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Erculiani, Marco (2015) Atmosphere in a test tube: laboratory investigations about exoplanet atmospheres. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The aim of this thesis is to understand if cyanobacteria, grown on an Earth-like planet orbiting around the habitable zone of an M star can survive and use the light coming from the star in a fruitful way, in particular analyzing their gaseous by-products. The organisms chosen usually don't have photopigments capable to photosynthesize the NIR part of the radiation, but can modify their photosynthetic apparatus in order to adapt to different light conditions if exposed in NIR light conditions, producing chlorophyll d and f. The two bacteria highlighted for our purpose are Chlorogloeopsis fritschii and Cyanobacterium Aponinum. The first is known to be able to change its photosynthetic apparatus to cope with new radiation conditions. In particular is capable to generate chlorophyll d and f if exposed to NIR light (720 nm). This feature is call FarLip acclimation. The second bacterium is a well known bacterium but no one has ever tried to understand if it has the same capability. Efforts have been done in order to find the best culture medium and the best growth conditions of temperature and pH. In order to understand how photosynthetic life can handle different radiation doses we ideated and realized a novel and pioneering LED radiation source with dynamical features. Its wavelength intervals (365nm-940nm) overlap the limits of photosynthetic pigment absorption range (280-850 nm) of most common photosynthetic bacteria. Our simulator is composed by an array of 25 different channels corresponding to 25 different wavelengths. Each channel can host a maximum of about 15 LEDs. This simulator has been built thinking to modularity. In fact it is endowed by a mosaic of circuit boards arranged in a pie-chart shape, on the surface of which will be welded the LEDs. This solution allows a rapid change of the damaged LEDs and an easy implementations with other wavelengths. This simulator is capable to reproduce the spectra of main sequence F, G, K and M stars as well as the most common commercial lamps within its wavelength intervals. The control system is composed by a Laptop which controls a LED box and an STS-VIS spectrograph from Ocean Optics with cosine corrector. The first system generate the best fit of the input spectrum and give information to the simulator on how to reproduce it. The spectrometer has the task to control the goodness of the fit and, by means of a closed loop system, to adjust it tuning the LED's power in real time. The stellar simulator bas been subjected to several tests. The power emanated from the radiation source has been estimated to be 106.22 W while the thermal power has been calculated to be 434.05 W. The stellar simulator have been characterized in flux, analyzing the radiation at different distances from the device, from the exit of the source up to 25 cm. Then uniformity measurements have been done, analyzing the flux on a distance of 6.5 cm from the centre. Finally, I calculated the absorption of the optics of the radiation source analyzing the spectra coming out from the stellar simulator and compared it with respect to the spectrum of the single LEDs. In order to lodge the bacteria we built new concept incubator made of a stainless steel cell with the potential to flux a desired gaseous mixture inside it and fill the cell with the desired gas mixture. Four wedged optical windows opens on the lateral surface and needs to allow the oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration inside by means of a Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) system. The cell is topped by a BOROFLOAT uncoated window to collect the light from the stellar simulator. The cell has been characterized in void and oxygen and carbon dioxide detecting limits have been found. During the experiment, bacteria have been grown in white light conditions at for 24 days at 20 micromol photons/m^2/s and at 30°C in order to understand the growth times and the behaviour in optimal conditions.
After that, a new growth experiment have been performed by growing both cyanobacteria species at 30°C and 20 micromol photons/m^2/s and oxymetric measurements have been done after 6 days from the culture start, thus during their exponential growth phases. Then, for the main part of the experiment, eight samples have been used. Two samples of Cyanobacterium aponinum have been grown at 20 micromol photons/m^2/s in white light for 6 days and then at 100 micromol photons/m^2/s for the residual 3 days in white light. Two samples of Chlorogloeopsis fritschii have been grown at 20 micromol photons/m^2/s for 6 days in white light and then at 100 micromol photons/m^2/s for the residual 3 days in white light. Two samples of Cyanobacterium aponinum have been grown at 20 micromol photons/m^2/s for 6 days in white light and then at 100 micromol photons/m^2/s for the residual 3 days using the radiation spectrum of an M7 type star. Two samples of Chlorogloeopsis fritschii have been grown at 20 micromol photons/m^2/s for 6 days in white light and then at 100 micromol photons/m^2/s for the residual 3 days using the radiation spectrum of an M7 type star. The temperature has been kept at 30°C for the samples not exposed to M7 light and at a temperature oscillating from 35°C to 38°C for the samples exposed to M7 light. The higher environmental temperature under the stellar simulator has been due to the over-heating of the LEDs. During the 3 days of different exposure measurements of optical density have been done in order to collect data about the different growth curves. Moreover, O2 production have been calculated for each sample. Finally, a chromatic response have been done, in order to understand if the colour would reflect the vitality of the bacteria

Abstract (italiano)

