Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Penna, Daniele (2008) Soil moisture distribution and runoff response at the hillslope scale: experimental analysis in an alpine environment. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

Documento PDF

Abstract (english)

This work focuses on the analysis of hydrological data collected at the hillslope scale during three summer field campaigns carried out in a small mountain catchment (1.9 km²) in the Dolomites (central-eastern Italian Alps). The thesis is partitioned in three main sections regarding i) the analysis of spatial distribution of water content over three soil depths, ii) the assessment of its temporal stability, iii) the study of runoff and water table variations.
Soil moisture is one of the most important hydrological variables: it has a critical influences on several processes at different spatial scales, plays an important role in hydrological modelling and flood forecasting and represents one of the main factors in infiltration of water, surface and subsurface runoff generation. Soil moisture data were collected during summers season in 2005, 2006 and 2007 at 0-6, 0-12 and 0-20 cm depth over three hillslopes with steep relief and shallow soil depth. Volumetric water content values were collected at several points over the three hillslopes by means of an impedance and a TDR probe. Soil moisture data were used to analyse the statistical moments and their interrelationships, the relationships between data collected at various soil depths, and time stability. Results showed that the surface layer was usually wetter than deeper soil layers, particularly during dry-down. This was attributed to the effect of dew, which was observed in the field and might have contributed to the increase in the surface soil moisture. For all depths and over the three hillslopes, the spatial variability patterns were well represented by negative exponential functions between the mean and the coefficient of variation of soil moisture. Vertical water content variability was mainly attributed to the increase of soil properties heterogeneity with depth. The degree of correlation between the data collected at the three depths was relatively high, as also confirmed by the visual comparison of interpolated water content maps.
Temporal stability of soil moisture patterns was investigated applying a multiple approach: i) ranking stability analysis; ii) slope-intercept analysis of linear regression; iii) autocorrelation analysis; (iv) evolution of correlation against mean soil moisture over time and relationship with piezometric increase. Results show that spatial patterns of sampling points were reasonably well preserved at the three depths. The highest degree of temporal stability was associated to wet conditions and the decline of correlation occurred at times of transition from a dry to a wetter state; such behaviour is more evident for the surface layers, more quickly affected by precipitation inputs. Less correlated patterns were found in 2006 owing to a different distribution of precipitation: this observation was confirmed by less sloping correlograms in 2005 and 2007. Temporal stability of surface measurements could be considered as good indicator of subsurface time stability; identification of these temporally stable sites within the experimental basin will assist to provide data sets for watershed hydrologic modelling of subsurface soil water content.
Overland flow is recognized as an important contributor to the total stream discharge and to the determination of the size and the shape of flood peaks; nevertheless, it has hardly ever been observed through direct measurements. In this study, occurrence of overland flow was measured by special detectors installed over a small subcatchment (3.3 ha) of the main basin and stream discharge, soil moisture at 0-30 cm depth (by means of a water content reflectometer) and groundwater variations were monitored continuously. Generation of overland flow was identified in mechanisms of saturation from above and in return flows of water along preferential flow paths. At the rainfall scale, a clear interconnection among several hydrological variables was found, suggesting a strong consistency between subsurface and surface runoff, which respond with similar spatial and temporal dynamics to precipitation inputs both at the rainstorm scale and over a longer period. Water table was found to be highly correlated with stream discharge independently of the topographical localization of piezometric wells across the site. The steady state assumption for the whole hillslope was tested by applying a reformulation of Topmodel at the single rainfall scale. The linear model proved to be a fine predictor of the groundwater level with small overall errors although often the maximum rise of water table was underestimated, especially for significant variations. These deviations were attributed to the hysteresis effect of the relationship between discharge and groundwater, whose non linear behaviour prevented the linear model from accurate predictions of groundwater levels during noticeable fluctuations.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Dalla Fontana, Giancarlo
Supervisor:Borga, Marco
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 20 > Corsi per il 20simo ciclo > IDRONOMIA AMBIENTALE
Data di deposito della tesi:31 January 2008
Anno di Pubblicazione:31 January 2008
Key Words:hillslope hydrology, soil moisture patterns, temporal stability, water table, steady state
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/08 Idraulica agraria e sistemazioni idraulico-forestali
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento Territorio e Sistemi Agro-Forestali
Codice ID:822
Depositato il:24 Sep 2008
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format


I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

1. Albertson J. and Montaldo N., 2003: Temporal dynamics of soil moisture variability: 1. Theoretical basis. Water Resources Research 39 (10): doi: 10.1029/2002WR001616. issn: 0043-1397 Cerca con Google

