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Marino, Francesca (2016) Social capital, children's skills and parental inputs: four essays in empirical economics. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

This thesis is composed of four chapters in applied economics.
The first chapter "Long Term Consequences of the Chernobyl Radioactive Fallout: an Exploration of the Aggregate Data" is co-authored with Luca Nunziata. In this paper we challenge the lack of consensus on the long term health consequences of the radioactive fallout originated by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, by providing the first exploration of the combined aggregate evidence from the European regions that were not immediately adjacent to the disaster site. We match data on neoplasm incidence in eighty European regions with Caesium deposition after the nuclear disaster. The findings indicate that the radioactive fallout is positively associated with an increase in hospital discharges after treatment for neoplasms almost thirty years later, with larger effects in regions where the radioactivity was more intense and a substantial increase in curative-care expenditure. We checked the robustness of our findings to a number of tests including a placebo simulation and found that our results survive each of these checks. Using Eurostat data on health expenditure by country, we calculate what share of the 2000-2012 annual curative care expenditure may be due to the increase in hospital discharges attributable to the fallout. Around 4.4% to 4.9% of the average curative care expenditure in Austria and Czech Republic could be imputed to the consequences of the fallout. Germany and France, that received lower levels of radiations, may have spent, respectively, 3.8% and 1.9% of their total curative care expenditure because of the excess number of hospitalizations due to the fallout.
The second chapter "Radioactive Decay, Health and Social Capital: Lessons From The Chernobyl Experiment" is co-authored with Luca Nunziata. In this work we exploit the exogenous variation in health patterns across European regions that resulted from the Chernobyl nuclear disaster to provide new quasi-experimental evidence on the causal effect of health on social capital. Our instrumental variable estimations show that the radioactive fallout is positively associated with an increase in hospital discharges after treatment for neoplasms almost thirty years later. An increased incidence of neoplasms induced by the radioactive fallout generates a sizeable impoverishment of social capital at nearly all levels, including social interactions, altruism and trust toward institutions and the health care system. Our findings suggest that health care and prevention may have higher returns than previously thought since they may also contribute to a significant increase in social capital.
The third chapter "Living with an Ill Sibling: Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills of the Healthy Child" is single authored. In this paper I identify changes in cognitive and noncognitive skills among children and early adolescents due to having an ill sibling. Using data from the second wave of the Child Development Supplement in the Panel of Income Study Dynamics, this investigation adopts a Propensity Score Matching approach to compare families where one of the siblings is affected by a physical or mental illness with families where all the children are healthy. Results of the current study highlight a change in noncognitive skills among children living with an ill sibling, while cognitive skills are not affected. By analyzing noncognitive skills in light of the Big Five Personality traits, results shows that living with an ill sibling has a beneficial effect on children's Openness to Experience, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. The analysis identifies children's differences at the gender and birth order levels: living with an ill sibling seems to cause an increase in Openness to Experience among girls and an increase in Conscientiousness among boys while the increase in Extraversion observed in the overall sample may be actually due to the older children subsample. This evidence highlights how children react differently to the same phenomenon according to gender and age differences, and this appears to be useful especially in a prospective point of view, since according to literature such changes may be reflected in future socioeconomic and labour market outcomes.
The fourth and last chapter "Quality Time with the Offspring and Parenting Style: Reconsidering Parents' Equality Concerns among Families with an Ill Child" is single-authored.
This paper studies parental decisions on resource allocation in a condition of a strong and evident ability imbalance among the offspring: when one of the children is considered mentally or physically disabled. Standard economic models posit that parents should optimally invest more in the more able child, however empirical evidence has shown that when deciding resource allocation parents' equality concerns seem to prevail despite children's innate ability levels. This analysis identifies causal changes in parental inputs given to children, more specifically quality time and parental attitude, due to living with an ill sibling among sibling couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics by using matching techniques. Parents seem to devote more quality time to girls and older children in case the other sibling is considered ill as in current setting, while they provide "warmer" parenting to boys. Moreover, they show higher levels of parental distress. Even if these results seem to confirm that parents tend to invest more on the more able child, further investigations highlight that these children are more involved in activities with the ill sibling. However emerged differences in inputs received during childhood are relevant in this setting since they may stem future effects over socioeconomic and labour market achievements.

Abstract (italiano)

