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Malaspina, Patrizia (2016) Terroir wines, mafia's externalities and death awareness: three essays in experimental economics and accounting. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

This doctoral thesis is composed by three research papers.
The first chapter, titled "Terroir and Perceived Quality of Wine: Evidence from Tasting Experiments", is co-authored with Luca Nunziata.
In this study we use experimental data in order to verify whether information about the terroir of a wine has a causal effect on the perceived wine quality and whether these pieces of information are more effective than the quality signal used for terroir products in the wine market: appellation (label) of origin. In order to address these issues we have carried out two wine-tasting experiments in three different shopping malls in Italy, using a random sample of 790 individuals. We used a Palizzi IGT red wine as it was awarded for its terroir expressiveness and it is an appellation not well known to consumers. Wine consumers in our samples are found to be able to use technical and detailed information about terroir to infer the quality of the wine and they exhibit a higher appreciation when receiving information about terroir rather than about the appellation of origin Palizzi IGT.
The second chapter is titled "Criminal Firms: Exploring Negative Externalities on Non-Criminal Competitors" and it is co-authored with Antonio Parbonetti and Michele Fabrizi.
The aim of this paper is to provide empirical evidence of the economic consequences due to the presence of firms connected with mafia-type criminal organizations located in developed areas. In particular, we verify for the first time how these criminal firms affect non-criminal
competitors’ performance and we investigate the negative externalities that they inflict by using firm-level data. Our empirical analysis exploits exogenous shocks imposed by operations against Mafia (from 2008 to 2011) at municipality level to implement a difference-in-difference strategy that compares the change in performance of non-criminal firms with the change in performance of a control group of (non-criminal) firms that operate in either an industry or a municipality that have not been affected by these police operations. . The underlying idea is that these operations‘clean’ the industries and the municipalities where the targeted criminal firms operate, with a consequent beneficial effect on non-criminal competitors located in the geographical proximity. Results suggest that treated competitors experience a statistically significant and sizeable increase in EBITDA/Total Assets and ROA after the operation, with respect to comparison groups that have not been exposed to this shock. Further explorations permit us to verify that this positive effect is not merely due to a decrease in the industry size after the operations. Organized crime and criminal firms bring inefficiencies in the institutional and business environment that cause many distortions, such as in the access to procurement markets, especially for smaller firms.
The third chapter, "Does Thinking About Death Make Us More Generous? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Cooperation with UNICEF", is a solo paper.
In this study I draw on Social Identity Theory (SIT) and Terror Management Theory (TMT) to expand our understanding of the phenomenon of ingroup bias in charitable giving. I aim at
investigating the effect of the use of death priming in emotive charity advertisement on potential donors’ decisions and ingroup bias. In particular I compare implicit and explicit priming of death thoughts against priming of thoughts related to disease and I explore the role of various dimensions of subjects' self-esteem in moderating their responses to implicit stimuli. To this purpose I conduct a field experiment in cooperation with UNICEF, which has involved 547 subjects. Main findings of this study show that in the control group we observe that on average ingroup bias is in favor of ingroup (white-skinned - Caucasian) recipients, rather than outgroup (black-skinned - African) ones. When thoughts of death are activated, both implicitly and explicitly, discriminatory behavior emerges at the expense of donors' ingroup and favorable towards the outgroup. Furthermore, implicit death effects arise independently from the level of
general self-esteem and self-esteem’s relevant domains. This study produces interesting findings not only for the direct field of application. The integration of SIT and TMT offers valuable sparks for forthcoming economic analyses of ingroup bias in different settings.

Abstract (italiano)

