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Canale, Natale (2016) AN EMPIRICAL INVESTIGATION INTO THE INDIVIDUAL AND CONTEXTUAL FACTORS IN ADOLESCENT GAMBLING. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Youth problem gambling has become an emerging public health issue in many countries. Disordered gambling is a multidimensional condition involving bio-psycho-social determinants including psychological processes, individual personality characteristics, social and familial influences, and environmental stressors. Studies based on this multidimensional assumption are still limited. For instance, some limitations of the current gambling literature are that: (i) there is relatively little research on modifiable adolescent behavioural and social environmental factors contributing to the development of problem gambling (Scholes-Balog, Hemphill, Dowling, & Toumbourou, 2014); (ii) few studies have investigated the mediation effects of environment on person-gambling relationship and vice versa (Ariyabuddhiphongs, 2013); (iii) although impulsivity has been consistently associated with gambling, the psychological mechanisms by which impulsivity might influence gambling disorder are not clearly understood (Kraplin et al., 2014). According to the conceptual framework for the development of gambling in youth (Barnes, Welte, Hoffman, & Dintcheff, 1999) and the conceptual framework of harmful gambling (Abbot et al., 2013), the current research project aimed to address this gap in the literature by focusing on the interaction between socio demographic-, individual/psychological-, socialization-, and contextual-factors in determining problem gambling in adolescents and young adults.
Study 1: The first study investigated the role of socioeconomic indicators of the welfare state and family practices in explaining probable problem gambling during adolescence. A multilevel model was used to evaluate the impact of the parenting (regulation, caring and monitoring/knowledge: individual-level) and country (GDP, expenditure on public health, family/children benefits: country-level) influences on adolescent possible problem gambling in a representative sample of students living in nine European countries. Data were drawn from the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD) Study (n = 29952; 53% girls; 16-year-old students). Students who perceived more parental monitoring/knowledge and caring reported less involvement in possible problem gambling. Moreover, students who perceived stronger parental regulation were more likely to be possible problematic gamblers. At the country level, expenditure on public health was negatively associated with possible problem gambling.
Study 2: Among parenting practices influencing adolescent gambling in the first study, the second study focused on the protective effect that parents who are knowledgeable about youth activities could have in preventing or hindering youth gambling, with the aim of elucidating some of the pathways responsible for this association. Data were drawn from the ESPAD®Italia2012 (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) study which is based on a nationally representative sample (n = 19573; 54% girls; age, M = 17.11 years, SD = 1.43). In study 2, a path analysis was used to test an integrative model linking parental knowledge about their offspring's whereabouts with adolescent gambling, while evaluating the mediating effects of gambling-oriented attitudes (adolescents' own gambling approval; risk-perception of gambling; and descriptive norms on gambling shared with friends). Results showed that adolescents who perceived higher levels of parental knowledge were more likely to disapprove of gambling and had higher awareness of its harmfulness, which in turn were negatively related to gambling frequency. They were also less likely to perceive their friends as gamblers, which in turn was also negatively related to gambling frequency.
Studies 3-4: The third and fourth study investigated how gambling oriented attitudes (e.g., risk and benefits perception of gambling) and decision-making processes may explain gambling outcomes by studying the psychological mechanisms that underlie the influence of impulsivity on problem gambling. Although impulsivity traits have been linked to problem gambling, less is known about psychological mechanisms that explain the relationships between impulsivity traits and problem gambling. The purposes of Studies 3-4 were to examine a theoretical model linking impulsivity traits and gambling problems taking into account the role of gambling motives (study 3) and decision-making processes (study 4). Participants comprised students enrolled in public high schools or universities. In Study 3 (n = 594; 73% male; mean age = 19.92 years; SD = 2.91), young people who tend to act rashly in response to extremely positive emotions showed higher coping and enhancement motives, which in turn were positively related to gambling problems. In addition, sensation seekers were more likely to have higher levels of enhancement motives, which in turn were also positively associated with gambling problems. Specific associations between impulsivity traits, gambling motives and gambling problems were significant only in young people who perceived lower risks and higher benefits of gambling. In Study 4 (n = 986; 64% male; mean age = 19.51 years; SD = 2.30), young people who tend to act rashly in response to extreme moods were more likely to have lower levels of deliberative decision-making and higher preferences for immediate/small rewards, which in turn were positively related to gambling problems.
