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Timeo, Susanna (2015) Learning to perceive race: the development of different styles in processing own- and other-race faces. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The face is a key element in interpersonal relationships. Even just looking at a face we can get many information about our partner, such as sex, age and ethnicity. It has been shown that the latter feature has a great influence on the type of processing that is made up of a face and leads to poorer memory for faces of ethnic groups other than one’s own (Other Race Effect-ORE). In this project I aim to investigated the perception of faces of different ethnic groups in relation to the more general framing systems of information processing (global / local or holistic / analytical): specifically, we wanted to find out if the ORE can be attributed to a more large model of perception and cognition. In my discussion I investigated the perception of the faces of other ethnic groups from both the behavioral and neural point of view. In my research project I have adopted a developmental perspective, comparing the development of the neural basis of ethnicity of infants and adults.
In Chapter 1 I have summarized the literature on the ORE and the perception of faces of different ethnic groups, with particular attention to the different styles of processing involved and their respective neural activations. In Chapter 2, the ORE and the perception of ethnicity have been described with a developmental perspective, focusing on results with infants of a few months old. In Chapter 3, I have exposed my own studies that aimed to a better understanding of the relation between different elaboration styles and the perception of faces of other ethnic groups. Study 1 investigated in more detail the relationship between the styles of processing (holistic / analytical) and ORE. Studies 2 and 3 have been taken in order to understand how contextual aspects, such as the simultaneous presentation of multiple faces and the coexistence of different ethnic groups, are capable to induce, on the one hand, a different recognition performance (Study 2) and, on the other hand, different scanning and attention patterns on faces of other ethnic groups (Study 3). In the last part of the discussion studies that have investigated the neural basis of perception of ethnicity through the use of near-infrared spectroscopy have been presented. In the first two experiments (Studies 4 and 5), I have studied the link between neural activation for processing styles (holistic / analytical) and neural activation to the faces of different ethnicities in adults. Finally, in the last study (Study 6) I have investigated the perception of ethnicity with a developmental perspective. I have, in fact, tested a group of infants of 5 months and 9 months to answer questions about when and how it changes the brain activation to the faces of another ethnic group. Finally, in the last chapter I have discussed the findings in the frame of the development of the social brain, integrating the results of my studies within the broader theoretical currents on the ORE and the perception of ethnicity.

Abstract (italiano)

Il volto è l’elemento chiave nei rapporti interpersonali. Anche solo osservando un volto possiamo ottenere molte informazioni sul nostro interlocutore, come il sesso, l’età e l’etnia. Si è visto che quest’ultima caratteristica influisce molto sul tipo di elaborazione che viene fatta di un volto e porta ad un peggiore ricordo per i volti di etnie diverse dalla propria (Other Race Effect-ORE). Il presente progetto ha indagato la percezione dei volti di diverse etnie in relazione del più generale framing dei sistemi di elaborazione di informazioni (globale/locale o olistica/analitica): nello specifico si è voluto capire se l’ORE possa essere ricondotto ad un più ampio modello percettivo e cognitivo. Nella mia trattazione ho investigato la percezione dei volti di altre etnie sia dal punto di vista comportamentale che da quello neurale. Nel mio progetto di ricerca ho adottato un’ottica evolutiva, comparando lo sviluppo delle basi neurali dell’etnia di infanti e adulti.
Nel Capitolo 1 viene riassunta la letteratura riguardante l’ORE e la percezione dei volti di diverse etnie con particolare attenzione ai diversi stili di elaborazione coinvolti e alle rispettive attivazioni neurali. Nel Capitolo 2, invece, l’ORE e la percezione dell’etnia vengono descritti in prospettiva evolutiva, concentrandosi sui risultati con infanti di pochi mesi di vita. Nel Capitolo 3 sono esposti gli studi da me condotti che hanno mirato a comprendere maggiormente la relazione tra gli stili percettivi e l’elaborazione di volti di altre etnie. Lo Studio 1 ha indagato in maniera più approfondita la relazione tra gli stili di elaborazione (olistico/analitico) e l’ORE. Gli Studi 2 e 3 hanno cercato di comprendere come aspetti più contestuali, come la presentazione simultanea di più volti e la compresenza di diverse etnie, possano portare, da un lato, ad una diversa performance riconoscitiva (Studio 2) e, dall’altro, ad un diverso pattern di scannerizzazione e di attenzione verso i volti di altre etnie (Studio 3). Nell’ultima parte della trattazione, infine, vengono esposti gli studi che hanno indagato le basi neurali della percezione dell’etnia attraverso l’utilizzo della spettroscopia nel vicino infrarosso. In due primi esperimenti (Studi 4 e 5), ho studiato il legame tra l’attivazione neurale per stili di elaborazione (olistico/analitico) e l’attivazione neurale per i volti di diverse etnie. Infine, negli ultimi due studi (Studio 6 e 7) ho investigato la percezione dell’etnia in prospettiva evolutiva. Ho, infatti, testato un gruppo di infanti di 5 mesi (Studio6) e di 9 mesi (Studio 7) per rispondere ai quesiti su quando e come cambia l’attivazione cerebrale per i volti di un’altra etnia. In conclusione, l’ultimo capitolo discute i risultati in un’ottica di evoluzione del cervello sociale, integrando i risultati dei miei studi all’interno delle più ampie correnti teoriche sull’ORE e sulla percezione dell’etnia.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Farroni, Teresa
Correlatore:Maass, Anne
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 27 > scuole 27 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:02 Febbraio 2015
Anno di Pubblicazione:02 Febbraio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Other-Race Effect, Face Processing, fNIRS, Developmental Neuroscience,
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/04 Psicologia dello sviluppo e psicologia dell'educazione
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:7978
Depositato il:10 Nov 2015 11:44
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