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Cucchelli, Matteo (2016) L'efficacia dei Giochi di Lotta nella riduzione dei livelli di aggressivitĂ  in giovani adolescenti provenienti da comunitĂ  urbane a basso reddito. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Aim
Aggressive behaviour is one of the most frequent antisocial behaviour in adolescents, particularly those living in urban communities with low income and high ethnic heterogeneity (Rivara, 2002). Because of the large amount of negative consequences of these behaviour, such as criminal conduct in adulthood (Espelage et al. 2003), the priority is to develop prevention strategies. Through the study of Social Information Processing Models (Huessman, 1998) has emerged that aggressive behaviour - both pro-active reactive- are influenced by levels of empathy -Perspective Taking (PT) and Empatic Concern (EC) -, Normative Beliefs and the amount of aggressive scripts known. Studies of Shields and Bredemeier (1995) showed that sport practice, if not exacerbate competitive aspects, positively influences empathy and moral norms, thereby reducing aggression. Oliver (1998) also states that activities involving physical contact between participants are effective in reducing aggressive behaviour, as they work as a "laboratory" where to learn to regard the other as a person to be respected (improving empathy) and where increased compliance with the rules (change of Normative Beliefs). It was also shown that practising physical activity is possible that young people learn new non-aggressive scripts of behaviour (Fite & Vitulano, 2011). Play fighting (PF) are recreational activities based on wrestling, striking and grappling. They derived from the martial arts but eliminating the competitive aspects, emphasizing the playful aspects. According to these characteristics, it is possible to hypothesize the effectiveness of the PF for reducing the levels of aggressiveness. The effectiveness of the PF in this sense has been proven by several studies (Carraro, Gobbi, & Moe, 2014), but always with a general population and not specifically from low-income urban communities. The hypotheses of this research were therefore as follows:
1) levels of empathy (PT and EC) predict levels of aggressiveness. both pro-active and reactive.
2) PF are effective in reducing pro-active and reactive aggression in young people from low-income urban communities.
3) the reduction of aggressiveness is mediated by levels of empathy (PT and EC).

Method
A sample of 98 young adolescents (male = 66, girls = 32; mean age = 13.4, SD = 1.2 years) from eight Centri di Animazione Territoriale (CAT) for adolescents with behavioural problems were initially involved in the study. Participants completed the Family Affluence Scale, the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (measure of aggressiveness pro-active and reactive) and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (measure of empathy, PT and EC), before and after intervention.
Between the first and second administration of the questionnaire, 22 youths have dropped out. The final sample is composed of 76 participants. Participation in Fighting was voluntary, so 31 guys decided to participate, forming the experimental group (EG), while 45 formed the control group (GC) and did not participate in any extra activity.

Results
Analysis of differences at the baseline calculated using t-test for independent samples did not show significant differences between GS and GC, while boys were significantly more aggressive than girls. The linear regression analysis between the sub-scales of empathy and aggression showed that the aggressive pro-active is predicted both sub-scales of empathy (R2 = .19, p = .001), while reactive aggression only by EC (R2 = .07, p = .01). The RM-ANOVA 2 (pre vs post) X 2 (GS vs GC) on the levels of pro-active and reactive aggression showed that GS has reduced its level of aggression in a significantly higher than the GC (p <.05). Not having changed before and after the empathy, can not be said that the change in the levels of aggression is due to a change of this variable.

Conclusion
Results suggest the effectiveness of Fighting in reducing the incidence of aggressive behaviour, although this change is not due to a change of the levels of empathy. This leads to the hypothesis that this reduction was mediated by a change of moral norms and scripts known. This conclusion is in line with the fact that pro-active aggressiveness is reduced in a more consistent way than reactive aggressiveness. In fact, moral norms, to be effective as a filter in aggressive behaviour require that the entity is not in a state of high arousal. When implemented aggressive behaviour responsive the subject is often very "active" and thus an improvement of moral standards only marginally affect the levels of reactive aggression, blocking the contrary conduct pro-active.

Abstract (italiano)

