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Angeli, Valentina (2015) Infants'€™ early representation of faces: the role of dynamic cues. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The general aim of the current dissertation is to investigate whether the semi-rigid movement of a face might affect the encoding and the processing of socially relevant information retrievable from faces, such as identity and emotions, in the first year of life. In particular, the research project is aimed, on one hand, at testing whether facial motion promotes the construction of the face representation, which, in turn, might facilitate identity recognition in newborns and categorization of facial expressions in young infants; on the other hand, the current work is aimed at investigating whether infants are able to process facial motion information alone, when other pictorial cues, such as forms, colors, etc. are unavailable.
In the first study, I investigated how the movement of a happy facial expression could impact few-day-old infants’ identity recognition. Previous studies have shown that, when newborns have to recognize a face that changed in some characteristics (such as profile view), the recognition of identity is inhibited (e.g., Turati et al., 2008). It has been demonstrated that both rigid and non-rigid facial motion could promote face recognition at birth (Bulf & Turati, 2010; Leo et al., in prep.). Four experiments have been carried out to test whether the beneficial effect of facial motion might be due to a facial representation more robust and less linked to the image stored in newborns’ memory. Results have demonstrated that the benefits fail when the perceptual distance between the memorized face and the face newborns have to recognize increased (Experiment 1). Accordingly, when the perceptual distance is minimized, newborns are able to recognize the same identity despite the subtle changes even when habituated to a static face (Experiment 2). The third study showed that a biologically impossible facial motion hinders newborns’ face recognition (Experiment 3). Finally, when the quantity of pictorial information is equated, the static presentation does not lead to a successful recognition (Experiment 4). Overall, it seems that non-rigid facial motion could promote a face representation less image-constrained, but only in a condition where the degrees of visual discrepancy between the habituated and the test face images have been minimized.
The second study investigated whether emotions expressed dynamically might facilitate the ability to categorize facial expressions at 3 months of age. According to the infants’ literature on the perception of static emotional expressions, categorization starts to appear only between 5 and 7 months of age (e.g., deHaan & Nelson, 1998). Findings coming from naturalistic studies of mother-infant interactions (e.g., Nadel et al., 2005), as well as intermodal preference tasks (e.g., Kahana-Kalman & Walker-Andrews, 2001), suggest that infants’ ability to process facial expressions might have been underestimated. In a within-subject design, 3-month-old infants were familiarized to four different identities posing four different intensities of a happy and a fearful expression, presented sequentially in loop in order to convey the dynamic information. Results have shown that 3-month-old infants are able to categorize the emotion of happiness, whereas they do not show this ability when they are familiarized with the emotion of fear. Such difference is likely due to the different degree of familiarity of happy and fear expressions (Malatesta & Havildand, 1982). Thus, the presentation of dynamic emotional expressions enhances infants’ ability to categorize facial expressions.
The purpose of the third study was to analyze infants’ ability to process the dynamicity embedded in a face when other pictorial cues are unavailable, as demonstrated in adults (e.g., Bassili, 1978). To this end, point-light displays (Johansson, 1973) of happy and fear expressions were created. In experiment 1, in a habituation procedure, the ability to discriminate between happy and fear only on the basis of motion cues has been investigated in 3-, 6- and 9-month-old infants. Point-light displays of a face were presented both upright and inverted, to test whether infants were able to organize the motion pattern according to a face-schema. Results have shown an inversion effect at all the three age groups, suggesting that infants process the motion patterns as facial motions. Importantly, when habituated to the happy expression, all the three age groups show successful discrimination ability. In contrast, when habituated to the fear PLD, only 3-month-olds show a successful discrimination, whereas 6- and 9-month olds seem to loose such capability. Experiment 2 ruled out the possibility that a spontaneous preference for the fearful face might have affected infants’ looking behavior. These results seem to indicate that the ability to process facial expressions by relying on motion cues follows a developmental trajectory that starts with an early processing of the lower-level facial attributes, in which motion patterns are processed in a face-related way, and then evolves in the capacity to process the higher-level facial attributes, in which face movements are processed as facial expressions.
Overall, the results of the present dissertation suggest that, already within the first months of life, the semi-rigid facial motion might promote the processing of the socially relevant information conveyed by faces by means of an enhanced facial representation. Moreover, the current data reveal that infants are able to process facial expressions from facial motion cues alone starting from 6 and 9 months of age.

Abstract (italiano)

Il presente lavoro di tesi si propone di indagare come il movimento semi-rigido del volto influenzi la codifica e la elaborazione di alcune informazioni socialmente rilevanti estraibili dal volto stesso, come l'identità e le espressioni emotive, in bambini al di sotto del primo anno di vita. In particolare, l'ipotesi è che il movimento facciale possa promuovere la costruzione di una rappresentazione mentale che, a sua volta, faciliti il riconoscimento degli stimoli in compiti di abituazione e familiarizzazione visiva. Inoltre, è stata analizzata la capacità degli infanti di processare l'informazione cinetica del volto quando altre informazioni pittoriche, come le forme, i colori, ecc., non sono presenti.
