Vai ai contenuti. | Spostati sulla navigazione | Spostati sulla ricerca | Vai al menu | Contatti | Accessibilità

| Crea un account

Guardini, Pietro (2008) Blame the Usual Contexts: New Findings on Illusory Contours and Visual Masked Priming by using Novel Contexts. [Tesi di dottorato]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Anteprima
Documento PDF
1482Kb

Abstract (inglese)

Perception depends on the context, and this is why different contexts are likely to induce different perceptions. Therefore, the role of the researcher is to identify which contexts may enable her/him to draw conclusions on mechanisms underlying perception. After all, the difference between the control and the experimental condition in scientific research can be seen as a change in a specific aspect of the context: all being equal, except the independent variable.
The importance of the context in perception is perhaps secondary only to its vastness and complexity. Here, we choose two distinct topics as research issues: an "old" problem, the formation of illusory contour surfaces, and a "new" one, the origins of visual masked priming.
Illusory contours have been widely researched: Purghé and Coren (1992) counted more than 400 publications from 1900 to 1990. However, just a few of them deal with heterogeneous contexts, i.e., illusory contour inducers depicted against non-homogeneous backgrounds. In the first part of this work we illustrated five experiments which attempt to fill this gap. Our results confirmed previous findings found employing homogeneous contexts, and extended them to heterogeneous contexts, introducing new issues. In the second part of this work, we report a series of visual masked priming experiments that focused on between-trials factors: namely, frequency of occurrence and presentation order effects. Previous research on priming has taken into account primarily the frequency of congruent and incongruent trials, and in particular the prime validity effect: when the proportion of valid trials is higher than invalid trials, an increase in priming is obtained. However, standard randomization of trials was usually employed for presentation, making frequent trials more likely to occur on the initial trials. Thus, the effects of initial and overall trial frequencies have become intermingled. The new context employed here (a biased presentation order) shed some light on these effects. Results are in agreement with the recently proposed retroactive view of masked priming, in contrast to the classic spreading activation theories (Masson & Bodner, 2003).


Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Roncato, Sergio
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 20 > Scuole per il 20simo ciclo > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE > PERCEZIONE E PSICOFISICA
Data di deposito della tesi:31 Gennaio 2008
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 Gennaio 2008
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Illusory Contours, Kanizsa, Depth Stratification, Masked Priming, Prime Validity Effect, Frequency Effect, Primacy Effect
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/01 Psicologia generale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:797
Depositato il:25 Nov 2008
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. Aks, D. J., & Enns, J. T. (1996). Visual search for size is influenced by a background texture gradient. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Perception and Performance, 22, 1467-1481. Cerca con Google

2. Banton, T., & Levi, D. M. (1992). The perceived strength of illusory contours. Perception and Psychophysics, 52, 676-684. Cerca con Google

3. Bertamini, M., Bruno, N., & Mosca, F. (2004). Illusory surfaces affect the integration of local motion signals. Vision Research, 44, 297-308. Cerca con Google

4. Bodner, G. E., & Dypvik, A. T. (2005). Masked priming of number judgements depends on prime validity and task. Memory & Cognition, 33, 29-47. Cerca con Google

5. Bodner, G. E., & Masson, M. E. J. (1997). Masked repetition priming of words and nonwords: Evidence for a nonlexical basis for priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 37, 268-293. Cerca con Google

6. Bodner, G. E., & Masson, M. E. J. (2001). Prime validity affects masked repetition priming: Evidence for an episodic resource account of priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 45, 616-647. Cerca con Google

7. Bodner, G. E., & Masson, M. E. J. (2003). Beyond spreading activation: An influence of relatedness proportion on masked semantic priming. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10, 645-652. Cerca con Google

8. Bodner, G. E., & Masson, M. E. J. (2004). Beyond binary judgements: Prime validity modulates masked repetition priming in the naming task. Memory & Cognition, 32, 1-11. Cerca con Google

9. Bodner, G. E., Masson, M. E. J., & Richard, N. T. (2006). Repetition proportion biases masled priming of lexical decisions. Memory & Cognition, 34, 1298-1311. Cerca con Google

10. Bradley, D. R., & Mates, S. M. (1985). Perceptual organization and apparent brightness in subjective contour figures. Perception, 14, 645-653. Cerca con Google

11. Brainard, D. H. (1997). The Psychophysics Toolbox. Spatial Vision, 10, 433-436. Cerca con Google

12. Carr, T. H., & Dagenbach, D. (1990). Semantic priming and repetition priming from masked words: Evidence for center-surround attentional mechanisms in perceptual recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 16, 341-350. Cerca con Google