Questa tesi è composta da tre capitoli in economia applicata.
Nel primo capitolo "Long Term Consequences of the Chernobyl Radioactive Fallout: an Exploration of the Aggregate Data", scritto con Luca Nunziata, mettiamo in discussione la mancanza di consenso sulle conseguenze nel lungo termine sulla salute dovute al fallout radioattivo successivo all'incidente nucleare di Chernobyl. Questo studio presenta una prima esplorazione degli effetti a livello aggregato sulle regioni europee non immediatamente prossime alle zone direttamente interessate dall'esplosione nucleare. In questo studio associamo i dati sull'incidenza delle neoplasie in circa ottanta regioni europee con i dati sulla deposizione radioattiva del Cesio a seguito del fallout nucleare. I risultati indicano che il fallout radioattivo è positivamente associato ad un aumento delle dimissioni ospedaliere a seguito di trattamenti per neoplasia circa trent'anni dopo il disastro nucleare, con effetti maggiori nelle regioni in cui il fallout è stato più intenso, e causando aumenti importanti nella spesa sanitaria. Abbiamo controllato la robustezza dei nostri risultati tramite una serie di test, tra cui una simulazione placebo. Le nostre stime sopravvivono a ognuno di questi controlli. Utilizzando i dati di Eurostat sulla spesa sanitaria per paese, le stime del nostro modello indicano che circa il 4.4% e il 4.9% della spesa sanitaria media per attività curative nel periodo 2000-2012 rispettivamente in Austria e Repubblica Ceca potrebbe essere imputata alle conseguenze della fallout. Germania e Francia, che hanno ricevuto livelli più bassi di radiazioni, potrebbero aver speso rispettivamente, 3.8% e il 1.9% della loro spesa totale in attività curative a causa dell'aumento di dimissioni ospedaliere stimato.
Anche il secondo capitolo "Radioactive Decay, Health and Social Capital: Lessons From The Chernobyl Experiment" è co-autorato con Luca Nunziata. In questo lavoro usiamo la variazione esogena dello stato di salute in alcune regioni europee a seguito del fallout nucleare di Chernobyl per fornire nuove prove sull'effetto causale della salute sul capitale sociale. Il nostro studio utilizza questa variabile strumentale il fallout radioattivo è positivamente associato ad un aumento di dimissioni ospedaliere a seguito di trattamenti per neoplasie quasi trenta anni dopo. Tale aumento dell'incidenza di neoplasie indotte dal fallout radioattivo genera un impoverimento consistente del capitale sociale in quasi tutti i livelli, ad esempio nelle interazioni sociali, nell'altruismo e nella fiducia verso le istituzioni e il sistema sanitario. I nostri risultati suggeriscono che la spesa per l'assistenza sanitaria e la prevenzione può avere ritorni più elevati di quanto si potrebbe pensare in quanto è capace di contribuire significativamente a migliorare il capitale sociale.
Il terzo capitolo è "Living with an Ill Sibling: Cognitive and Noncognitive Skills of the Healthy Child". In questo lavoro identifico cambiamenti nella capacità cognitive e non cognitive tra bambini e adolescenti causati dall'avere un fratello malato. Utilizzando i dati del "Child Development Supplement" facenti parte del "Panel of Income Study Dynamics" questa indagine adotta delle tecniche di matching per confrontare famiglie in cui uno dei fratelli è affetto da una malattia fisica o mentale con famiglie in cui tutti i bambini sono considerati sani. I risultati di questo studio evidenziano un cambiamento nelle capacità non cognitive tra i bambini che vivono con un fratello malato, mentre le capacità cognitive rimangono inalterate. Analizzando le abilità non cognitive alla luce della teoria dei "Big Five", i risultati dimostrano che vivere con un fratello malato ha un effetto benefico sull'apertura mentale, sulla coscienziosità e sull'estroversione. L'analisi individua che i bambini presentano differenze dovute al genere e all'ordine di nascita: vivere con un fratello malato sembra causare un aumento dell' apertura mentale tra le ragazze, mentre causa un aumento di coscienziosità tra i ragazzi; l'aumento dell'estroversione osservato nel campione complessivo può essere ricondotto al sottocampione dei fratelli più grandi. Questi risultati evidenziano come i bambini reagiscono in modo diverso allo stesso fenomeno in base al genere e alla differenza di età. Questo sembra essere utile soprattutto da un punto di vista prospettico, dal momento che secondo la letteratura tali caratteristiche possono influenzare le loro future condizioni socio economiche ed i futuri risultati sul mercato del lavoro.
Il quarto ed ultimo capitolo si intitola "Quality Time with the Offspring and Parenting Style: Reconsidering Parents' Equality Concerns among Families with an Ill Child". Questo capitolo studia le decisioni dei genitori sulla ripartizione delle risorse all'interno di una condizione di forte ed evidente squilibrio tra la capacità della prole: quando uno dei figli è considerato mentalmente o fisicamente disabile. I modelli economici standard postulano che la decisione ottimale dei genitori sarebbe quella di investire di più sul bambino più abile. Tuttavia precedenti esplorazioni empiriche hanno mostrato che al momento di decidere i genitori sono guidati da un sentimento di equità: le preoccupazioni su un'equa allocazione delle risorse sembrano prevalere nonostante livello di abilità innata dei figli. Questa analisi identifica le possibili modifiche causali negli input che i genitori danno ai figli, più specificamente il tempo di qualità e l'atteggiamento, dovute alla presenza di un fratello malato nei bambini del "Panel Study of Income Dynamics" attraverso tecniche di matching. I genitori sembrano dedicare più tempo di qualità alle bambine e ai figli maggiori nel caso in cui l'altro fratello è considerato malato, mentre hanno un atteggiamento più amorevole con i figli maschi. Inoltre tali genitori dimostrano alti livelli di stress parentale. Anche se successive analisi dimostrano che questi bambini sono più coinvolti nelle attività con il fratello malato, i differenti input da parte dei genitori ricevuti in età infantile e nella prima adolescenza potrebbero determinare effetti in età adulta soprattutto da un punto di vista socio-economico e lavorativo.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Nunziata, Luca
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCUOLA SUPERIORE DI ECONOMIA E MANAGEMENT (INTERATENEO) > ECONOMIA E MANAGEMENT
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Aprile 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Aprile 2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):social capital, health, chernobyl, cognitive skills, noncognitive skills, parental inputs, parental attitude, siblings, disability, quality time, parenting stress,hospitalization cost, radioactive fallout, neoplasm, cancer, environment, disaster
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 13 - Scienze economiche e statistiche > SECS-P/01 Economia politica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Aziendali "Marco Fanno"
Codice ID:9633
Depositato il:18 Ott 2016 18:00
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