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Balıkçı Dorotea, Sema (2016) Standardization of Radiographic and Ultrasonographic Features and Measurements in Two Small Mammal Pet-Species: Domestic Rat (Rattus norvegicus) and Mixed Breed Dwarf Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Exotic animal practice is one of the fastest growing disciplines in veterinary medicine. The importance of small exotic mammals as veterinary patients has continued to grow and in some practices these animals form a significant percentage of the clientele. At the same time, knowledge regarding the anatomical, physiological, and pathophysiological characteristics of these species has rapidly increased. In addition, the demands by many small exotic mammal owners for quality medical care for their animals has clearly continued to rise. Diagnostic imaging became a fundamental step of the clinical investigation in small mammals as well as in other species such as dogs and cats, and the interpretation of diagnostic images is complex and requires a broad knowledge of anatomy, physiology and pathology of these species. Moreover, an accurate interpretation of diagnostic images depends directly on the differentiation between normal and abnormal anatomy in order to achieve a correct diagnosis. In this PhD thesis, the diagnostic imaging features of some small mammal species such as domestic rat and rabbit are described. The main aims of the work presented in this PhD thesis are to provide practical atlases matching the normal gross and cross-sectional anatomy with the normal ultrasonographic features of domestic rat, to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the rat and rabbit abdomen and to provide the most common abdominal reference ultrasonographic and radiographic measurements for domestic rat and radiographic abdominal reference values for rabbit species. This PhD thesis is composed of three chapters. Chapter 1 includes a general introduction to small mammal species and a review of small mammal diagnostic imaging. Chapter 2 comprises the largest part of this thesis and provides some useful anatomical and diagnostic imaging references along with the most valuable radiographic and ultrasonographic abdominal reference measurements in domestic rat while Chapter 3 provides a comprehensive description of the abdominal radiographic features, including the most common abdominal reference measurements in mixed breed dwarf rabbits.
In Chapter 1, a general introduction to small mammal species, current state of exotic pet practice, some taxonomic and general characteristics of domestic rat and rabbit species are introduced. Moreover, the relationship between anatomy and diagnostic imaging is described and finally, a review to small mammal diagnostic imaging is presented.
Chapter 2 includes a review to the diagnostic imaging of domestic rat. This part of the thesis focused on the description of the normal ultasonographic and radiographic features of rat abdomen, including the most common abdominal reference measurements obtained by ultrasonography and radiography. Moreover, a comparison study of kidney measures using ultrasonography and radiography was carried out to see if accurate radiological methods could be used as an alternative in the evaluation of kidney size in rats.
The outline of Chapter 2 was developed as radiographic (relevant skeleton, thorax and abdomen) and ultrasonographic (abdomen) features including some abdominal reference values, kidney measures comparison study (using ultrasonography and radiography) and heart size assessment in domestic rat. The radiograhic part includes the description of the normal radiographic anatomy of the rat abdomen along with providing the measures of kidneys from ventrodorsal views, caudoventral extent of liver, the vertebral heart score (VHS) and caudal vena cava diameter from right lateral views taking into consideration the body weight and sex effect. Whole body ventrodorsal and right lateral radiographs were taken using a high detail screen-film combination.
The ultrasonographic part focuses on the description of the normal ultrasonographic features of the abdomen in the domestic rat. The normal gross and cross sectional anatomy are matched with the normal ultrasonographic features of the rat abdomen. For the anatomic comparisons, four rat cadavers were used in this study. Gross anatomic dissections were performed in two rats (1 male and 1 female) within 24 hours. Other two completely frozen rats (1 male and 1 female) were sectioned into 3mm slices along the transverse plane. All anatomical structures have been identified and labelled with the aid of available literature in the anatomical images and then matched on the corresponding ultrasonographic images.Moreover, normal reference ultrasonographic measurements of the kidneys, adrenal glands, hypogastric lymph node; wall thickness of urinary bladder, stomach -saccus cecus, fundus, pylorus-, cecum and duodenum are reported.
Based on comparison of kidney measures study, both radiography and ultrasonography appear valuable options for measurement of kidneys in rats.
