CHATZIDIMITRIOU, EVANGELIA (2016) Alien Invasive Species in Europe: Three Case Studies. [Ph.D. thesis]
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The incidental introduction of alien phytophagous insects and mites has become quite a common event in the world owing to intensive commercial exchanges of plants and goods and ever-increasing tourist traffic. There is evidence that this phenomenon is increasing, in spite of the control measures of the EU phytosanitary system in order to minimize unintentional introductions.
The introduction of an alien species in a new ecosystem and the interaction between an alien species and the autochthonous species usually has many disadvantages. The alien species can dominate the invaded ecosystems and eventually become an invasive species due also to the absence or paucity of natural enemies. These invasions can affect the native species that become less common or threatened with extinction. Apart from the environmental impacts alien species are known for their economic and health impacts.
In this study were investigated mostly 3 recently introduced alien species in Italy, namely Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella) tianmushanensis Zang (Hemiptera Aphididae), Cydalima perspectalis (=Glyphodes) (Walker, 1859) (Lepidoptera Crambideae), the box caterpillar and Phenacoccus defectus Ferris (Rhynchota Pseudococcidae).
The first chapter is a background of invasive ecology and presents with graphs the high number of alien species introduced in Europe the last years..
The second chapter is dealing with Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella) tianmushanensis Zang, an Asiatic heteroecious species so far not recorded in Italy. This species was collected in the University Botanical Garden of Padova in spring 2012. On May 30, 2012 reddish-pink galls, with aphids inside, were observed on the leaves of two Prunus subhirtella cv. pendula trees (Rosaceae) (Weeping Higan Cherry), about 40 years old. Once mounted on slides the aphids were identified as Tuberocephalus (Trichosiphoniella) tianmushanensis Zang. The purposes of this study were to collect data on species distribution over the territory, by monitoring ornamental cherry trees in the Veneto region, to observe the phenology and biology of the Asiatic aphid, to study the life-cycle in screen houses and outdoors, to verify if its secondary host plant was an Artemisia sp., as reported in bibliography. Another aspect of the work was to provide an overview of the species belonging to the genus Tuberocephalus so far described, by consulting the available literature. It was made an effort to gather all the currently available information for each species, its distribution and information on their biology mainly regarding the first and secondary host plants. Results showed that Tuberocephalus (T.) tianmushanensis, is now considered acclimatized in our environment. The aphid is closely related to the presence of its primary host Prunus subhirtella v. pendula with pink flowers. The aphid can carry on two generations on Prunus and can induce two types of leaf galls. The gall A is induced by the fundatrix, while the gall B is induced by the fundatrigeniae. The trial of colonization on Artemisia vulgaris, failed for the second successive year so possibly Artemisia vulgaris is not the secondary host plant of the aphid, as reported in literature.
The third chapter concers Cydalima perspectalis (Lepidoptera, Crambiidae) (Walker, 1859), an asiatic pest of Buxus. It was reported for the first time in Europe in Germany in 2007. In Italy it was detected in 2011, in Lombardy, Como province. In a very short time it invaded the other northern regions and was recorded in Veneto in 2012. The larvae feed on leaves and shoots of the box trees and the infestations lead to defoliation of the plants. The objective of this study was to investigate the phenology of C. perspectalis. More precisely we examined the biological cycle of life, the number of molts and the overwintering stage. In addition host plants were monitored by regular samplings, from late winter to late fall to collect data on species distribution over the territory. The life-cycle was studied in screen houses and in the field, to investigate the role of potential predators and parasitoids. Additionally experiments were conducted with pheromones traps with the purpose of checking, monitoring and collecting data on species distribution over the territory, finding any possible differences based on climate, checking the potential differences between types of traps. According to the results of 2014 and 2015 in the Veneto Region C. perspectalis develops three generations / year. In 2014 the overwintering larvae started their activity early in February until mid-April while in 2015 one month later until end of April probably due to different climate conditions between these years. C. perspectalis overwinters in a silk cocoon in-between the leaves as a larva of 2nd instar and the number of larval instar is 5.
The number of captures from the sex pheromones traps was low. No differences were observed between the two types of pheromones. C. perspectalis has spread quickly in our environment proving that it has acclimatized. So far, it seems there has been no adaptation by indigenous natural enemies (parasitoids) to C. persectalis.
The next chapter is focued on the difficulty to separate the Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). They are morphologically similar and the microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone are not enough. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the CO1 and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.
Finally a zoogeographic analysis of the Greek scale insects fauna (Hemiptera, Coccoidea) was carried out with the aim to highlight how many alien scale insects species are so far present in the Greek territory. According to the last data, the scale insect fauna of whole Greek territory comprehends 207 species; a total of 187 species are recorded in mainland Greece and minor islands, whereas only 87 scale species are known so far in the island of Crete. The most numerous families are the Diaspididae, with 86 species in total, followed by Coccidae, with 35 species and by Pseudococcidae, with 34 species. The results of a first zoogeographical analysis of scale insect fauna of mainland Greece and the island of Crete is also presented. Five scale species, respectively four in mainland Greece and one in Crete, are considered as endemic. This analysis demonstrated that alien scale insects, introduced and acclimatized a long time ago or recent invaders, make up 30% of the Greek scale insects fauna.
Tra le specie di Phenacoccus neartiche, P. defectus Ferris, P. solani Ferris è P. solenopsis Tinsley condividono l’insolito carattere morfologico dell’assenza di pori pentaoculari è sono morfologicamente simili da rendere difficile l’ identificazione. Il problema della loro identificazione è stato evidenziato da diversi autori (McKenzie, 1967; Williams & Granara de Willink, 1992; Culik & Gullan, 2005; Pellizzari & Porcelli, 2013), benché sia generalmente riconosciuto che P. solenopsis possieda un maggior numero di pori multiloculari e un circulus di maggiori dimensioni rispetto alle altre due specie; inoltre quest’ultima è una specie bisessuale mentre le altre due si riproducono per partenogenesi. Le tre specie di cocciniglie condividono diverse piante ospite. In accordo con Hodgson et al. (2008) ci sono elementi che supportano l’ipotesi che si tratti di varianti di una singola specie. Per definire meglio il loro status tassonomico, abbiamo amplificato mediante PCR e sequenziato il frammento di DNA ‘barcode’ di P. solani, P. solenopsis, e P. defectus.
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|EPrint type:||Ph.D. thesis|
|Ph.D. course:||Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE DELLE PRODUZIONI VEGETALI|
|Data di deposito della tesi:||01 February 2016|
|Anno di Pubblicazione:||31 January 2016|
|Key Words:||INVASIVE,ALIEN SPECIES,ECOLOGY,ITALY,TUBEROCEPHALUS,GALLING APHIDS,CYDALIMA PERSPECTALIS,ECOLOGY,PHENACOCCUS, MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATION,SYNONYMY,COXI,28S,BIOGEOGRAPHY,CHOROTYPE,CRETE,MAINLAND GREECE|
|Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:||Area 07 - Scienze agrarie e veterinarie > AGR/11 Entomologia generale e applicata|
|Struttura di riferimento:||Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Agronomia Animali Alimenti Risorse Naturali e Ambiente|
|Depositato il:||13 Oct 2016 09:13|
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