachment styles and internalizing symptoms, mediated by separation anxiety and interpersonal traits of personality functioning. Another aim of the present work was to provide contribution to the assessment of psychometric characteristics of the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), with young adults in the Italian context.
For each questionnaire, attention was devolved also to aspects of reliability and validity .
With regards to the analysis of the relation between attachment styles, internalizing symptoms, and interpersonal traits the sample comprised 308 non clinical young adults (80% university students, 74% women). With regards to the assessment of PAI psychometric properties, the non clinical sample included 1180 young adults (77% university students, 59% from psychology courses, 69.4% women).
Multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) has been performed to assess factor structure invariance of the separate scales of the PAI, as presented by the author of the instrument (Morey, 2007). With regards to the overall scale, which revealed non homogeneous factor structures in literature, in the present work several CFA model have been tested in order to evaluate which model represented the best adaptation to data in the present sample.
Univariate and multivariate analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to assess differences in considered variables with regards to gender in order to compare.
Instruments were selected for their utility in assessing constructs which were the focus of the present study, and particular attention was devolved to select questionnaires which were endowed with international diffusion, both in research and in clinical contexts: (a) the PAI (Morey, 1991, 2007) for the assessment of personality traits and internalizing symptoms, (b) the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R, Derogatis, 1994; Sarno, Preti, Prunas, & Madeddu, 2011) to assess individuals’ current level of psychosocial distress on internalizing symptom dimensions, (c) the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y; Spielberger, 1983; Pedrabissi & Santinello, 1996), to measure anxiety, (d) the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ; Bartholomew & Horowitz, 1991; Carli, 1995 ) to assess adult attachment styles, (e) the Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R; Fraley, Waller, & Brennan, 2000; Calvo, 2008) for the classification of anxiety and avoidance attachment styles related to romantic relationships, (f) the Adult Separation Anxiety (ASA-27; Manicavasagar, Silove, Wagner, Drobny, 2003; Manicavasagar, Silove, Franzcp, Curtis, Franzcp, & Wagner, 2000) for adult separation anxiety symptoms, and (g) the Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI; Silove et al., 1993), for adults’ memories of Separation Anxiety symptoms experienced in the first 18 years of life.
Overall, participants showed scores in line with normative data present in the literature, both with regards to internalizing symptoms and attachment styles. As expected, women were higher compared to men in internalizing symptoms. In conclusion, the relation between internalizing symptoms and attachment has been investigated by means of regression analyses, revealing an association between the constructs involved.

Abstract (italiano)

La presente ricerca si propone l'analisi di aspetti specifici evolutivi e del funzionamento psicosociale, con particolare attenzione ai sintomi del versante internalizzante, e a dimensioni del funzionamento interpersonale, come ad esempio gli stili di attaccamento.
Le teorie evolutive hanno sottolineato l'importanza delle transizioni, come periodi di cambiamento caratterizzato da aspetti sia di tipo biologico che sociale (Arnett, 1997; Gurevitz Stern, 2004; Schulenberg, Magges, Hurrelmann, 1997; Schulenberg & Zarrett, 2006).
La fase di sviluppo dell’età giovane adulta, o young adulthood, che si riferisce all’età tra i 18 ei 29 anni di età, rappresenta il passaggio dalla dipendenza e marginalità sociale dell'infanzia e dell'adolescenza, alla posizione sociale indipendente e pienamente riconosciuta dell'età adulta (Neyer & Asendorpf, 2001; Scabini & Iafrate, 2003).
La fase di sviluppo della young adulthood comporta la progressiva articolazione del processo decisionale e di pianificazione delle competenze, che influisce sulla salute e il benessere psicosociale dei giovani adulti (Savage, 2010; Schulenberg & Schoon, 2012). I sintomi appartenenti allo spettro interiorizzante, in particolare depressione e ansia, sono tra i più comuni in questo periodo (Quintana, Kerr, 1993; Guttmannova, Szanyi, e Cali, 2007). All’interno del contesto di sviluppo individuale della young adulthood, la dimensione relazionale ricopre un ruolo centrale (Pollo, 2006). Sebbene il ruolo protettivo dei genitori si riduce quando i giovani diventano indipendenti, essi hanno ancora bisogno di sostegno che i rapporti intimi, come quelli delle relazioni di coppia, sono in grado di fornire (Jones, 2005). In caso contrario, lo sviluppo di un attaccamento di tipo insicuro può causare ansia di separazione e rendere l'individuo vulnerabile a disturbi psicologici futuri (Manicavasagar, Silove, Marnane, e Wagner, 2009; Silove et al., 1993).
sebbene la vita universitaria possa avere un effetto benefico per gli studenti (Andrews & Wilding, 2004), la vita in ambito universitario presenta molte sfide sociali ed emotive, in termini di difficoltà accademiche, relazionali, e finanziarie, le quali a loro volta possono influire negativamente sul benessere psicologico degli studenti causando l’insorgere di sintomi internalizzanti (Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Cooke, Bewick, Barkham, Bradley & Audin 2006; Grant, 2002; Monaco, 2004; Negovan, 2010; Roberts & Zelenyanski, 2002). A loro volta, sintomi ansia e depressione possono rappresentare un rischio di scarsi risultati scolastici o compromissione del funzionamento sociale (ad esempio Andrews & Wilding, 2004; Cooke et al, 2006;. Monk, 2004; Misra & McKean, 2000; Roberts & Zelenyanski 2002 ; Ross, Cleland, Macleod, 2006; Verger, et al 2009).
