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Ferri, Ilaria (2015) Il ruolo degli operatori sanitari nel motivare all'attivitĂ  fisica utenti dei servizi psichiatrici. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Psychotic disorders are among the chronic diseases with a major impact on the life of those affected, because of related disabilities, stigma and the difficulties involving family members and care services. Statistics report that 1.7% of the Italian population requires every year at least one treatment to mental health services: at least one-fifth of these treatments, is due to psychotic disorders. The therapeutic intervention is typically structured with a multidisciplinary approach to meet the different needs of these people: it involves the use of psychopharmacological therapies associated with psychotherapeutic, educational and rehabilitative treatment. In the last years research has shown that physical activity (PA) can positively influence the treatment of psychotic disorders. Compared to the general population, in fact, people suffering for severe mental illness have higher levels of overweight and obesity and present higher possibilities of developing chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome. Moreover, these disorders are associated with higher levels of physical inactivity and lower levels of quality of life than the general population. Regular PA, on the other hand, improves lipid profiles, helps to regulate body composition and glucose metabolism, reduces blood pressure, increases fitness levels and has also positive effects on mood and anxiety levels. The main obstacles that these people encounter in adhering to regular PA programs are primarily related to the pathology and and to theirs socio-economic conditions. The side effects of antipsychotic drugs, the lack of motivation, poor concentration and difficulty in accessing the proposed activity, contribute to limit the exercise capacity of these persons and hinder their participation in regular PA programs long-lasting. Literature highlighted the importance and usefulness of educational interventions to support treatment compliance, helping people who suffer from psychotic disorders to deal with their disease and the correlated risks. Moreover, educational intervention are necessary to promote the insight of illness and to involve patients in tailored care. In addition, increasing evidence underline the crucial role of health professionals in health promotion interventions, that affect very significantly the healthy behaviors and physical habits of people with psychotic disorders. These observations are theoretically supported especially by Deci and Ryan in the theory of self-determination and by Hagger and Chatzisarantis in Trans-Contextual Model. The authors have shown that contextual factors such as social support, self-efficacy, autonomy, competence, social skills and the role of significant others are of fundamental importance in determining the motivation of people of being physically active. Even the enjoyment, defined as an emotional response positive sports experience, which reflects the general feelings of pleasure, satisfaction and fun, is considered one of the main determinants of adherence AF, as it is able to influence the will to begin and to maintain a program of regular exercise. Based on these findings, the research took into consideration some virtuous experiences operating in our country, offering regular PA programs as an integral part of the therapeutic treatments for users of psychiatric services. The purpose was to bring out the opinions of health professionals involved in regular PA programs with the users of psychiatric services, to highlight the benefits, barriers and facilitators of PA proposals. For this purpose it was decided to adopt a blended approach: participants completed a package of questionnaires which investigated the amount of PA, motivation, enjoyment, self-efficacy and quality of life reported by the participants. Therefore, a comparison was made between the two groups of participants on the basis of the variables examined. Moreover, four focus groups have been carried out, with health professionals involved in the study. They were asked to tell their personal experiences in PA with users of psychiatric services, highlighting the faced difficulties, the greatest benefits for users and the most important elements that can facilitate the implementation of PA proposals and to increasing their effectiveness. The results of the research are in line with literature. The content-analysis of focus groups, moreover, highlighted important data in support of the central role of the health care workers, in supporting users of the psychiatric services, to take part in the activities concerning health promotion. Results showed the need of a specific preparation, for these people, especially in what concern motivational processes and the management of strategies to promote active lifestyles. Finally, the statements reported by the health care workers confirmed and enriched the evidences about the utility of PA programs within the rehabilitative paths for people with severe mental disorders. They highlighted, in particular, the need to promote these initiatives making them an integral part of the therapeutic treatments. Moreover, it was highlighted the need to work on the network of contacts between the realities that promote these initiatives; health care workers underlined also the growing need for collaboration with local institutions at different levels, to promote and support the debate on this topic; finally they stressed that it is important to increase more effective PA proposals with the aim to respond to the needs of the users of psychiatric services.

