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Blini, Elvio A. (2016) Biases in Visuo-Spatial Attention: from Assessment to Experimental Induction. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

In this work I present several studies, which might appear rather heterogeneous for both experimental questions and methodological approaches, and yet are linked by a common leitmotiv: spatial attention. I will address issues related to the assessment of attentional asymmetries, in the healthy individual as in patients with neurological disorders, their role in various aspects of human cognition, and their neural underpinning, driven by the deep belief that spatial attention plays an important role in various mental processes that are not necessarily confined to perception.
What follows is organized into two distinct sections. In the first I will focus on the evaluation of visuospatial asymmetries, starting from the description of a new paradigm particularly suitable for this purpose. In the first chapter I will describe the effects of multitasking in a spatial monitoring test; the main result shows a striking decreasing in detection performance as a function of the introduced memory load. In the second chapter I will apply the same paradigm to a clinical population characterized by a brain lesion affecting the left hemisphere. Despite a standard neuropsychological battery failed to highlight any lateralized attentional deficit, I will show that exploiting concurrent demands might lead to enhanced sensitivity of diagnostic tests and consequently positive effects on patients’ diagnostic and therapeutic management. Finally, in the third chapter I will suggest, in light of preliminary data, that attentional asymmetries also occur along the sagittal axis; I will argue, in particular, that more attentional resources appear to be allocated around peripersonal space, the resulting benefits extending to various tasks (i.e., discrimination tasks).
Then, in the second section, I will follow a complementary approach: I will seek to induce attentional shifts in order to evaluate their role in different cognitive tasks. In the fourth and fifth chapters this will be pursued exploiting sensory stimulations: visual optokinetic stimulation and galvanic vestibular stimulation, respectively. In the fourth chapter I will show that spatial attention is highly involved in numerical cognition, this relationship being bidirectional. Specifically, I will show that optokinetic stimulation modulates the occurrence of procedural errors during mental arithmetics, and that calculation itself affects oculomotor behaviour in turn. In the fifth chapter I will examine the effects of galvanic vestibular stimulation, a particularly promising technique for the rehabilitation of lateralized attention disorders, on spatial representations. I will discuss critically a recent account for unilateral spatial neglect, suggesting that vestibular stimulations or disorders might indeed affect the metric representation of space, but not necessarily resulting in spatial unawareness. Finally, in the sixth chapter I will describe an attentional capture phenomenon by intrinsically rewarding distracters. I will seek, in particular, to predict the degree of attentional capture from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and the related brain connectivity pattern; I will report preliminary data focused on the importance of the cingulate-opercular network, and discuss the results through a parallel with clinical populations characterized by behavioural addictions.

Abstract (italiano)

In questo lavoro presenterò una serie di ricerche che possono sembrare piuttosto eterogenee per quesiti sperimentali e approcci metodologici, ma sono tuttavia legate da un filo conduttore comune: i costrutti di ragionamento e attenzione spaziale. Affronterò in particolare aspetti legati alla valutazione delle asimmetrie attenzionali, nell'individuo sano come nel paziente con disturbi neurologici, il loro ruolo in vari aspetti della cognizione umana, e i loro substrati neurali, guidato dalla convinzione che l’attenzione spaziale giochi un ruolo importante in svariati processi mentali non necessariamente limitati alla percezione.
Quanto segue è stato dunque organizzato in due sezioni distinte. Nella prima mi soffermerò sulla valutazione delle asimmetrie visuospaziali, iniziando dalla descrizione di un nuovo paradigma particolarmente adatto a questo scopo. Nel primo capitolo descriverò gli effetti del doppio compito e del carico attenzionale su un test di monitoraggio spaziale; il risultato principale mostra un netto peggioramento nella prestazione al compito di detezione spaziale in funzione del carico di memoria introdotto. Nel secondo capitolo applicherò lo stesso paradigma ad una popolazione clinica contraddistinta da lesione cerebrale dell’emisfero sinistro. Nonostante una valutazione neuropsicologica standard non evidenziasse alcun deficit lateralizzato dell’attenzione, mostrerò che sfruttare un compito accessorio può portare ad una spiccata maggiore sensibilità dei test diagnostici, con evidenti ricadute benefiche sull'iter clinico e terapeutico dei pazienti. Infine, nel terzo capitolo suggerirò, tramite dati preliminari, che asimmetrie attenzionali possono essere individuate, nell'individuo sano, anche lungo l’asse sagittale; argomenterò, in particolare, che attorno allo spazio peripersonale sembrano essere generalmente concentrate più risorse attentive, e che i benefici conseguenti si estendono a compiti di varia natura (ad esempio compiti di discriminazione).
Passerò dunque alla seconda sezione, in cui, seguendo una logica inversa, indurrò degli spostamenti nel focus attentivo in modo da valutarne il ruolo in compiti di varia natura. Nei capitoli quarto e quinto sfrutterò delle stimolazioni sensoriali: la stimolazione visiva optocinetica e la stimolazione galvanico vestibolare, rispettivamente. Nel quarto capitolo mostrerò che l’attenzione spaziale è coinvolta nella cognizione numerica, con cui intrattiene rapporti bidirezionali. Nello specifico mostrerò da un lato che la stimolazione optocinetica può modulare l’occorrenza di errori procedurali nel calcolo mentale, dall'altro che il calcolo stesso ha degli effetti sull'attenzione spaziale e in particolare sul comportamento oculomotorio. Nel quinto capitolo esaminerò gli effetti della stimolazione galvanica vestibolare, una tecnica particolarmente promettente per la riabilitazione dei disturbi attentivi lateralizzati, sulle rappresentazioni mentali dello spazio. Discuterò in modo critico un recente modello della negligenza spaziale unilaterale, suggerendo che stimolazioni e disturbi vestibolari possano sì avere ripercussioni sulle rappresentazioni metriche dello spazio, ma senza comportare necessariamente inattenzione per lo spazio stesso. Infine, nel sesto capitolo descriverò gli effetti di cattura dell’attenzione visuospaziale che stimoli distrattori intrinsecamente motivanti possono esercitare nell'adulto sano. Cercherò, in particolare, di predire l’entità di questa cattura attenzionale partendo da immagini di risonanza magnetica funzionale a riposo: riporterò dati preliminari focalizzati sull'importanza del circuito cingolo-opercolare, effettuando un parallelismo con popolazioni cliniche caratterizzate da comportamenti di dipendenza.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Zorzi, Marco
Correlatore:Zorzi, Marco
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:26 Gennaio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:26 Gennaio 2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Unilateral Spatial Neglect; Visual Extinction; Spatial Attention; Multitasking; Attentional Load; Working Memory Load; Attentional Asymmetries; Psychological Refractory Period; Left Hemisphere Lesion; Neuropsychological Deficits; Stroke; Peripersonal Space; Virtual Reality; Optokinetic Stimulation; Mental Arithmetic; Eye Movements; Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation; Line Bisection; Subjective Straight Ahead; Subjective Visual Vertical; Vestibular Cortex; Spatial Representations; Reward; Attentional Capture; Value-driven Attentional Capture; Cingulate-Opercular Network; Clustering Coefficient; Resting-state fMRI; Brain Connectivity; Graph Analysis;
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/01 Psicologia generale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:9142
Depositato il:24 Ott 2016 14:43
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