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Ciman, Matteo (2016) Smartphones as ubiquitous devices for behavior analysis and better lifestyle promotion. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Ubiquitous Computing, the third computing era, has taken into people' life a huge amount of invisible and pervasive devices, i.e., smartphones, tablets, sensors, etc. Considering their pervasiveness and their presence in people' everyday life, in the last few years research focused its attention on how it is possible to use smartphones to improve people' life.

In particular, nowadays smartphones are equipped with an ample set of different sensors, i.e., accelerometer, barometer, light sensor, etc., that can constantly acquire data from the surrounding environment of the user, or about his/her activity and behavior during the day. This data acquisition can be done in a non-intrusive way, since smartphones are always in people' pocket or bag and are already part of individuals' life. Thanks to these sensors, a smartphone is able to acquire a huge amount of data, which can be used for different purposes.

For example, the use of ubiquitous computing for healthcare and medical purposes is extremely interesting. In particular, it can improve people' life, help patients to accept their therapies and reduce the drop-out-from-therapy phenomena, and improve medical practice, thus decreasing medical costs both for patients and for governments.

Actually, ubiquitous computing for healthcare is facing and addressing several problems that will be discussed in this thesis. First of all, since there is not a single smartphone vendor (which is an advantage from the end-user point of view), when considering smartphone applications for healthcare it is necessary to consider market fragmentation. This kind of applications aims to reach the highest number of possible users, since increasing the number of possible users increases the number of possible patients that could benefit from the usage of a particular application. Clearly, the objective of reaching the highest number of users has to consider also the problem of containing expenses. For this particular problem, we will analyze cross-platform frameworks for smartphone applications development, also called ``write once, run everywhere'' framework''. We will highlight pros and cons of them, considering both the developer and the end user point of view and power consumption, providing a deep analysis of their main characteristics and evaluating them with respect to the native mobile application development approach.

Afterward, we will focus our attention to the possibility of using smartphones to infer individuals' moods and feelings. In particular, since smartphones are always present in everybody life, it is possible to use them to transparently and pervasively acquire data and information about how the smartphone is used by the user to understand his/her behavior. In this way, we explored the possibility to use smartphone data, without the usage of any external sensor, thus reducing the entry cost and increasing user acceptance, to assess their stress state. In particular, we will see how the way people interact with their smartphone changes depending on their stress condition, opening the doors for the possibility to pervasively monitor stress of people all the day long without interfering with their life and providing the possibility to doctors to monitor their patients with objective data.

Finally, since ubiquitous computing can be used to improve people' life, we explore the usage of serious games with mobile applications to improve people lifestyle. We applied this idea to the possibility to ``teach'' people to take stairs instead of elevators or escalators. In this way the user makes more physical activity among the day, and consequently have fewer problems like obesity, heart attacks, etc. Moreover, serious games can be used to help doctors with their diagnosis, in particular when dealing with children, since the standard tests designed for adults can be unlikely applied to children, thus affecting the quality of the diagnosis. This thesis shows how using serious games and touch interfaces, the best ones for children, we are able to perform diagnosis and rehabilitation of particular diseases that can be treated better if early diagnosed, providing to the doctor good alternatives to standard exercises and tests.

Abstract (italiano)

Ubiquitous computing, è il nome dato a quella che viene definita la terza "era computazionale", che ha introdotto, nella vita delle persone, un grande numero di dispositivi invisibili e pervasivi, come smartphone, tablet, sensori, ecc. Considerata la loro forte presenza nella vita quotidiana, negli ultimi anni la ricerca si è focalizzata su come utilizzarli per migliorare la qualità della vita delle persone.

Al giorno d'oggi gli smartphone sono equipaggiati con uno svariato numero di sensori, come accelerometro, barometro, sensore di luminosità, ecc., che sono in grado di acquisire costantemente informazioni riguardanti l'ambiente circostante, o determinare il comportamento della persona durante la giornata. Questa acquisizione di dati può avvenire in maniera non intrusiva, in quanto gli smartphone sono sempre più presenti nelle tasche o nelle borse delle persone e sono ormai diventati parte attiva e integrante della loro vita. Le informazioni acquisite possono essere utilizzate per diversi scopi.