13. Chubb, C., Econopouly, J., & Landy, M. S. (1994). Histogram contrast analysis and the visual segregation of IID textures. Journal of Optical Society of America, 119, 2350-2374. Cerca con Google

14. Coren, S., & Porac, C. (1983). Subjective contours and apparent depth: A direct test. Perception & Psychophysics, 33, 197-200. Cerca con Google

15. Coren, S., & Theodor, L. H. (1975). Subjective contour: the inadequacy of brightness contrast as an explanation. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 6, 87-89. Cerca con Google

16. Coren, S. (1972). Subjective contour and apparent depth. Psychological Review, 79, 359-367. Cerca con Google

17. Coren, S., Porac, C., & Theodor, L. H., (1986). The effects of perceptual set on the shape and apparent depth of subjective contours. Perception & Psychophysics, 39, 327-333. Cerca con Google

18. Day, R. H., & Kasperczyk, R. T. (1983). Amodal completion as a basis for illusory contours. Perception and Psychophysics, 33, 355-364. Cerca con Google

19. Dresp, B. (1992). Local brightness mechanisms sketch out surfaces but do not fill them in: Psychophysical evidence in the Kanizsa square. Perception & Psychophysics, 52, 562-570. Cerca con Google

20. Ehrenstein, W. (1941). Über Abwandlungen der L. Hermannschen Helligkeitserscheinung. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 150, 83-91. [English translation by A Hogg “Modifications of the brightness phenomenon of L. Hermann”, in The perception of Illusory Contours Eds Petry S, Meyer G E (1987, New York: Springer) pp 35-39] Cerca con Google

21. Forster, K. I., & Davis, C. (1984). Repetition priming and frequency attenuation in lexical access. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 10, 680-698. Cerca con Google

22. Gillam, B. (1987). Perceptual grouping and subjective contours. In S. Petry & G. E. Meyer (Eds.), The perception of Illusory Contours (pp 268-273). New York, USA: Springer. Cerca con Google

23. Gregory, R. L. (1972). Cognitive Contours. Nature, 238, 51-52. Cerca con Google

24. Guardini, P. (2007). What really happens to illusory contour figures in heterogeneous contexts? Perception, 36 (Suppl.), 160. Cerca con Google

25. Halpern, D. F., & Salzman, B. (1983) The multiple determination of illusory contours: A review. Perception, 12, 281-291. Cerca con Google

26. Halpern, D. F., Salzman, B., Harrison, W., & Widaman, K. (1983). The multiple determination of illusory contours: An empirical investigation. Perception, 12, 293-303. Cerca con Google

27. Hutchison, K. A. (2007). Attentional control and the relatedness proportion effect in semantic priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 33, 645-662. Cerca con Google

28. Hutchison, K. A., Neely, J. H., & Johnson, J. D. (2001). With great expectations, can two “wrongs” prime a “right”? Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 27, 1451-1463. Cerca con Google

29. Jaskowski, P., Skalska, B., & Verleger, R. (2003). How the self controls its “automatic pilot” when processing subliminal information. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 911-920. Cerca con Google

30. Kanizsa, G. (1955). Margini quasi-percettivi in campi con stimolazione omogenea. Rivista di psicologia, 49, 7-30 [English translation by W Gerbino “Quasi-perceptual margins in homogeneously stimulated fields”, in The perception of Illusory Contours Eds Petry S, Meyer G E (New York: Springer) pp 40-49] Cerca con Google

31. Kanizsa, G. (1974). Contours without gradients or cognitive contours? Italian Journal of Psychology, 1 ,93-113. Cerca con Google

32. Kanizsa, G., (1976). Subjective contours. Scientific American, 234, 48-52. Cerca con Google

33. Kennedy, J. M. (1978). Illusory contours not due to completion. Perception, 7, 187-189. Cerca con Google

34. Lesher, G. W., & Mingolla, E. (1993). The role of edges and line-ends in illusory contour formation. Vision Research, 33, 2253-2270. Cerca con Google

35. Lesher, G. W. (1995). Illusory contrours: Toward a neurally based perceptual theory. Psychonomic Bullettin & Review, 2, 279-321. Cerca con Google

36. Logan, G. D. (1992). Attention and preattention in theories of automaticity. American Journal of Psychology, 105, 317-339. Cerca con Google