2. Beven K., Kirkby M., 1979. A physically based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrological Sciences Bulletin, 24, 1, 43-69 Cerca con Google

3. Blazkova S.,Beven K.,Tacheci P., Kulasova A., 2002: Testing the distributed water table predictions of TOPMODEL (allowing for uncertainty in model calibration): The death of TOPMODEL? Water Resources Research, 38, 11, 1257, doi:10.1029/2001WR000912, 2002 Cerca con Google

4. Blonquist Jr. J.M., Jones S.B., Robinson D.A., 2005: A time domain transmission sensor with TDR performance characteristics. Journal of Hydrology, 314 (2005) 235-245 Cerca con Google

5. Borga M., Dalla Fontana G. and Cazorzi F., 2002a: Analysis of topographic and climatic control on rainfall-triggered shallow landsliding using a quasi-dynamic wetness index. Journal of Hydrology, 268(1-4), 56-71 Cerca con Google

6. Borga M., Dalla Fontana G., Gregoretti C. and Marchi L., 2002b: Assessment of shallow landsliding by using a physically based model of hillslope stability. Hydrological Processes, 16, 2833-2851 Cerca con Google

7. Bronstert A. and Bá¡rdossy A., 1999: The role of spatial variability of soil moisture for modelling surface runoff generation at the small catchment scale. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 3(4), 505-516, 1999 Cerca con Google

8. Campbell Scientific, Inc., 2002-2003: CS616 & CS625 - Water Content Reflectometers -User Guide. Campbell Scientific, Inc. Cerca con Google

9. Chandler D.G, Seyfried M., Murdock M- and McNamara J., 2004: Field Calibration of Water Content Reflectometers. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., vol. 68. Cerca con Google

10. Choi M. and Jacobs J.M., 2007: Soil moisture variability of root zone profiles within SMEX02 remote sensing footprints. Advances in Water Resources. 30, 883-896 Cerca con Google

11. Clow D.W., Schrott L., Webb R., Campbell D.H., TorizzoA. , Dornblaser M., 2003: Ground water occurrence and contributions to streamflow in an alpine catchment, Colorado Front Range. Vol. 41, No. 7 -Ground Water- Watershed Issue 2003 (pages 937-950) Cerca con Google

12. Cosh M.H., Jackson T. J., Bindlish R., Famiglietti J.S. Ryu D., 2005: Calibration of an impedance probe for estimation of surface soil water content over large regions. Journal of Hydrology, 311 (2005), 49-58 Cerca con Google

13. Cosh M.H., Jackson T. J., Bindlish R., Prueger J.H., 2003: Estimation of watershed scale soil moisture from point measurements during SMEX02. First Interagency Conference on Research in the Watersheds, October 27-30, 2003, Benson, Arizona Cerca con Google

14. Cosh M.H., Stedinger J.R. and Brutsaert W., 2004: Variability of surface soil moisture at the watershed scale. Water Resources Research, 40, W12513 Cerca con Google

15. Delta-T Devices Ltd, 2004: User manual for the moisture meter type HH2. Delta-T devices Ltd Cerca con Google

16. de Jong C., 2005: The contribution of condensation to the water cycle under high-mountain conditions. Hydrological Processes, 19 (12), 2419-2435 Cerca con Google

17. Elsenbeer H., Lack A., 1996. Hydrometric and hydrochemical evidence for fast flowpaths at La Cuenca, Western Amazonia. Journal of Hydrology 180, 237-250 Cerca con Google

18. Engstrom R., Hope A., Kwon H., Stow D. and Zamolodchikov D., 2005: Spatial distribution of near surface soil moisture and its relationship to microtopography in the Alaskan Arctic coastal plain. Nordic Hydrology, 36, 219-234 Cerca con Google

19. Famiglietti J.S., Devereaux J.A., Laymon C.A., Tsegaye T., Houser P.R., Jackson T.J., 1999: Ground-based investigation of soil moisture variability within remote sensing footprints during the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment. Water Resources Research, 35(6), 1839-51 Cerca con Google

20. Fares A., Buss P., Dalton M., El-Kadi A.I., Parson L.R., 2004: Dual field calibration of capacitance and neutron soil water sensors in a shrinking-swelling clay soil. Vadose Zone Journal 3:1390-1399 Cerca con Google

21. Gardi L., 2003: Hydrogeology of the Cordevole catchment. Free University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences Cerca con Google