Questa tesi di dottorato e' composta da tre saggi.
Il primo capitolo, intitolato "Terroir and Perceived Quality of Wine: Evidence from Tasting Experiments", è coautorato con Luca Nunziata.
In questo studio utilizziamo dati sperimentali per verificare se le informazioni sul terroir di un vino hanno un effetto causale sulla qualità percepita e se queste informazioni sono più efficaci del segnale di qualità utilizzato per i prodotti da terroir nel mercato vinicolo: la denominazione
(marchio) di origine. Al fine di affrontare queste questioni abbiamo condotto due esperimenti di degustazione in tre diversi centri commerciali in Italia, coinvolgendo un campione casuale di 790 individui. Abbiamo utilizzato un vino rosso Palizzi IGT in quanto è stato premiato per
l’espressività del terroir di provenienza ed è una denominazione non molto conosciuta dai consumatori. I consumatori di vino nei nostri campioni sono stati in grado di utilizzare informazioni tecniche e dettagliate sul terroir per inferire la qualità del vino e hanno mostrato un maggiore apprezzamento quando hanno ricevuto le informazioni sul terroir piuttosto che sulla
denominazione di origine Palizzi IGT.
Il secondo capitolo è intitolato "Criminal Firms: Exploring Negative Externalities on Non- Criminal Competitors" ed è coautorato con Antonio Parbonetti e Michele Fabrizi.
L’obiettivo di questo articolo è di fornire evidenza empirica delle conseguenze economiche dovute alla presenza di aziende connesse con organizzazioni criminali di tipo mafioso localizzate in aree sviluppate. In particolare, verifichiamo per la prima volte come le imprese criminali
influenzano la performance dei concorrenti non criminali ed investighiamo le esternalità negative che infliggono ai concorrenti utilizzando dati a livello di impresa. La nostra analisi empirica sfrutta gli shock esogeni imposti da operazioni contro la Mafia (dal 2008 al 2011) a livello comunale per implementare una strategia difference-in-difference che compara il cambiamento nella performance delle aziende non criminali con quello di un gruppo di controllo composto da aziende (non criminali) che operano in settori o aree che non sono stati interessati dalle operazioni di polizia considerate. L’ idea sottostante è che queste operazioni ‘puliscano’ i settori
e i comuni dove le aziende criminali colpite operano, con un conseguente effetto benefico sui concorrenti non criminali localizzati in prossimità geografica. I risultati suggeriscono che i concorrenti trattati presentano un considerevole e statisticamente significativo aumento dell’EBITDA/Totale Attivo e del ROA dopo l’operazione rispetto ai gruppi di controllo che non
sono stati esposti a tale shock. Ulteriori esplorazioni ci permettono di verificare che questo effetto positivo non è semplicemente dovuto ad una diminuzione della dimensione dei settori dopo le operazioni. Il crimine organizzato e le imprese criminali portano inefficienze nell’
ambiente istituzionale in cui operano le imprese che causano numerose distorsioni, come nell’accesso al mercato degli approvvigionamenti, soprattutto per le aziende più piccole.
Il terzo capitolo, "Does Thinking About Death Make Us More Generous? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Cooperation with UNICEF", è a firma unica. In questo studio mi baso sulla Social Identity Theory e Terror Management Theory per espandere la conoscenza del fenomeno dell’ingroup bias nel comportamento altruistico. Il mio obiettivo è investigare l’effetto dell’induzione di pensieri di morte (death priming) nelle campagne caritatevoli ‘emotive’ sulle decisioni dei donatori e l’ingroup bias. In particolare, esploro l’effetto di priming di pensieri di morte relativi ai beneficiari di una campagna per le vaccinazioni contro l’attivazione di pensieri legati alla malattia ed esploro il ruolo di diverse dimensioni dell’autostima dei soggetti nel moderare le loro risposte agli stimoli impliciti. A tal fine, ho condotto un esperimento field in cooperazione con UNICEF che ha coinvolto 547 soggetti. I principali risultati di questo studio mostrano che in media nel gruppo di controllo osserviamo la presenza di ingroup bias a favore di beneficiari appartenenti all’ ingroup (di pelle bianca - caucasici), piuttosto che all’outgroup (pelle nera - africani). Quando vengono indotti pensieri di morte osserviamo un comportamento discriminatorio nei confronti dell’ingroup e favorevole nei confronti dell’outgroup. Inoltre, gli effetti del priming implicito emergono
indipendentemente dal livello e dai domini rilevanti dell’autostima dei soggetti. Questo studioproduce interessanti risultati non solamente per i diretti ambiti di applicazione. L’integrazione della SIT con la TMT offre degli spunti per future analisi di interesse economico dell’ingroup bias in diversi contesti.

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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Nunziata, Luca
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > SCUOLA SUPERIORE DI ECONOMIA E MANAGEMENT (INTERATENEO) > ECONOMIA E MANAGEMENT
Data di deposito della tesi:28 Aprile 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:28 Aprile 2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Field experiment, terroir, wine quality, tasting experiment, organized crime, mafia, criminal firms, competition, negative externalities, institutional environment, terror management theory, social identity theory, ingroup bias, prosocial behavior, death stimuli, charity, donation decision
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 13 - Scienze economiche e statistiche > SECS-P/08 Economia e gestione delle imprese
Area 13 - Scienze economiche e statistiche > SECS-P/07 Economia aziendale
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Aziendali "Marco Fanno"
Codice ID:9634
Depositato il:24 Ott 2016 10:48
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Bibliografia

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