37. Marcel, A. J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237. Cerca con Google

38. Marks, L. E. (1968). Stimulus-range, number of categories, and form of category scale. American Journal of Psychology, 81, 467-479. Cerca con Google

39. Masson, M. E. J., & Bodner, G. E. (2003). A retrospective view of masked priming: Toward a unified account of masked and long-term repetition priming. In S. Kinoshita & S. J. Lupker (Eds.), Masked priming: The state of the art (pp. 57-94). New York: Psychology Press. Cerca con Google

40. Masson, M. E. J., & Isaak, M. I. (1991). Masked priming of words and nonwords in a naming task: Further evidence for a nonlexical basis for priming. Memory & Cognition, 27, 399-412. Cerca con Google

41. Meyer, D. E., & Schvaneveldt, R. W. (1971). Facilitation in recognizing pairs of words: Evidence of a dependence between retrieval operations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 227-234. Cerca con Google

42. Meyer, D. E., Schvaneveldt, R. W., & Ruddy, M. G. (1975). Loci of contextual effects on visual word-recognition. In P. M. A. Rabbitt & S. Dornic (Eds.), Attention and Performance V (pp. 98-118). New York: Academic Press. Cerca con Google

43. Necker, L. A. (1832). Observations on some remarkable Optical Phenomena seen in Switzerland; and on an Optical Phenomenon which occurs on viewing a Figure of a Crystal or geometrical Solid. The London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 1, 329-337. Cerca con Google

44. Neely, J. H. (1991). Semantic priming effects in visual word recognition: A selective review of current findings and theories. In D. Besner & G. W. Humpreys (Eds.), Basic processes in reading: Visual word recognition (pp. 264-336). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Cerca con Google

45. Neely, J. H., Keefe, D. E., & Ross, K. (1989). Semantic priming in the lexical decision task: Role of prospective prime-generated expectancies and retrospective semantic matching. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 15, 1003-1019. Cerca con Google

46. Parducci, A. (1956). Direction of shift in the judgement of single stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51, 169-178. Cerca con Google

47. Parks, T. E. (1982). Illusory Contours: On the efficacy of their need for expression. Perception and Psychophysics, 32, 286-289. Cerca con Google

48. Parks, T. E. (1987). On the relative frequency of depth effects in real versus illusory figures. Perception & Psychophysics, 42, 333-336. Cerca con Google

49. Parlangeli, O., Guidi, S., & Palmer, S. (2007). Amodal completion behind multiple occluders: A temporal analysis. Perception, 36(Suppl.), 108. Cerca con Google

50. Pecher, D., Zeelenberg, R., & Raaijmakers, J. G. W. (2002). Associative priming in a masked perceptual identification task: Evidence for automatic processes. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55A, 1157-1173. Cerca con Google

51. Pelli, D. G. (1997). The VideoToolbox software for visual psychophysics: Transforming numbers into movies. Spatial Vision, 10, 437-442. Cerca con Google

52. Perea, M., & Rosa, E. (2002). Does the proportion of associatively related pairs modulate the associative priming effect at very brief stimulus-onset asynchronies? Acta Psychologica, 110, 103-124. Cerca con Google

53. Petry, S., & Meyer, G. E. (1987). The perception of illusory contours. New York: Springer. Cerca con Google

54. Petry, S., Harbeck, A., Conway, J., & Levey, J. (1983). Stimulus determinants of brightness and distinctness of subjective contours. Perception and Psychophysics, 34, 169-174. Cerca con Google

55. Pinna, B., Ehrenstein, W. H., & Spillmann, L. (2004). Illusory contours and surfaces without amodal completion and depth stratification. Vision Research, 44, 1851-1855. Cerca con Google

56. Porac, C. (1978). Depth in objective and subjective contour patterns. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 11, 103-105. Cerca con Google

57. Posner, M. I., & Snyder, C. R. R. (1975). Attention and cognitive control. In R. L. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola symposium (pp. 669-682). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Cerca con Google

58. Purghé, F., & Coren, S. (1992b). Amodal completion, depth stratification, and illusory figures: a test of Kanizsa’s explanation. Perception, 21, 325-335. Cerca con Google

59. Purghé, F., & Coren, S. (1992a). Subjective contours 1900-1990: Research trends and bibliography. Perception and Psychophysics, 51, 291-304. Cerca con Google

60. Purghé, F. (1991). Is amodal completion necessary for the formation of illusory figures? Perception, 20, 623-636. Cerca con Google

61. Purghé, F. (1995). Illusory figures from stereoscopically three-dimensional inducers depicting no occlusion event. Perception, 21, 905-918. Cerca con Google