22. Gaskin G.J. and Miller J.D., 1996: Measurement of soil water content using a simplified impedance measuring technique. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 63, 153-160 Cerca con Google

23. Godsey S., Elsenbeer H., Stallard R., 2004: Overland flow generation in two lithologically distinct rainforest catchments. Journal of Hydrology 295 (2004) 276-290 Cerca con Google

24. Gòmez-Plaza A., Alvarez-Rogel J., Alabaladejo J, Castillo V.M., 2000. Spatial patterns and temporal stability of soil moisture across a range of scales in a semi-arid environment. Hydrological Processes, 14, 1261-1277 Cerca con Google

25. Gong Y., Cao Q., Sun Z., 2003: The effects of soil bulk density, clay content and temperature on soil water content measurement using time domain reflectometry. Hydrological Processes, 17, 3601-3614 Cerca con Google

26. Grant L., Seyfried M. and McNamara J., 2004: Spatial variation and temporal stability of soil water in a snow-dominated, mountain catchment. Hydrological Processes, 18(18), 3493-3511 Cerca con Google

27. Grayson R.B. and Western A.W., 1998: Towards areal estimation of soil water content from point measurements: time and space stability. Journal of Hydrology, 207 (1998) 68-82 Cerca con Google

28. Grayson R.B., Western A.W., Chiew F.H.S. and Blöschl G., 1997: Preferred states in spatial soil moisture patterns: local and non local controls. Water Resources Research, 33, 12: 2897-2908, 1997 Cerca con Google

29. Hansson K., Lundin L., 2006: Water content reflectometer application to construction materials and its relation to Time Domain Reflectometry. Vadose Zone Journal, 5, 459-468 Cerca con Google

30. Herbrard O., Voltz M., Andrieux P., Moussa R., 2006: Spatio-temporal distribution of soil surface moisture in a heterogeneously farmed Mediterranean catchment, Journal of Hydrology., 329, 110-121, 2006 Cerca con Google

31. Hupet F., Vanclooster M. 2002. Intraseasonal dynamics of soil moisture variability within a small agricultural maize cropped field. Journal of Hydrology 261, 86-101 Cerca con Google

32. Jacobs J.M., Mohanty B.P., Binayak P. and Hsu E.-C. , 2004: SMEX02: Field scale variability, time stability and similarity of soil moisture. Remote Sens. Environ. 92:436-446 Cerca con Google

33. Jolánkai G., Rast W., 1999: The hydrologic cycle and factors affecting the generation, transport and transformation of nonpoint source pollutants. In: Assessment and control of nonpoint source pollution of aquatic ecosystems: a practical approach. UNESCO and The Parthenon Publishing Group, USA Cerca con Google

34. Jones S.B., Wraith J.M., Or D., 2002: Time domain reflectometry measuremet principles and applications. Hydrological Processes 16, 141-153 Cerca con Google

35. Kachanoski R.G., de Jong E., 1988: Scale dependence and the temporal stability of spatial patterns of soil water storage. Water Resources Research, 24, 85-91 Cerca con Google

36. Kaleita A.L., Heitman J.L., Logsdon D.D., 2005: Field calibration of the Theta Probe for Des Moines Lobe soils. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 21 (5), 865-870 Cerca con Google

37. Kelleners T. J, Soppe R. W. O., Ayars J. E., Skaggs T. H., 2004: Calibration of capacitance probe sensors in a saline silty clay soil. Soil Science Society American Journal, 68:770-778 Cerca con Google

38. Keller AG, 2004: DCX data logger operating instructions Cerca con Google

39. Koster R.D., Dirmeyer P.A., Guo Z., Bonan G., Chan E., Cox P., Gordon C.T., Kanae S., Kowalczyk E., Lawrence D., Liu P., Lu C.-H., Malyshev S., McAvaney B., Mitchell K., Mocko D., Oki T., Oleson K., Pitman A., Sud Y.C., Taylor C. M., Verseghy D., Vasic R., Xue Y. and Yamada T., 2004: Regions of strong coupling between soil moisture and precipitation, Science, 305, 1138-1140 Cerca con Google

40. Lamb R, Beven K, Myrabø S. 1997. Discharge and water-table predictions using a generalized TOPMODEL formulation. Hydrological Processes 11, 1145-1168 Cerca con Google

41. Lane, L., Hernandez, M., Nichols M., 1997: Processes controlling sediment yield from watersheds as functions of spatial scale. Environmental Modelling and Software, 12, 355-369 Cerca con Google

