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De Bortoli Vizioli, Aurora (2016) Early understanding of cues of possession. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

Early understanding of cues of possession

The concept of ownership refers to a particular relationship between several individuals and an object. The relationship consists of the power of an individual to establish and maintain control over an object and the possibility to exclude others from that object. At a basic level, objects’ ownership is expressed and recognized by others through a set of spatial-temporal cues such as subject-object physical proximity or contact, actual control, and first possession. The ability to identify these cues and respect others’ possession early in life enables children to avoid conflict and build stable relationships with peers.
The aim of this research is to examine the cognitive bases of sense of ownership and to explore how the understanding of the social norms concerning ownership evolve during the first year of life.
In two experimental studies, I examined (a) infants’ ability to identify physical cues of possession, (b) infants’ ability to recognize violation of possession, and (c) infants’ ability to respect others’ possession. A key goal of this research was to examine ownership cognition adopting two different methodological approaches: a classical visual paradigm where the infant was observing a subject-object interaction (Study1), and an interactive paradigm where the infant was directly involved in a subject-object interaction (Study 2).
In Study 1, I focused my investigation on ownership understanding analyzing infants’ social-cognitive abilities from a third-person perspective. Specifically, I presented 6 and 9-month-old infants with a set of non-verbal video animations representing object-oriented goal scenarios and interactions between two animated agents. Results from these experiments suggest that, as third-party observers, infants seem to recognize others’ possession by showing interest when possession is violated and, possibly, the social rules concerning ownership.
In Study 2, I focused on ownership cognition by analyzing infants’ behavior from a first-person perspective. Specifically, my questions concerned how and when the abilities to respect others’ possession emerge during development and how the acquisition process (i.e., the act of taking possession of an object) could be affected by others’ possession. The aim of this study was to analyze infants’ behavior in a choice task involving two objects. Depending on the condition, one of the two objects could be either in physical contact or in proximity with the experimenter’s hand. Results suggest that the mechanisms that elicit respect of possession emerge quite early during development. Nevertheless, the acquisition process seems to be affected by the co-occurrence of different mechanisms that drive the infant’s preference toward one of the objects. I hypothesize that the competition between these mechanisms leads to different outcomes depending on the infant’s socio-cognitive skills and motor abilities and on the context where the subject-object interaction occurs.
Despite the growing interest in the development of the notion of ownership and property rights, only very few experimental studies have investigated the understanding of possessive relationship in preverbal infants, and their ability to respect others’ possession. Results of the research presented here suggest a very early emergence of these abilities, supporting the idea that some of the mechanisms responsible for dealing with ownership recognition are rooted in our evolutionary history and probably shared with other animal species.

Abstract (italiano)

Comprensione precoce degli indizi di possesso

Il concetto di proprietà identifica la relazione esistente tra più individui nei confronti di un determinato bene. Tale relazione si esplica nella capacità di stabilire e mantenere il controllo su un bene e nella possibilità di escludere gli altri dall’uso di quel bene. La proprietà di un oggetto può essere inferita a partire da una serie di indizi spazio-temporali che legano un soggetto ad un oggetto, come ad esempio il contatto fisico, la prossimità e il controllo. La precoce capacità di identificare tali indizi e di rispettare il possesso altrui permette ai bambini di evitare i conflitti e costruire stabili relazioni tra pari.
Attraverso due lavori sperimentali condotti su infanti di 6 e 9 mesi sono stati indagate (a) l’abilità di identificare gli indizi percettivi di possesso (b) la capacità di riconoscere quando il possesso viene violato (c) la capacità di rispettare il possesso altrui. Un elemento chiave di questa ricerca è stato quello di indagare la comprensione delle relazioni di possesso attraverso l’uso due diversi approcci sperimentali: un paradigma di preferenza visiva dove il bambino doveva osservare delle interazioni soggetto-oggetto (Studio 1), e un paradigma interattivo dove il bambino veniva direttamente coinvolto nell’interazione soggetto-oggetto (Studio 2).
Lo Studio 1 analizza le abilità socio-cognitive del bambino attraverso il suo comportamento visivo. Nello specifico, il paradigma sperimentale prevedeva che agli infanti venissero mostrate delle animazioni video in cui delle figure geometriche dotate di movimento auto-prodotto compivano azioni finalizzate al raggiungimento di oggetti inanimati e/o interagivano tra loro. I risultati ottenuti suggeriscono una comprensione precoce degli indizi di possesso, della violazione del possesso e delle regole sociali alla base della nozione di proprietà.
Lo Studio 2 indaga la comprensione delle relazioni di possesso attraverso un paradigma interattivo. Nello specifico, le mie domande riguardavano come e quando la capacità di rispettare il possesso altrui emergesse durante la prima infanzia e se il processo di acquisizione di un oggetto da parte del bambino (ovvero l’atto di impossessarsi di un oggetto) fosse influenzato dal possesso altrui. Lo scopo principale dello studio era quello di analizzare il comportamento del bambino durante un compito di scelta tra due oggetti. A seconda della condizione, uno dei due oggetti poteva essere in contatto fisico o prossimità con la mano dello sperimentatore. I risultati mostrano come i meccanismi alla base del rispetto del possesso altrui emergano relativamente presto durante l’infanzia. Tuttavia, il processo di acquisizione sembra essere influenzato dalla compresenza di diversi meccanismi che dirigono la preferenza dell’infante verso uno dei due oggetti. Si ipotizza che la competizione tra tali meccanismi conduca a esiti differenti in funzione delle abilità socio-cognitive e motorie del bambino e del contesto in cui l’interazione soggetto-oggetto si verifica.
Nonostante il crescente interesse nei confronti della comprensione del concetto di proprietà e dei diritti ad esso associati durante l’infanzia, pochissimi lavori sperimentali hanno investigato la comprensione delle relazioni di possesso nei bambini al di sotto dell’anno di vita e la capacità di rispettare il possesso altrui. I risultati di questa ricerca sembrano suggerire l’insorgenza relativamente precoce di tali abilità, supportando l’idea secondo cui alcuni meccanismi di ragionamento sociale siano già presenti nell’architettura cognitiva degli individui e probabilmente affondino le loro radici nella nostra storia evolutiva.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Farroni, Teresa
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:01 Febbraio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:01 Febbraio 2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):ownership, possession, infants, social cognitive development
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/04 Psicologia dello sviluppo e psicologia dell'educazione
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:9580
Depositato il:18 Ott 2016 12:13
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