La sicurezza legata all’attaccamento, sia verso i componenti della famiglia che verso i coetanei, ha mostrato associazioni con l’adattamento psicosociale (Wei, Russell, Zakalik, 2005) e la regolazione emotiva (Amore et al., 2009), mentre l'attaccamento insicuro dello spettro ansioso / preoccupato ha rivelato associazioni con sintomi internalizzanti, come ansia e depressione (Bonab & Haddadi Koohsar, 2011;. Dozier et al, 2008).
Gli stili di attaccamento del versante insicuro sono risultati fortemente correlati con ansia di separazione (SAD) (Brumariu & Kerns, 2010), che a sua volta opera come fattore di vulnerabilità generale per disturbi e sintomi internalizzanti nei giovani adulti (Shear, Jin, Ruscio, Walters, e Kessler, 2006;. Silove et al, 1993).
L’approccio dimensionale è stato considerato accurato e valido per quanto riguarda i diversi costrutti psicologici, come la personalità, la psicopatologia, e l'attaccamento (Fraley & Spieker, 2003; Fraley & Shaver, 2000; Krueger et al, 2011;. & Markon Krueger, 2013; Silove et . al, 2007; Widiger & Simonsen, 2006).
il presente lavoro analizza la relazione tra stili di attaccamento e sintomi internalizzanti, mediati da ansia da separazione e tratti di funzionamento interpersonale. Un altro scopo del presente lavoro è stato fornire un contributo alla valutazione delle caratteristiche psicometriche del Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI; Morey, 1991), riscontrate nel contesto italiano con soggetti di età giovane adulta.
Per ogni questionario, l'attenzione è stata rivolta anche agli aspetti di affidabilità e validità.
Per quanto riguarda l'analisi del rapporto tra stili di attaccamento, sintomi internalizzanti, e tratti interpersonali, il campione comprendeva 308 giovani adulti non-clinici (80% studenti universitari, 74% donne). Per quanto invece riguarda la valutazione delle proprietà psicometriche del PAI, il campione comprendeva 1.180 giovani adulti non-clinici (77% studenti universitari, 59% di psicologia, 69,4% donne).
Un’analisi fattoriale confermativa (CFA) multi gruppo è stata effettuata per indagare aspetti di invarianza per quanto riguarda la struttura delle singole scale del PAI, così come indagate dall’autore dello strumento (Morey, 2007). Inoltre, per quanto riguarda la struttura complessiva del PAI, che in letteratura ha mostrato risultati non sempre concordi, nel presente lavoro sono stati confrontati diversi modelli CFA, al fine di indagare quale di essi mostrasse il migliore adattamento ai dati nel presente campione.
Analisi univariate e multivariate della varianza (ANOVA) sono state effettuate per valutare le differenze di genere per quanto riguarda le variabili considerate, e cioè sintomi internalizzanti e attaccamento.
Gli strumenti sono stati selezionati per la loro utilità nel valutare i costrutti considerati nel presente studio, e particolare attenzione è stata volta a selezionare questionari dotati di diffusione internazionale, sia in ambito di ricerca che in ambito clinico: (a) il PAI (Morey, 1991 , 2007) per la valutazione dei tratti di personalità e sintomi internalizzanti, (b) il Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R, Derogatis, 1994; Sarno, Preti, Prunas, e Madeddu, 2011) per valutare il livello attuale di stress psico-sociale per quanto riguarda sintomi internalizzanti, (c) lo State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y, Spielberger, 1983; Pedrabissi e Santinello, 1996), per misurare l'ansia, (d) il Relationship Questionnaire (RQ; Bartholomew & Horowitz , 1991; Carli, 1995) per l’assessment degli stili di attaccamento adulto, (e) lo Experiences in Close Relationships Scale-Revised (ECR-R; Fraley, Waller, e Brennan, 2000; Calvo, 2008) specifico per la classificazione di ansia e di evitamento legati all’attaccamento romantico, (f) l'Adult Separation Anxiety (ASA-27; Manicavasagar, Silove, Wagner, Drobny, 2003; Manicavasagar, Silove, Franzcp, Curtis, Franzcp, e Wagner, 2000) per sintomi di ansia di separazione adulta, e (g) il Separation Anxiety Symptom Inventory (SASI;. Silove et al, 1993), per la valutazione dei sintomi di ansia di separazione riferiti dagli adulti riguardo alle loro esperienze precedenti ai 18 anni.
I partecipanti hanno mostrato complessivamente punteggi in linea con i dati normativi presenti in letteratura, sia per quanto riguarda i sintomi internalizzanti che per quanto riguarda gli stili di attaccamento. Come previsto, le donne hanno mostrato livelli più elevati di sintomi internalizzanti rispetto agli uomini. In conclusione, la relazione tra i sintomi di internalizzazione e di attaccamento analizzata mediante modelli di regressione, hanno rivelato un'associazione tra i costrutti coinvolti.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Lis, Adriana
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:01 Febbraio 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:01 Febbraio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Young adults, Personality, Internalizing symptoms, Attachment, Separation anxiety
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/08 Psicologia clinica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:7917
Depositato il:24 Nov 2015 17:23
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