Per esempio, particolarmente interessante risulta essere l'uso dell'ubiquitous computing in ambito medico per migliorare la qualità di vita delle persone, aiutare i pazienti con le loro terapie e ridurre il fenomeno dell'abbandono di una terapia, e migliorare infine la pratica medica, riducendo quindi le spese sostenute sia da parte dei pazienti che dagli Stati per i propri cittadini.

Attualmente, l'uso dell'ubiquitous computing in ambito medico sta affrontando diversi problemi che sono stati presi in considerazione ed analizzati in questa tesi. Per prima cosa, poichè non esiste un unico produttore di smartphone (cosa che da un punto di vista dell'utente finale è un aspetto positivo), quando vengono sviluppate applicazioni in ambito medico risulta essere particolarmente importante tenere in considerazione la frammentazione del mercato. Questo tipo di applicazioni mirano a raggiungere il maggior numero possibile di potenziali utenti in modo da aumentare anche il numero di pazienti che potrebbero beneficiare dall'utilizzo di tale applicazione. Chiaramente, l'obiettivo di raggiungere il maggior numero possibile di utenti, e quindi di supportare il maggior numero di possibili piattaforme e device, si scontra con il problema di contenere i costi di sviluppo. In questa tesi, vengono analizzati i framework cross-platform per lo sviluppo di applicazioni in ambito mobile, chiamati anche framework "write once, run everywhere", sottolineando pro e contro, considerando sia il punto di vista dello sviluppatore che quello dell'utente finale (in particolare per quel che riguarda il consumo di energia), fornendo un'analisi approfondita delle maggiori caratteristiche e comparandoli con l'approccio nativo.

Successivamente, verrà posta attenzione sulla possibilità di utilizzare gli smartphone per inferire lo stato emotivo delle persone. In particolare, è possibile utilizzarle gli smartphone per acquisire in maniera trasparente informazioni sull'interazione con lo smartphone stesso, e come questa sia influenzato dalla condizione psicologica dell'utente. I dati provenienti dallo smartphone e dai suoi sensori, senza l'uso di dispositivi esterni (riducendo quindi il costo iniziale ed aumentando la predisposizione dell'utente a tale sistema di monitoraggio), vengono successivamente analizzati per inferire la condizione di stress/no stress dell'utente. In particolare, la tesi dimostra come il modo in cui le persone interagiscono con il loro smartphone è influenzato dal loro livello di stress, ed è quindi possibile monitorare lo stress in maniera pervasiva durante la vita di tutti i giorni, senza interferire con essa e fornendo la possibilità ai medici di monitorare costantemente i loro pazienti con dati oggettivi.

Infine, poichè l'ubiquitous computing può essere utilizzato per migliorare la vita delle persone, la tesi analizza l'uso dei serious games per migliorare il loro lo stile di vita. In particolare, viene sfruttata questa idea per insegnare alle persone ad utilizzare le scale al posto di ascensori o scale mobili. In questo modo, si aumenta l'attività fisica durante la giornata, adottando quindi uno stile di vita più attivo, riducendo così la probabilità di avere problemi quali obesità, attacchi di cuore, ecc. Inoltre, i serious games possono essere utilizzati anche per aiutare i dottori con le loro diagnosi, in particolare quando gli utenti finali sono bambini, in quanto gli esercizi standard attualmente utilizzati sono stati definiti per gli adulti e possono risultare complicati per i bambini, influenzando quindi in maniera negativa la qualità della diagnosi. Questa tesi mostra come utilizzando i serious games e le interfacce touch, le migliori per i bambini, siamo in grado di effettuare una diagnosi ed una riabilitazione per particolari patologie che possono essere trattate con maggiore efficacia se diagnosticate precocemente, fornendo al medico curante delle valide alternative agli esercizi utilizzati attualmente.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Gaggi, Ombretta
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE MATEMATICHE > INFORMATICA
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Gennaio 2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):ubiquitous computing, serious games, cross-platform framework, stress assessment, human-smartphone interaction, machine learning, classification
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 01 - Scienze matematiche e informatiche > INF/01 Informatica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Matematica
Codice ID:9281
Depositato il:13 Ott 2016 11:20
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