62. Purghé, F. (1998). Can illusory figures be transparent and opaque at the same time? Perception, 27, 337-340. Cerca con Google

63. Qiu, F. T., & von der Heydt, R. (2005). Figure and ground in the visual cortex: V2 combines stereoscopic cues with Gestalt rules. Neuron, 47, 155-166. Cerca con Google

64. Ramachandran, V. S., & Cavanagh, P. (1985). Subjective contours capture stereopsis. Nature, 317, 527-8. Cerca con Google

65. Ramachandran, V. S., Ruskin, D., Cobb, S., Rogers-Ramachandran, D., & Tyler, C. W. (1993). On the Perception of Illusory Contours. Vision Research, 34, 3145-3152. Cerca con Google

66. Rock, I., & Anson, R. (1979). Illusory contours as the solution to a problem. Perception, 8, 665-681. Cerca con Google

67. Salzman, B., & Halpern, D. F. (1982). Subjective towers: depth relationships in multilevel subjective contours. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 55, 1247-1256. Cerca con Google

68. Shipley, T. K., & Kellman, P. J. (1992). Strength of visual interpolation depends on the ratio of physically specified to total edge length. Perception and Psychophysics, 52, 97-106. Cerca con Google

69. Sokolov, A., & Pavlova, M. (2005). Repetition priming with barely distinct stimuli. In J.S. Monahan, J.T. Townsend, & S.M. Sheffert (Eds.), Fechner Day '05 (pp. 337-342). Traverse City, MI: The International Society for Psychophysics. Cerca con Google

70. Sokolov, A., Guardini, P., & Pavlova, M. (2006). Beyond the prime-target congruency: Dissociable primacy and frequency effects in masked priming. Perception, 35 (Suppl.), 74. Cerca con Google

71. Sokolov, A. N., Guardini, P., & Pavlova, M. (2007). The primacy and frequency effects in masked priming of visual identification. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience (Suppl.): Proceedings of the 14th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society, 179-180. Cerca con Google

72. Sokolov, A., Pavlova, M., & Ehrenstein, W.H. (2000). Primacy and frequency effects in absolute judgements of visual velocity. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 998-1007. Cerca con Google

73. Sokolov, A., Reissner, T., & Pavlova, M. (2004). Change the base rates but beware of order: Discriminating the visual size in variable contexts. In A.M. Oliveira, M. Teixeira, G.F. Borges, & M.J. Ferro (Eds.), Fechner Day '04 (pp. 541-546). Coimbra, Portugal: The International Society for Psychophysics. Cerca con Google

74. Sokolov, A.N., & Ehrenstein, W.H. (1996). Absolute judgments of velocity: Frequency- or presentation-order effect? In S.C. Masin (Ed.), Fechner Day '96 (pp. 57-62). Padua, Italy: The International Society for Psychophysics. Cerca con Google

75. Spillmann, L., & Redies, C. (1981). Random-dot motion displaces Ehrenstein illusion. Perception, 10, 411-415. Cerca con Google

76. Stolz, J. A., & Neely, J. H. (1995). When target degradation does and does not enhance context effects in word recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21, 596-611. Cerca con Google

77. Stolz, J. A., Besner, D., & Carr, T. H. (2005). Implications of measure of reliability for theories of priming: Activity in semantic memory is inherently noisy and uncoordinated. Visual Cognition, 12, 284-336. Cerca con Google

78. Takahashi, S. (1994). Microgenetic process of subjective contour perception in noise-containing inducing patterns. Japanese Psychological Research, 36, 195-200. Cerca con Google

79. Vallortigara, G., & Bressan, P. (1994). Occlusion, transparency, and stereopsis: a new explanation for stereo capture. Vision Research, 34, 2891-2896. Cerca con Google

80. Van Lier, R., de Wit, T. C. J., and Koning, A. (2006). Con-fusing contours & pieces of glass. Acta Psychologica, 123, 41-54. Cerca con Google

81. Ware, C., & Kennedy, J. M. (1977). Illusory line linking solid rods. Perception, 6, 601-602. Cerca con Google

82. Watanabe, T., & Oyama, T. (1988). Are illusory contours a cause or a consequence of apparent differences in brightness and depth in the Kanizsa square? Perception, 17, 513-512. Cerca con Google

83. Whittlesea, B. W. A., & Jacoby, L. L. (1990). Interaction of prime repetition with visual degradation: Is priming a retrieval phenomenon? Journal of Memory and Language, 29, 546-565. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record