In conclusion, taken together, the findings of the four studies suggest that gambling frequency and gambling problems are the outcome of both personal and contextual characteristics (Lussier, Derevensky, Gupta, & Vitaro, 2014). Consistent with the conceptual framework for the development of gambling in youth (Barnes et al., 1999) and the conceptual framework of harmful gambling (Abbot et al., 2013), these results may be regarded as an original example of how individual characteristics and social context may interact to affect individual behaviour. These results might also have important implications for gambling prevention programs and future social welfare policies.

Abstract (italiano)

Il gioco d’azzardo problematico nei giovani è ormai un emergente problema di salute pubblica in molti Stati. Il disturbo da gioco d’azzardo è una condizione multidimensionale caratterizzata da determinanti bio-psico-sociali che includono processi psicologici, caratteristiche individuali di personalità, influenze sociali e familiari e stressor ambientali. Gli studi basati su questa prospettiva multidimensionale del gioco d’azzardo sono ancora pochi. Per esempio, alcune limitazioni dell’attuale letteratura scientifica sul gioco d’azzardo giovanile sono: (i) la scarsa attenzione ai fattori comportamentali adolescenziali modificabili e all’ambiente sociale che favoriscono lo sviluppo del gioco d’azzardo problematico (Scholes-Balog, Hemphill, Dowling, & Toumbourou, 2014); (ii) pochi studi hanno indagato gli effetti di mediazione del contesto nella relazione gioco d’azzardo-caratteristiche individuali e viceversa (Ariyabuddhiphongs, 2013); (iii) nonostante l’impulsività sia stata associata al gioco d’azzardo in diversi studi, i meccanismi psicologici attraverso i quali può influenzare il disturbo da gioco d’azzardo non sono tuttora particolarmente chiari (Kraplin et al., 2014). In accordo con i framework teorici per lo sviluppo del gioco d’azzardo tra i giovani (Barnes, Welte, Hoffman, & Dintcheff, 1999) e del harmful gambling (Abbot et al., 2013), il presente progetto di ricerca ha lo scopo di contribuire alla letteratura esistente focalizzandosi sull’interazione tra fattori socio demografici, individuali/psicologici, della socializzazione e contestuali nell’influenzare il gioco d’azzardo problematico in adolescenti e giovani adulti.
Studio 1: Il primo studio ha indagato il ruolo degli indicatori socioeconomici di welfare e le pratiche familiari nello spiegare il possibile gioco d’azzardo problematico durante l’adolescenza. E’ stato utilizzato un modello multilivello per valutare l’impatto delle influenze genitoriali (regole, cura e monitoring/conoscenza: a livello individuale) e contestuali (prodotto interno lordo, spesa in salute pubblica, benefici economici per famiglia/bambini: a livello aggregato di nazione) sul possibile gioco d’azzardo problematico in un campione rappresentativo di studenti che vivono in nove Stati Europei. I dati sono stati ottenuti dallo studio 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs – ESPAD (n = 29952; 53% femmine; studenti sedicenni). Gli studenti che percepivano maggiore monitoring/conoscenza genitoriale e cura hanno riportato un minore coinvolgimento nel possibile gioco d’azzardo problematico. In aggiunta, gli studenti che hanno dichiarato di percepire maggiori regole fissate dai genitori avevano una maggiore probabilità di essere possibili giocatori d’azzardo problematici. A livello aggregato, la spesa di welfare in salute pubblica è risultata associata negativamente al possibile gioco d’azzardo problematico.