In Chapter 3, a comprehensive description of the normal abdominal radiographic features, including the most common abdominal reference measurements (kidneys, liver, colon diameter, ventral displacement of kidneys and colon from vertebral column) in clinically healthy dwarf rabbits are provided. The rabbits have a relatively light and fragile skeleton which makes them predisposed to lumbar fractures, vertebral spondylosis, scoliosis and lordosis and these conditions might affect the second lumbar vertebra (L2) which is used as a radiographic anatomical landmark to calculate the ratio for kidney length and width in rabbits. Therefore, the fifth lumbar vertebra (L5) is investigated whether could be used instead of L2 to calculate kidney ratio. As it is suggested in previous studies, L5 could be a reference for assessment of kidney size. Based on the present study results, it might be accurate to use any of those (L2 or L5) vertebrae for ratios in view of anatomical or pathological changes that might affect L2. Furthermore, this Chapter includes a kidney measures comparison study using radiography and ultrasonography in dwarf rabbits. The results of this part of the study provide a valuable outcome in which these measures could be treated interchangeably and one reference range can be used for both. This might particularly be helpful when the ultrasonographic equipment is not readily available in general practice or when the practitioner is unfamiliar with ultrasound machine or ultrasound anatomy of this species. So, an alternative might be to use the radiographic kidney measurements in dwarf rabbits.
To conclude, this PhD thesis provides useful information on the diagnostic imaging in particular radiography and ultrasonography in domestic rats. The existing gaps in the medical imaging in domestic pet rats could be filled in this regard. Moreover, this study provides information on the abdominal radiographic anatomy and some useful measurements of the dwarf rabbit which may be helpful for the veterinary clinician who is dealing with this species.

Abstract (italiano)

La clinica per animali esotici è una delle discipline a più rapida crescita in medicina veterinaria. L'importanza dei piccoli mammiferi esotici come pazienti veterinari ha continuato a crescere e in alcuni casi questi animali costituiscono una percentuale significativa della clientela. Allo stesso tempo, le conoscenze anatomiche, fisiologiche e fisiopatologiche di queste specie sono rapidamente aumentate. Inoltre, la richiesta da parte di molti proprietari di piccoli mammiferi esotici di cure mediche di qualità per i loro animali ha chiaramente continuato ad aumentare. La diagnostica per immagini è diventata uno strumento fondamentale nell'indagine clinica nei piccoli mammiferi, proprio come in cani e gatti. L'interpretazione delle immagini diagnostiche è però complesso e richiede un’approfondita conoscenza dell’anatomia, fisiologia e patologia di queste specie. Inoltre, da una corretta interpretazione delle immagini diagnostiche dipende direttamente la differenziazione tra anatomia normale e anormale al fine di ottenere una corretta diagnosi. Nella presente tesi di dottorato, sono descritte le caratteristiche in diagnostica per immagini di alcuni piccoli mammiferi quali il ratto domestico e coniglio. I principali obiettivi del lavoro presentato sono: fornire dei pratici atlanti che affianchino le immagini di anatomia macroscopica normale e le sezioni trasversali con le normali caratteristiche ecografiche nel ratto domestico; descrivere l’anatomia radiografica normale dell’addome di ratto e coniglio; fornire i riferimenti ecografici addominale più utili e le misurazioni radiografiche per il ratto domestico e i valori radiografici addominali di riferimento per il coniglio.
Questa tesi di dottorato si compone di tre capitoli. Il Capitolo 1 consiste in un'introduzione generale sui piccoli mammiferi e una revisione della diagnostica per immagini nei piccoli mammiferi. Il Capitolo 2 costituisce la maggior parte di questa tesi e fornisce alcuni utili valori di riferimento anatomici e diagnostici insieme alle più importanti misurazioni radiografiche ed ecografiche addominali nel ratto domestico. Il Capitolo 3 fornisce una descrizione completa delle caratteristiche radiografiche addominali e le misurazioni addominale di riferimento più utili nel coniglio nano (razza incrocio).Il Capitolo 1 inizia con un'introduzione generale sulle specie di piccoli mammiferi esotici, seguono una descrizione dello stato attuale della pratica clinica per animali esotici, alcune caratteristiche tassonomiche e generali delle specie ratto e coniglio. Inoltre, vengono descritti i rapporti tra anatomia e diagnostica per immagini e viene presentata una breve revisione sulla diagnostica per immagini nei piccoli mammiferi.