Nel primo studio è stato indagato come il movimento facciale veicolato dall'espressione facciale di felicità possa influenzare sulla costruzione della rappresentazione del volto in bambini con un massimo di 3 giorni di vita). Precedenti studi alla nascita hanno dimostrato che quando alcune caratteristiche facciali del volto da riconoscere cambiano, la capacità di riconoscimento dell'identità di un volto viene inibita (e.g., Turati et al., 2008). In questi casi, è stato dimostrato come sia il movimento rigido che quello non-rigido del volto facilitino il riconoscimento dell'identità  alla nascita (Bulf & Turati, 2010; Leo et al., in prep.). Attraverso quattro esperimenti, si è voluta verificare l'ipotesi che l'effetto di beneficio del movimento semi-rigido sia legato alla costruzione di una rappresentazione del volto meno legata all'immagine pittorica immagazzinata in memoria. Anzitutto, i dati dimostrano che il movimento facciale non favorisce il riconoscimento quando viene aumentata la distanza percettiva tra il volto memorizzato e quello da riconoscere (Esperimento 1). Coerentemente, quando tale distanza percettiva è minima, i neonati sono in grado di riconoscere lo stesso volto anche in condizioni statiche (Esperimento 2). Il terzo studio mostra che un movimento biologicamente impossibile ostacola il riconoscimento dell'identità alla nascita (Esperimento 3). Infine, è stato dimostrato come le stesse informazioni pittoriche presentate staticamente in sequenza non portano ad alcun beneficio nel riconoscimento (Esperimento 4). Nel complesso, il movimento non-rigido sembra promuovere una rappresentazione del volto resiliente ai cambiamenti, ma soltanto quando la differenza percettiva tra le diverse immagini dello stesso volto è limitata.
Il secondo studio ha indagato se l'utilizzo di stimoli facciali emotivi dinamici consenta l'astrazione di caratteristiche comuni permettendo la categorizzazione delle espressioni facciali di felicità e paura già a 3 mesi di vita. La letteratura sulla capacità di categorizzazione negli infanti, infatti, indica che tale abilità si sviluppi soltanto tra i 5 e i 7 mesi di vita (e.g., deHaan & Nelson, 1998). Tuttavia, nella quasi totalità degli studi sono stati utilizzati stimoli statici. Dati provenienti dalle osservazioni naturalistiche delle interazioni madre-bambino (e.g., Nadel et al., 2005), nonchÊ da studi che utilizzano altri paradigmi sperimentali, come preferenze di tipo intermodale (e.g., Kahana-Kalman & Walker-Andrews, 2001), in cui gli stimoli facciali sono dinamici, suggeriscono una sensibilità al tono emotivo delle espressioni facciali (in particolare, quella di felicità) ben piÚ precoce di quella indicata dagli studi di laboratorio. In un disegno within-subjects, bambini di 3 mesi sono stati familiarizzati a 4 differenti identità che mostravano 4 differenti intensità di felicità e paura presentate sequenzialmente in modo da creare una percezione di dinamicità. I risultati hanno mostrato come l'espressione di felicità viene categorizzata già a tre mesi di vita, mentre questo non succede per quella di paura. Tale differenza è riconducibile al diverso grado di familiarità delle due espressioni (Malatesta & Haviland, 1982). Questi risultati supportano l'ipotesi che il movimento facciale promuova l'astrazione di caratteristiche invarianti del volto, facilitando la categorizzazione delle espressioni facciali.
Il terzo studio si è proposto di analizzare la capacità di processare la sola informazione cinetica del volto, scorporata dagli altri indici pittorici. A tal fine, sono stati creati stimoli facciali di tipo point-light (Johansson, 1973) raffigurati la dinamicità delle espressioni di felicità e paura. Nell'esperimento 1, tramite abituazione visiva, è stata indagata la capacità di infanti di 3, 6 e 9 mesi di vita di discriminare queste due espressioni facciali sulla base del solo movimento del volto, come precedentemente dimostrato negli adulti (e.g., Bassili, 1978). Gli stimoli sono stati presentati sia dritti che invertiti, al fine di verificare che il movimento fosse processato come un movimento del volto. I risultati hanno mostrato anzitutto un effetto inversione, che indica che l'insieme dei punti in movimento viene organizzato secondo lo schema volto. Inoltre, quando abituati all'espressione di felicità, i bambini di tutte le tre età dimostrano capacità di discriminazione. Al contrario, quando abituati alla paura, solo i bambini di 3 mesi mostrano capacità di discriminazione, mentre a 6 e 9 mesi questa abilità sembra scomparire. L'esperimento 2 ha escluso la possibilità che una preferenza a priori per l'espressione paura possa aver causato questo andamento. I risultati sembrano indicare che la capacità di processare le espressioni facciali sulla sola base cinetica si evolvi secondo una traiettoria di sviluppo che prevede una iniziale elaborazione di attributi del volto 'low-level', in cui i movimenti vengono processati come movimenti del volto, verso una piÚ sofisticata elaborazione di attributi del volto 'high-level', in cui il movimento è processato come espressione facciale.
Nel complesso, i dati di questo lavoro di tesi sembrano suggerire che il movimento facciale possa promuovere l'elaborazione delle informazioni sociali trasmissibili dal volto fin dai primi mesi di vita, attraverso un rafforzamento della costruzione di una rappresentazione del volto. Inoltre, i dati hanno mostrato che la capacitĂ  di processare le espressioni facciali sulla sola base del movimento emerge tra i 6 e i 9 mesi di vita.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Simion, Francesca
Correlatore:Simion, Francesca
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:01 Febbraio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:01 Febbraio 2015
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):infants; face recognition; dynamic face; facial expressions
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/04 Psicologia dello sviluppo e psicologia dell'educazione
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:9516
Depositato il:21 Ott 2016 10:29
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