Studio 2: Tra le pratiche genitoriali che influenzano il gioco d’azzardo adolescenziale nel primo studio, il secondo studio si è focalizzato sull’effetto protettivo che i genitori caratterizzati da alti livelli di conoscenza circa le attività dei figli possono avere nel prevenire o impedire il gioco d’azzardo giovanile, con lo scopo di elucidare alcuni dei meccanismi responsabili di questa associazione. I dati sono stati ottenuti dallo studio ESPAD®Italia2012 (European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs) e si riferiscono ad un campione rappresentativo della popolazione italiana (n = 19573; 54% femmine; età media = 17.11 anni, DS = 1.43). Nello studio 2, una path analisi è stata utilizzata per testare un modello integrativo che lega la conoscenza genitoriale dell’attività dei figli con il gioco d’azzardo adolescenziale, valutando contemporaneamente gli effetti di mediazione degli atteggiamenti relativi al gioco d’azzardo (l’approvazione individuale del gioco d’azzardo degli adolescenti; la percezione del rischio del gioco d’azzardo; e le norme descrittive sul gioco d’azzardo condivise con gli amici). I risultati hanno dimostrato che gli adolescenti che hanno dichiarato di percepire maggiori livelli di conoscenza genitoriale avevano maggiore probabilità di disapprovare il gioco d’azzardo ed avere maggiore consapevolezza della sua pericolosità; questi fattori, a loro volta, sono risultati negativamente associati alla frequenza di gioco d’azzardo. Tali studenti con alti livelli di conoscenza genitoriale percepita avevano inoltre una minore probabilità di percepire i loro amici come giocatori d’azzardo, fattore a sua volta negativamente associato alla frequenza di gioco d’azzardo.
Studi 3-4: Il terzo e quarto studio hanno indagato come gli atteggiamenti relativi al gioco d’azzardo (per esempio la percezione dei rischi e dei benefici del gioco d’azzardo) e i processi decisionali possano spiegare i comportamenti di gioco d’azzardo tramite lo studio del loro coinvolgimento a livello dei meccanismi psicologici che sottolineano l’influenza dell’impulsività sul gioco d’azzardo problematico. Nonostante i tratti d’impulsività siano stati collegati al gioco d’azzardo problematico, si ha una scarsa conoscenza dei meccanismi psicologici che spiegano tale associazione. Gli scopi degli studi 3-4 erano di esaminare un modello teorico che colleghi i tratti d’impulsività ai problemi di gioco d’azzardo considerando il ruolo delle motivazioni al gioco d’azzardo (Studio 3) e i processi di decision-making (Studio 4) come possibili mediatori. I partecipanti agli studi erano studenti iscritti in scuole pubbliche di secondo grado o università pubbliche. Nello studio 3 (n = 594; 73% maschi; età media = 19.92 anni; DS = 2.91), i giovani che tendevano ad agire d’impulso mentre provavano delle intense emozioni positive riportavano maggiori motivazioni di coping e di rinforzo al gioco d’azzardo, che a loro volta erano positivamente relate ai problemi di gioco d’azzardo. In aggiunta, giovani caratterizzati da alti livelli di sensation seeking avevano maggiore probabilità di riportare livelli più alti di motivazioni di rinforzo al gioco d’azzardo, che a loro volta erano positivamente associati ai problemi di gioco d’azzardo. Specifiche associazioni tra tratti d’impulsività, motivazioni al gioco d’azzardo e problemi di gioco d’azzardo erano significative solo in giovani che percepivano bassi rischi ed elevati benefici del gioco d’azzardo. Nello studio 4
(n = 986; 64% maschi; età media = 19.51 anni; DS = 2.30), i giovani che tendevano a comportarsi impulsivamente mentre provavano intense emozioni avevano maggiori probabilità di riportare bassi livelli di decision-making deliberativa e maggiori preferenze per rinforzi immediati ed economicamente sconvenienti, che a loro volta erano positivamente relati ai problemi di gioco d’azzardo.
In conclusione, presi insieme, i risultati dei quattro studi suggeriscono che la frequenza ed i problemi di gioco d’azzardo sono il risultato sia di caratteristiche individuali che contestuali (Lussier, Derevensky, Gupta, & Vitaro, 2014). In accordo con i framework teorici per lo sviluppo del gioco d’azzardo tra i giovani (Barnes, Welte, Hoffman, & Dintcheff, 1999) e del harmful gambling (Abbot et al., 2013), questi risultati rappresentano un esempio originale di come caratteristiche individuali e contesto sociale possano interagire nell’influenzare il comportamento dell’individuo. Questi risultati possono anche avere importanti implicazioni per i programmi di prevenzione al gioco d’azzardo e le future politiche sociali di welfare.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Vieno, Alessio
Correlatore:Rubaltelli , Enrico
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:30 Gennaio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:30 Gennaio 2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Problem Gambling Health expenditures Impulsivity Family Attitudes Gambling Motives Decision Making
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/05 Psicologia sociale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:9418
Depositato il:07 Ott 2016 11:04
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