Abstract (italiano)

I disturbi psicotici cronici si collocano tra le patologie a più alto impatto sulla qualità della vita di chi ne è affetto: per la disabilità che comportano, per lo stigma sociale cui è soggetto chi ne soffre e per le difficoltà che coinvolgono i familiari e i servizi assistenziali. Si stima che l’1.7% della popolazione italiana richieda almeno un trattamento all’anno ai servizi di salute mentale territoriale: di questi, almeno un quinto è a causa di disturbi psicotici. L’intervento terapeutico in genere prevede l'uso di terapie psicofarmacologiche associate a trattamenti psicoterapeutici, educativi e riabilitativi multidisciplinari, tra i quali assume sempre maggiore rilevanza l’attività fisica (AF). La ricerca ha infatti messo in evidenza come essa possa influenzare positivamente il trattamento dei disturbi psicotici, che sono fortemente associati a sovrappeso ed obesità e ad un elevato rischio di sviluppare patologie croniche come diabete di tipo 2, malattie cardiovascolari e sindrome metabolica. Inoltre questi disturbi sono associati a maggiori livelli di sedentarietà e a minori livelli di qualità della vita rispetto alla popolazione generale. L’AF regolare, per contro, migliora i profili lipidici, la composizione corporea e il metabolismo del glucosio, diminuisce la pressione arteriosa e ha effetti positivi sull’umore e sui livelli d’ansia. Gli ostacoli principali che queste persone incontrano nell’aderire a programmi di AF regolare sono collegati principalmente alla patologia e alle condizioni socioeconomiche ad essa correlate. Gli effetti collaterali dei farmaci antipsicotici, la mancanza di motivazione, la scarsa concentrazione e la difficoltà ad accedere a proposte di attività, limitano le capacità e le possibilità d’esercizio di queste persone e ostacolano la partecipazione a programmi di AF regolare in modo duraturo. La letteratura ha messo in evidenza l’importanza e l’utilità d’interventi educativi che aiutino le persone che soffrono per questi disturbi a prendere consapevolezza della malattia e a conoscerne i rischi correlati, per cercare di migliorare l’aderenza alle cure. Inoltre, crescenti evidenze sottolineano il ruolo fondamentale degli operatori sanitari negli interventi di promozione della salute, che influenzano in modo molto significativo i comportamenti salutari e le abitudini motorie di queste persone. Queste osservazioni trovano un supporto teorico in particolare in quanto affermato da Deci e Ryan nella Teoria dell’autodeterminazione e da Hagger e Chatzisarantis nel Modello Trans-Contestuale. Gli autori hanno dimostrato come fattori contestuali quali il supporto sociale, l’autoefficacia, l’autonomia, la competenza, le capacità relazionali e il ruolo degli altri significativi risultino fondamentali nel determinare la motivazione delle persone nei confronti dell’AF. Anche l’enjoyment, definito come una risposta emotiva positiva all’esperienza sportiva, che riflette sensazioni generali di piacere, gradimento e divertimento, viene considerato tra le principali determinanti dell’aderenza all’AF, in quanto è in grado d’influenzare la volontà di iniziare e di mantenere un programma di esercizio regolare e duraturo. Sulla base di queste evidenze la ricerca ha voluto prendere in esame alcune esperienze virtuose del territorio nazionale, che propongono l’AF come parte integrante del trattamento terapeutico per gli utenti dei servizi psichiatrici territoriali. Lo scopo è stato quello di far emergere il parere di operatori sanitari coinvolti in programmi regolari di AF con gli utenti, per mettere in evidenza benefici, barriere e facilitatori dell’AF proposta. A tale scopo è stato scelto di adottare un metodo misto: i partecipanti hanno compilato un pacchetto di questionari con i quali sono state indagate la quantità di AF svolta, la motivazione, l’enjoyment, l’auto-efficacia e la qualità della vita riportate dai partecipanti. É stato quindi realizzato un confronto tra i due gruppi di partecipanti sulla base delle variabili prese in esame. Inoltre sono stati realizzati quattro focus group, ai quali hanno preso parte gli operatori sanitari coinvolti nello studio. Agli operatori è stato chiesto di raccontare le loro personali esperienze nell’ambito dell’AF con gli utenti, mettendo in luce le difficoltà che incontrano, i maggiori benefici per gli utenti e gli elementi più rilevanti per facilitare la realizzazione delle proposte ed incrementarne l’efficacia. I risultati si pongono in linea con quanto già evidenziato dalla letteratura. Dall’analisi dei focus, in particolare, sono emersi dati importanti a sostegno della centralità del ruolo dell’operatore sanitario, nel supportare costantemente gli utenti nelle attività proposte che riguardano la promozione della salute. Inoltre è emersa la necessità di una preparazione specifica, per queste persone, soprattutto nell’ambito dei processi motivazionali e nella gestione delle strategie per promuovere stili di vita attivi. Infine le testimonianze degli operatori hanno confermato e arricchito le evidenze a sostegno dell’utilità dell’AF all’interno dei percorsi riabilitativi degli utenti con gravi disturbi psichiatrici. È stata messa in luce, in particolar modo, la necessità di promuovere queste iniziative e di renderle parte integrante dei trattamenti terapeutici. Non di meno, è stata evidenziata la necessità di lavorare sulla rete di contatti tra le realtà che promuovo queste iniziative ma soprattutto l’esigenza crescente di collaborazione con gli enti del territorio a livello locale, regionale e nazionale, per promuovere e sostenere il confronto sull’argomento e sviluppare proposte d’intervento sempre più efficaci e rispondenti alle esigenze degli utenti.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Carraro, Attilio
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 26 > Scuole 26 > SCIENZE PEDAGOGICHE, DELL'EDUCAZIONE E DELLA FORMAZIONE
Data di deposito della tesi:02 Febbraio 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:30 Gennaio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):AttivitĂ  Fisica, Disturbi Psicotici, Operatori Sanitari, Trattamenti Multifattoriali; Physical Activity, Psychotic Disorders, Health care workers, Mutidisciplinary Treatments
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-EDF/01 Metodi e didattiche delle attivitĂ  motorie
Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-EDF/02 Metodi e didattiche delle attivitĂ  sportive
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:7963
Depositato il:12 Nov 2015 09:21
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