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Pletti, Carolina (2016) The role of emotion and intentionality in moral dilemma resolution: Subjective, behavioral, and electrophysiological data. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

This thesis describes three studies that investigated the role of emotion in decision-making during the resolution of moral dilemmas, in which the individual is confronted with the choices of letting some people die (non utilitarian choice) or sacrificing a single person to save them (utilitarian choice). The studies presented in this thesis were aimed at testing the dual process model of moral judgment (Greene et al., 2001, 2004), according to which emotional processing plays a causal role in driving judgments and decisions in moral dilemmas, in competition with rational reasoning. The studies also focused on how the intentionality of the action involved in the decision choice interacts with emotional processing by producing different judgment and decision patterns. Moreover, in two of the three studies the neural correlates of the decision process during the resolution of the dilemmas were investigated by means of event-related potentials.
Findings from the first study showed that taking legal consequences into account during the resolution of the dilemmas doesn’t affect participants’ choices. Moreover, the percentage of utilitarian choices was lower when the sacrifice of a person is the intentional means by which more lives were saved than when it is an unintentional side effect of saving more lives, irrespective of whether legal considerations are taken into account. However, taking legal considerations into account reduces the overall emotional impact of the decision and increases the neural preparation to execute the action corresponding to the selected choice, suggesting a reduced conflict between the two options (utilitarian and non-utilitarian).
The second study showed that emotional hyporeactivity, as typical of individuals with high trait psychopathy, reduces the perceived unpleasantness experienced during the decision and increases the number of utilitarian choices, irrespective of the intentionality of the sacrifice.
The final study showed that decisions in moral dilemmas are driven by the attempt to reduce the negative emotions experienced after the decision. This study also shows that the emotional conflict between alternative options does not influence the neural preparation for action.
Overall, the results of the three studies presented in this thesis suggest that the intentionality of the sacrifice influences decisions independently of the emotional impact and legal considerations. At the same time, our findings are in line with the dual process model, as they show that emotional processing affects decisions in moral dilemmas, especially through the anticipation of the expected emotional consequences of the available options.

Abstract (italiano)

In questa tesi sono stati descritti tre studi finalizzati ad indagare il ruolo delle emozioni nel guidare le decisioni in dilemmi morali in cui si deve decidere se sacrificare la vita di una persona per salvarne un numero maggiore (scelta utilitaristica) o lasciar morire le persone in pericolo (scelta non utilitaristica).
Gli studi presentati nella tesi avevano lo scopo di testare il modello del doppio processo del giudizio morale (Greene et al., 2001, 2004), secondo il quale l'elaborazione emozionale, in competizione con il ragionamento razionale, svolge un ruolo causale nel guidare il giudizio morale e la decisione nei dilemmi morali. Inoltre, si è indagato come l’intenzionalità attribuita all’azione interagisce con l’elaborazione emozionale nell’influenzare la decisione. Infine, in questo contesto sono stati rilevati, in due dei tre studi presentati, i correlati neurali del processo decisionale, tramite la registrazione di potenziali evento-relati.
I risultati del primo studio hanno mostrato che tenere in considerazione ipotetiche ripercussioni legali dell’azione durante la risoluzione di dilemmi morali non influenza né le scelte dei partecipanti. Inoltre, a prescindere dalla considerazione di conseguenze legali, quando il sacrificio di una persona era intenzionale i partecipanti hanno compiuto un minor numero di scelte utilitaristiche rispetto a quando il sacrificio di una persona era una conseguenza non voluta del salvare le persone in pericolo. Tuttavia, tenere in considerazione conseguenze legali riduce l'impatto emozionale durante la decisione e produce facilitazione corticale e maggiore prontezza all’esecuzione dell'azione corrispondente all'opzione scelta, suggerendo un minor conflitto tra le due opzioni (utilitaristica e non utilitaristica).
I risultati del secondo studio hanno mostrato che la condizione di iporeattività emozionale che caratterizza individui con alti tratti di psicopatia riduce la spiacevolezza esperita durante la decisione e aumenta il numero di scelte utilitaristiche, a prescindere dall’intenzionalità con cui il sacrificio viene compiuto.
I risultati dell’ultimo studio hanno mostrato che le decisioni nei dilemmi morali sono guidate dal tentativo di ridurre le emozioni negative che ci si aspetta di esperire dopo la scelta, e che il conflitto emozionale tra le due opzioni non influenza l’attività corticale che precede immediatamente l’azione.
Complessivamente, i risultati di questo lavoro di tesi suggeriscono che l'intenzionalità attribuita all’azione influenza la decisione indipendentemente dall’impatto emozionale e da considerazioni di carattere legale. Parallelamente, questi dati sono in linea con il modello del doppio processo nel mostrare come l’emozione influenzi la decisione nei dilemmi morali, in particolare tramite l'anticipazione delle conseguenze emozionali delle alternative disponibili.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Sarlo, Michela
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:27 Gennaio 2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):moral dilemma; emotion; decision-making; event-related potentials; dilemma morale; emozione; decisione; potenziali evento-relati
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/02 Psicobiologia e psicologia fisiologica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia Generale
Codice ID:9190
Depositato il:21 Ott 2016 15:45
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