Background teorico
Le condotte aggressive sono uno dei più frequenti comportamenti antisociali negli adolescenti, in particolare in quelli che vivono in comunità urbane a basso reddito e ad alta eterogeneità etnica (Rivara, 2002). A causa della grande quantità di conseguenze negative di tali comportamenti, ad esempio la frequente evoluzione di queste condotte in atteggiamenti criminali in età adulta (Espelage et al. 2003), appare prioritario sviluppare strategie di prevenzione. Attraverso lo studio dei Social Information Processing Models (Huessman, 1998) è emerso come i comportamenti aggressivi – sia pro-attivi che reattivi- siano influenzati dai livelli di empatia -Perspective Taking (PT) ed Empatic Concern (EC)-, dalle norme morali di una persona e dal numero di script aggressivi conosciuti. Gli studi di Shields e Bredemeier (1995) hanno evidenziato come la pratica sportiva, se non esaspera gli aspetti agonistici, influenzi positivamente l'empatia e le norme morali, riducendo di conseguenza l'aggressività. Oliver (1998) afferma inoltre che le attività che prevedono un contatto fisico tra i partecipanti risultino efficaci nel ridurre le condotte aggressive in quanto costituiscono un “laboratorio” dove imparare a considerare l'altro come persona da rispettare (miglioramento dell'empatia) e dove aumentare il rispetto delle regole (modifica delle Norme Morali). È stato altresì evidenziato come, praticando attività fisica, sia possibile che i giovani apprendano nuovi script di comportamento non-aggressivi (Fite & Vitulano, 2011). I Giochi di Lotta sono un'attività ludico-sportiva basata sulla lotta per gioco. Derivano dalle arti marziali ma ne eliminano gli aspetti agonistici, enfatizzando il gioco come fine a se stesso e al divertimento. Queste caratteristiche fanno ipotizzare l'efficacia dei Giochi di Lotta per ridurre i livelli di aggressività. L'efficacia in questo senso dei Giochi di Lotta è stata comprovata da diversi studi (Carraro, Gobbi, & Moè, 2014), ma sempre con una popolazione generale e non proveniente da comunità urbane a basso reddito ed elevata eterogeneità etnica. Le ipotesi della presente ricerca erano quindi le seguenti:
1) i livelli di empatia (PT e EC) risultano predittivi dei livelli di aggressivitĂ  pro-attiva e reattiva.
2) i Giochi di Lotta risultano efficaci nel ridurre l'aggressivitĂ  pro-attiva e reattiva in giovani provenienti da comunitĂ  urbane a basso reddito.
3) la riduzione di aggressività è mediata dai livelli di empatia (PT e EC).

Metodo
Un campione di 98 giovani adolescenti (maschi = 66; ragazze = 32; etĂ  media =13,4, DS = 1,2 anni) provenienti da 8 Centri di Animazione Territoriale (CAT) per adolescenti con problemi di comportamento sono stati inizialmente coinvolti nello studio. I partecipanti hanno compilato la Family Affluence Scale (misura dello Status Socio Economico), il Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (misura dell'aggressivitĂ  pro-attiva e reattiva) e l'Interpersonal Reactivity Index (misura dell'empatia, PT ed EC), pre e post intervento. Tra la prima e la seconda somministrazione del questionario, 22 ragazzi hanno smesso di frequentare i CAT.
Il campione finale è cosÏ risultato essere composto da 76 partecipanti. La partecipazione ai Giochi di Lotta era su base volontaria, cosÏ 31 ragazzi hanno deciso di partecipare, andando a costituire il gruppo sperimentale (GS), mentre hanno costituito il gruppo di controllo (GC) e non ha partecipato alcuna attività supplementare.

Risultati
L'analisi delle differenze alla baseline calcolata tramite t-test per campioni indipendenti non ha evidenziato differenze significative tra il GS e il GC, mentre i ragazzi sono risultati significativamente piÚ aggressivi delle ragazze. L'analisi di regressione lineare tra le sottoscale dell'empatia e dell'aggressività ha evidenziato come l'aggressività pro-attiva sia predetta da entrambe le sottoscale dell'empatia (R2 = .19, p = .001), mentre l'aggressività reattiva lo sia solo dall'EC (R 2 = .07, p = .01). L'RM-ANOVA 2(pre vs post) X 2(GS vs GC) sui livelli di aggressività pro-attiva e reattiva ha evidenziato che il GS ha ridotto il suo livello di aggressività in maniera significativamente maggiore rispetto al GC (p < .05). Non essendosi modificata pre-post l'empatia, non si può affermare che la modifica dei livelli di aggressività sia imputabile ad un cambiamento di questa variabile.

Conclusioni
I risultati suggeriscono l'efficacia dei Giochi di Lotta nel ridurre l'incidenza delle condotte aggressive, anche se tale variazione non risulta imputabile ad una modifica dei livelli di empatia. Questo porta a ipotizzare che tale riduzione sia stata mediata da una modifica delle norme morali e degli script conosciuti. Questa conclusione appare in linea con il fatto che l'aggressività pro-attiva si sia ridotta in maniera più consistente rispetto all'aggressività reattiva. Infatti, le norme morali, per risultare efficaci come filtro dei comportamenti aggressivi, richiedono che il soggetto non sia in uno stato di attivazione elevato. Quando viene messo in atto un comportamento aggressivo reattivo il soggetto è spesso molto “attivato” (Huesmann, 1998), e quindi un miglioramento delle norme morali influirà solo marginalmente sui livelli di aggressività reattiva, bloccando al contrario le condotte pro-attive.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Carraro, Attilio
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE PEDAGOGICHE, DELL'EDUCAZIONE E DELLA FORMAZIONE
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Gennaio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Aggressiveness; Play-Fighting; Youths; Low-Income Urban Communities
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PED/01 Pedagogia generale e sociale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:9327
Depositato il:17 Ott 2016 12:15
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