Il Capitolo 2 comprende una revisione sulla diagnostica per immagini nel ratto domestico. Questa parte della tesi è incentrata sulla descrizione delle normali caratteristiche ecografiche e radiografiche dell'addome nel ratto, comprese le misure di riferimento addominali più comuni. Inoltre, è stato effettuato uno studio di confronto tra le misurazioni ecografiche e radiografiche del rene per verificare se metodi radiologici accurati potrebbero essere utilizzati come alternativa nella valutazione delle dimensioni renale nei ratti. Il Capitolo 2 si sviluppa descrivendo le caratteristiche radiografiche (scheletro, torace e addome) ed ecografiche (addome) nel ratto, con alcuni valori di riferimento addominali, seguono uno studio comparativo delle misurazioni del rene (ecografiche e radiografiche) e una valutazione delle dimensioni cardiache nel ratto domestico. La parte radiografica comprende la descrizione dell’anatomia radiografica normale dell'addome in ratto e fornisce le misure renali in proiezione ventrodorsale, l’estensione caudoventrale del fegato, il vertebral heart score (VHS) e il diametro della vena cava caudale in veduta laterale destra prendendo in considerazione l'effetto di peso corporeo e sesso. Per queste analisi sono state scattate delle radiografie dell’intero corpo dei soggetti con una combinazione schermo-pellicola ad elevato dettaglio (proiezioni ventrodorsale e laterale destro). La parte ecografica si concentra sulla descrizione delle caratteristiche ecografiche normali dell'addome nel ratto domestico. L’anatomia macroscopica normale e le sezione trasversale vengono abbinate alle caratteristiche ecografiche dell'addome normale del ratto.
Per questi studi di confronti anatomici, sono stati utilizzati quattro cadaveri di ratto. Le dissezioni anatomiche sono state effettuate su due ratti (1 maschio e 1 femmina) entro 24 ore. Altri due ratti (1 maschio e 1 femmina) sono stati completamente congelati e sezionati trasversalmente in fette di 3 mm di spessore. Tutte le strutture anatomiche sono state identificate con l'ausilio della letteratura disponibile e sono state poi abbinate alle corrispondenti immagini ecografiche. Inoltre, sono stati misurati i normali valori di riferimento ecografici di reni, ghiandole surrenali, linfonodi ipogastrici, spessore della parete della vescica urinaria, stomaco -saccus, fondo, piloro-, cieco e duodeno.
Sulla base dello studio di confronto delle misurazioni renali radiografiche ed ecografiche, è risultato che entrambe le metodiche diagnostiche possono essere utilizzate per una corretta valutazione delle dimensioni renali nel ratto.
Nel Capitolo 3, viene fornita una descrizione completa delle caratteristiche radiografiche normali dell’addome in conigli nani clinicamente sani, comprese le misurazioni di riferimento addominali più comuni (reni, fegato, diametro del colon, spostamento ventrale dei reni e del colon dalla colonna vertebrale).
I conigli hanno uno scheletro relativamente leggero e fragile che li rende predisposti a fratture lombari, spondilosi vertebrale, scoliosi e lordosi. Queste condizioni possono coinvolgere la seconda vertebra lombare (L2) che viene comunemente utilizzata come riferimento anatomico radiografico per calcolare il rapporto della lunghezza e larghezza del rene nei conigli. Pertanto, si è voluto valutare se L5 potesse essere usato al posto di L2 come descritto in studi precedenti svolti su altre specie. Sulla base dei risultati del presente studio, utilizzare L5 per calcolare i rapporti dimensionali dei reni potrebbe essere corretto qualora L2 fosse coinvolta da cambiamenti anatomici o patologici.
Inoltre, questo capitolo fornisce i dati relativi al confronto tra le misurazioni renali radiografiche ed ecografiche nel coniglio nano e i relativi valori di riferimento. Dallo studio è risultato che queste due metodiche diagnostiche potrebbero essere utilizzate in modo intercambiabile nella valutazione delle dimensioni renali. Ciò può essere particolarmente utile quando l'apparecchio ecografico non è disponibile nella struttura veterinaria o quando il medico non ha familiarità con la macchina ecografia o la diagnostica per immagini di queste specie.
Per concludere, questa tesi di dottorato fornisce innanzitutto informazioni utili sulla diagnostica per immagini, in particolare radiografia ed ecografia, nel ratto domestico che possono in parte colmare le lacune esistenti in questa disciplina e riguardo a questa specie. Inoltre, questo studio fornisce informazioni sull'anatomia radiografica addominale normale e alcune misurazioni di riferimento nel coniglio nano che possono essere utili per il clinico veterinario che si occupa nella pratica di questa specie.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Zotti, Alessandro
Correlatore:Zotti, Alessandro
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE VETERINARIE
Data di deposito della tesi:25 Gennaio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):imaging, rat, rabbit, abdomen, measurement, radiography, ultrasonography
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > VET/08 Clinica medica veterinaria
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Medicina Animale, Produzioni e Salute
Codice ID:9111
Depositato il:21 Ott 2016 10:38
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