42. Lin H., 2006: Temporal stability of soil moisture patterns and subsurface preferential flow pathways in the Shale Hills catchment. Vadose Zone Journal, 5, February 2006 Cerca con Google

43. Looney S.W. and Gulledge T.R., 1985: Probability plotting positions and goodness of fit for the normal distribution. The Statistician 34, 297-303 Cerca con Google

44. Martinez-Fernandez J. and Ceballos A., 2003: Temporal stability in a large-field experiment in Spain .Soil Science Society of American Journal, 67, 1647-1656 Cerca con Google

45. Martinez-Fernandez J. and Ceballos A., 2005: Mean soil moisture estimation using temporal stability analysis. Journal of Hydrology, 2005, 1-11 Cerca con Google

46. Meyles E., Williams A., Ternan L., Dowd J., 2003: Runoff generation in relation to soil moisture patterns in a small Dartmoor catchment, Southwest England. Hydrological Processes, 17, 251-264. Cerca con Google

47. Miller J.D., Gaskin G.J., 1999: ThetaProbe ML2x - Principles of operation and applications. Delta-T devices Ltd Cerca con Google

48. Miller J.D., Gaskin G.J. and Anderson, H., 1997: From drought to flood: catchment responses revealed using novel soil water probes. Hydrological Processes 11, 533-541 Cerca con Google

49. Myrabø¸ S. 1997: Temporal and spatial scale of response area and groundwater variation in till. Hydrological Processes 11, 1861-1880 Cerca con Google

50. Mohanty B. P. and Skaggs T. H., 2001: Spatio - temporal evolution and time-stable characteristics of soil moisture within remote sensing footprints with varying soil, slope, and vegetation. Advances in Water Resources, 24, 1051-1067 Cerca con Google

51. Molénat J.,Gascuel-Odoux C., Davy P., Durand P., 2005: How to model shallow water-table depth variations: the case of the Kervidy-Naizin catchment, France. Hydrological Processes, 19, 901-920 Cerca con Google

52. Moore R.D., Thompson J.C., 1996: Are water table variations in a shallow forest soil consistent with the TOPMODEL concept? Water Resources Research, 32, 3, 663-669 Cerca con Google

53. Moret D., J.L. arrúe, López M.V., Gracia R., 2006: A new TDR waveform analysis approach for soil moisture profiling using a single probe. Journal of Hydrology, 321, 163-172 Cerca con Google

54. Morgan K.T., Parson L.R., Wheaton T.A., Pitts D.J., Obreza T.A., 1999: Field calibration of a capacitance water content probe in fine sand soils. Soil Science Society American Journal, 63, 987-989 Cerca con Google

55. Norbiato D. and Borga M., 2007: Analysis of hysteretic behaviour of a hillslope-storage kinematic wave model for subsurface flow. Advances in Water Resources, 31, 118-131 Cerca con Google

56. Oldak A., Pachepsky Y., Jackson T.J., Rawls W.J., 2002: Statistical properties of soil moisture images revisited. Journal of Hydrology, 255, 12-24 Cerca con Google

57. Pan F., Peters-Lidard C.D. and Sale M.J., 2003: An analytical method for predicting surface soil moisture from rainfall observations. Water Resources Research, 39 (11), 1314, doi:10.1029/2003WR002142 Cerca con Google

58. Porporato A., Daly E., Rodríguez-Iturbe I., 2004: Soil water balance and ecosystem response to climate change, American Naturalist, 164 (5), 625-633 Cerca con Google

59. Qiu Y., Fu B., Wang J., Chen L., 2001. Spatial variability of soil moisture content and its relation to environmental indices in a semi-arid gully catchment of the Loess Plateau, China. Journal of Arid Environments, 49, 723-750 Cerca con Google

60. Raats P.A.C., 2001: Developments in soil-water physics since the mid 1960s. Geoderma, 100, 355-387 Cerca con Google

61. Robinson M., Dean T.J., 1993: Measurement of near surface soil water content using a capacitance probe. Hydrological Processes, 7, 77-86 Cerca con Google

62. Rodríguez-Iturbe I., Porporato A., 2004: Ecohydrology of Water-controlled Ecosystems: Soil Moisture and Plant Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK Cerca con Google

63. Roth K., Schulin R., Flührer H., Attinger W., 1990: Calibration of Time Domain Reflectometry for water content measurement using a composite dielectric approach. Water Resources research, 26, 2267-2273 Cerca con Google