Lo scopo di questa tesi è quello di capire come dei cianobatteri, cresciuti su un pianeta di tipo terrestre orbitante attorno alla zona di abitabilità di una stella M possano sopravvivere ed usare la luce proveniente dalla stella stessa in modo fruttuoso per la loro esistenza. In particolare ci focalizzeremo sullo studio dei gas da essi prodotti. Gli organismi scelti non hanno pigmenti in grado di fotosintetizzare la parte NIR dello spettro di radiazione, ma riescono a modificare il loro apparato fotosintetico per far fronte alle nuove condizioni di luce, se esposti a luce NIR, producendo clorofilla d ed f. I due batteri scelti per i nostri esperimenti sono Chlorogloeopsis fritschii e Cyanobacterium Aponinum. Il primo batterio è certamente in grado di variare il suo apparato fotosintetico in differenti situazioni luminose. In particolare è in grado di produrre clorofilla e ed f se esposto a luce NIR (720 nm). Questa proprietà si chiama acclimatamento FarLip. Il secondo batterio è è abbastanza noto ma non è stata ancora studiata la sua predisposizione a questo tipo di pratica. Per questi batteri sono stati ricercati i terreni di coltura, di temperatura e pH che meglio permettessero il loro sviluppo. Per capire come il foto-acclimatamento possa aver luogo abbiamo ideato e realizzato un nuovo tipo di sorgente a LED con peculiarità dinamiche. L'intervallo di lunghezze d'onda che copre (365nm-940nm) si sovrappone ai limiti di assorbimento dei pigmenti fotosintetici (280-850 nm) dei più comuni batteri. Il simulatore è composto da 25 differenti canali corrispondenti a 25 differenti lunghezze d'onda. Ogni canale può ospitare un massimo di 15 LED. Il simulatore come detto è stato concepito secondo il concetto di modularità. Infatti è composto da un mosaico di piastre in corma circolare divisa a spicchi e su ognuna di tali piastre sono saldati i LED. Questa soluzione permette di cambiare rapidamente i LED danneggiati e permette una facile implementazione con altre lunghezze d'onda. Il simulatore stellare è in grado di riprodurre lo spettro di varie stelle di sequenza principale, F, G, K e M e molte delle più comuni lampade. Il sistema di controllo è composto da un PC che ha il compito di gestire i LED e da uno spettrometro con relativo correttore di coseno che STS-VIS della ditta Ocean Optics. Il PC genera il miglior fit dello spettro da ricreare con l'illuminatore e lgi da informazioni su come riprodurlo. Lo spettrometro invece controlla la bontà del fit ed attraverso un sistema a circuito chiuso, regola la luminosità dei LED in tempo reale. Abbiamo fatto dei test per verificare il corretto funzionamento del simulatore e stimato la potenza totale emanata, 106.22 W e quella termica, 434.05 W. Inoltre la nostra sorgente di radiazione è stata caratterizzata in flusso, analizzando la radiazione a diverse distanze, dalla bocca di apertura fino a 25 cm da essa. Poi sono state fatte misure di uniformità del flusso entro 6.5 cm dal centro. Infine è stato calcolato l'assorbimento dovuto alle ottiche frapposte fra i LED e i campioni. Per alloggiare i batteri abbiamo ideato e costruito in incubatore in acciaio inox con la possibilità di avere un continuo flussaggio di gas o di essere riempita con una miscela desiderata. Sui lati si aprono quattro finestre ottiche che servono per permettere la misura di concentrazione di ossigeno e di anidride carbonica all'interno attraverso un sistema laser chiamato Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS). L'incubatore è dotato anche di una finestra superiore in borosilicato per permettere alla luce di entrarvi. La cella è stata caratterizzata termicamente e sono stati calcolati le quantità minime osservabili sia di ossigeno che di anidride carbonica. Durante la prima fase dell'esperimento, i batteri selezionati sono stati fatti crescere per 24 giorni Durante l'esperimento, i batteri sono stati fatti crescere a 24 days at 20 micromol fotoni/m^2/s e a 30 °C per costruire le curve di crescita ed il loro comportamento in condizioni ottimali. Dopo ciò, è stato condotto un secondo esperimento facendo crescere entrambe se specie di cianobatteri a 30°C e 20 micromol fotoni/m^2/s in luce bianca ed acquisendo dopo 6 giorni le misure di produttività di ossigeno durante la fase esponenziale. Passati sei giorni sono stati ripartite otto colture, quattro di Cyanobacterium aponinum e quattro di Chlorogloeopsis fritschii. Due colture di Cyanobacterium aponinum sono state fattie crescere prima a micromol fotoni/m^2/s per sei giorni e poi a 100 micromol fotoni/m^2/s per altri tre giorni, sempre in luce bianca. La stessa cosa è stata fatta per due campioni di Chlorogloeopsis fritschii. Due colture di Cyanobacterium aponinum sono state fattie crescere prima a micromol fotoni/m^2/s per sei giorni e poi a 100 micromol fotoni/m^2/s per altri tre giorni,con una radiazione che simulava quella di una stella di tipo M7 incidente su un pianeta terrestre. La stessa cosa è stata fatta per Chlorogloeopsis fritschii. La temperatura è stata mantenuta a 30°C per i campioni in luce bianca e fra 35°C e 38°C per gli esemplari illuminati con luce M7. La maggior temperatura nel secondo caso è stata dovuta al calore prodotto dai LED. Durante i tre giorni in cui i campioni sono stati sottoposti a 100 micromol fotoni/m^2/s sono state prese misure di densità ottica e calcolate le curve di crescita. Inoltre per ogni campione è stata calcolata la produzione di ossigeno. Infine i campioni sono stati analizzati anche dal punto di vista del cromatismo per capire come il loro colore fosse collegato alla vitalità

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Claudi, Riccardo
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE TECNOLOGIE E MISURE SPAZIALI > SCIENZE E TECNOLOGIE PER APPLICAZIONI SATELLITARI E AERONAUTICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Gennaio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):esopianeti, , atmosfere, batteri fotosintetici, simulatore stellare, exoplanets, atmosphere, photosynthetic bacteria, stellar simulator,
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 02 - Scienze fisiche > FIS/05 Astronomia e astrofisica
Struttura di riferimento:Centri > Centro Interdipartimentale di ricerca di Studi e attività  spaziali "G. Colombo" (CISAS)
Codice ID:9296
Depositato il:06 Ott 2016 16:39
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