64. Ryu D.R. and Famiglietti J.S., 2005: Characterization of footprint-scale surface soil moisture variability using Gaussian and beta distribution function during the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97) Hydrology Experiment. Water Resources Research, 41(12):W12433 Cerca con Google

65. Scanlon T.M., Raffensperger J.P., Hornberger G.M., Clapp R.B., 2000: Shallow subsurface storm flow in a forested headwater catchment: observation and modelling using a modified TOPMODEL. Water Resources Research, 36 (9), 2575-2586 Cerca con Google

66. Seibert J, Bishop KH, Nyberg L. 1997. A test of Topmodel's ability to predict spatially distributed groundwater levels. Hydrological Processes 11: 1131-1144 Cerca con Google

67. Seibert J., Bishop B., Rodhe A., McDonnell J.J., 2003: Groundwater dynamics along a hillslope: a test of the steady state hypothesis. Water Resources Research, 39, 1, doi:10.1029/2002WR001404 Cerca con Google

68. Serrarens D., Maclnture J.L., Hopmans J.W., Bassoi L.H., 2000: Soil moisture calibration of TDR multilevel probes. Scientia Agricola, 57, 2, 349-354 Cerca con Google

69. Seyfried M.S., Murdock M.D., 2001: Response of a new soil water sensor to variable soil, water content, and temperature. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65, 28-34 Cerca con Google

70. Shaman J.,Stieglitz M.,Engel V.,Koster R.,Stark C., 2002: Representation of subsurface storm flow and a more responsive water table in a TOPMODEL-based hydrology model. Water Resources Research, 38, 8, 10.1029/2001WR000636 Cerca con Google

71. Sivapalan M., 2003: Process complexity at the hillslope scale, process simplicity at the watershed scale: is there a connection? Hydrological Processes, 17, 1037-1041 Cerca con Google

72. Sklash M.C., Farvolden R.N., 1979. The role of groundwater in storm runoff. Journal of Hydrology 43, 45-65 Cerca con Google

73. Spectrum Technologies, Inc., 2003: Field Scout TDR300 Soil moisture meter. Users's manual. Cerca con Google

74. Starks J. P., Heathman G.C., Jackson T.J. and Cosh M.H., 2006: Temporal stability of soil moisture profile. Journal of Hydrology, 324 (2006) 400-411 Cerca con Google

75. Stenger R., Barkle G. and Burgess C., 2005: Laboratory calibrations of water content reflectometers and their in-situ verification. Australian Journal of Soil Research 43 (5) 607-615 Cerca con Google

76. Svetlitchnyi A.A., Plotnitskiy S.V., Stepovaya O.Y., 2003: Spatial distribution of soil moisture content within catchments and its modelling on the basis of topographic data. Journal of Hydrology, 277, 50-60 Cerca con Google

77. Teuling A.J., Uijlenhoet R., Hupet F., van Loon E.E., Troch P.A., 2006: Estimating spatial mean root-zone soil moisture from point-scale observations. Hydrological Earth Systems Discussion, 3, 1447-1485, 2006 Cerca con Google

78. Teuling A.J., Troch P.A., 2005: Improved understanding of soil moisture variability dynamics. Geophysical Research Letters, 32, L05404, doi:10.1029/ 2004GL021935 Cerca con Google

79. Thompson J.C, Moore R.D., 1996. Relations between topography and water-table depth in a shallow forest soil. Hydrological Processes 10, 1512-1525 Cerca con Google

80. Topp G.C., Davis J.L., Annan A.P., 1980: Electromagnetic determination of soil water content: measurements in coaxial transmission lines. Water Resources Research, 16, 574-582 Cerca con Google

81. Topp G.C., Ferre P.A., 2002: The soil solution phase, in: Dane, J.H., Topp, G.C. (Eds.), Methods of Soil Analysis, SSSA Books Series, No. 5. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI, pp. 417-534 Cerca con Google

82. Troch P. A., Smith J. A., Wood E. F., de Troch F. P. , 1994. Hydrologic controls of large floods in a small basin: central Appalachian case study. Journal of Hydrology, 156 Cerca con Google

83. Tromp van Meerveld I., McDonnell J.J., 2005: Comment to "Spatial correlation of soil moisture in small catchments and its relationship to dominant spatial hydrological processes", Journal of Hydrology 286:113-134. Journal of Hydrology, 303, 307-312 Cerca con Google

84. Tromp van Meerveld I., McDonnell J.J., 2006: On the interrelations between topography, soil depth, soil moisture, transpiration rates and species distribution at the hillslope scale. Advances in Water Resources, 29 (2006) 293-310 Cerca con Google

85. Tromp van Meerveld I., Peters N.E., McDonnell J.J., 2007: Effect of bedrock permeability on subsurface stormflow and the water balance of a trenched hillslope at the Panola Mountain Research watershed, Georgia, USA. Hydrological Processes, 21, 750-769 Cerca con Google

86. Vachaud G., De Silans Passerat A., Balabanis P. and Vauclin M., 1985: Temporal stability of spatial measured soil water probability density function. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 49, 822-827 Cerca con Google

87. Van Beusekom M., 2004: A hydrogeological inventory of the Bacino del Cordevole, northern Italy. Free University of Amsterdam, Faculty of Earth and Life Sciences Cerca con Google

88. Van Loon E.E., 2001: Overland flow: interfacting models with measurements. PhD thesis, Wageningen University Cerca con Google

89. Van Wesenbeeck I.J., Kachanoski R.G., 1988: Spatial and temporal distribution of soil water in the tilled layer under a corn crop. Soil Science Society of American Journal, 52, 363-368 Cerca con Google

90. Vertessy R., Elsenbeer H., Bessard Y., Lack A.: Storm runoff generation at La Cuenca. In Grayson R., Blœsch G., 2000: Spatial pattern in catchment hydrology: observation and modelling). Cerca con Google

91. Vogel R.M., 1986: The probability plot correlation coefficient test for normal, lognormal, and Gumbel distributions. Water Resources Research., 22:587-90. Cerca con Google

92. Walker J.P., Willgoose G.R. and Kalma J.D., 2004: In situ measurement of soil moisture: a comparison of techniques. Journal of Hydrology, 293 (2004) 85-99 Cerca con Google

93. Weiler M., McDonnell J.J., Tromp-Van Meerveld I., Uchida T., 2005: Subsurface stormflow. In Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences, edited by M. Anderson, John Wiley and Sons Ltd. Cerca con Google

94. Western A.W., Duncan M.J., Olszak C., Thompson J., Anderson T., Grayson R.B., Wilson J.D., Young R., 2001: Calibration of CS615 and TDR instruments for Marhurangi, Tarrawarra and Point Nepean soils. In : Dowding, C.H., (Ed.), TDR 2001: The Second International Symposium and Workshop on Time Domain Reflectometry for Innovative Geotechnical Applications, Infrastructure Technology Institute at Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, pp. 95-108 Cerca con Google

95. Western A.W. and Grayson R.B., 1998: The Tarrawarra data set: soil moisture patterns, soil characteristics and hydrological flux measurements. Water Resources Reasearch, 34 (10), 2765-2768, 1998 Cerca con Google

96. Western A.W. and Grayson R.B., 2000: Soil moisture and runoff processes at Tarrawarra. In: Spatial patterns in catchment hydrology: observation and modelling. Edited by Grayson R. and Blöschl G., 2000, Cambridge University Press Cerca con Google

97. Western A. W., Grayson R.B., Blöschl G., 2002: Scaling of soil moisture: a hydrological perspective. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 30, 181-206. Cerca con Google

98. Western A. W., Grayson R.B, Blöschl G., Willgoose G.R. and McMahon A., 1999: Observed spatial organization of soil moisture and its relation to terrain indices. Water Resources Research, 35, 3 Cerca con Google

99. Western A.W., Seyfried M. S., 2005: A calibration and temperature correction procedure for the water-content reflectometer. Hydrological Process. 19, 3785-3793 Cerca con Google

100. Western A. W., Zhou S., Grayson R.B., McMahon T.A., Blöschl G. and Wilson D.J., 2004: Spatial correlation of soil moisture in small catchments and its relationship to dominant spatial hydrological processes. Journal of Hydrology, 286 (2004) 113-134 Cerca con Google

101. Wilson J.D., Western A.W., Grayson R.B., 2004: Identifying and quantifying sources of variability in temporal and spatial soil moisture observations. Water Resources Research, 40, W02507 Cerca con Google

102. Wilson J. D., Western A.W., Grayson R.B., Berg A.A., Lear M.S., Rodell M., Famiglietti J.S., Wood R.A. and McMahon A.T., 2003: Spatial distribution of soil moisture over 6 and 30 cm depth, Mahurangi river catchment, New Zealand. Journal of Hydrology, 276 (2003) 254-274 Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record