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Mezzalira, Selene (2016) Tempo, soggettivita', esperienza. Per un'ermeneutica trascendentale e fenomenologica del rapporto aporetico tra esperienza soggettiva e analisi neuro scientifica della percezione e dell'azione. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The first chapter deals with one of the most radical questions in neuroscience regarding our perceptual experience: how is the stability and continuity of our experience generated, given the distortions emerging from the comparison between the experimentally recorded neural time and the lived time emerging from subjective referrals? Here, we critically examine the concept of distortion, which makes sense only in as much as the clock time and the geometrical space are regarded as absolute.
In the second chapter we examine the experiments that, starting from B. Libet's works, seem to undermine the existence of our free will, especially because of the existence of neural processes that precedes voluntary motor acts, making it possible for neuroscientists to read our decisions before we become aware of them. Here, a Kantian interpretation of conscious decisions allows us to find room for our freedom as the essence of humankind.
The third chapter evaluates the literature on the relationship between consciousness, action, and perception, stressing in particular their intrinsic presence in every act of constitution of spatial and temporal experience.
In the fourth chapter we analyze the binding problem, i.e. the problem of the global interconnection of our experience. We suggest that a process very similar to the Kantian structures of subjectivity as transcendental forms of our synthetic, coherent, and meaningful experience underlies the neural process of binding.
In the fifth chapter, the neuroquantistic interpretations of consciousness, according to which consciousness is a de-temporalized dynamic subjective structure, are shown to be very close to the Kantian concept of the transcendental unity of consciousness. In particular, the transcendental schematism allows for the detection of a possible reunification of our subjective experience and the scientific inquiry of action and perception.
Finally, we propose an innovative view of the relationship between consciousness, space, and time. Inspired by Kant's transcendental perspective, by Husserl's phenomenology, as well as by Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology of perception, and by Heidegger's notion of being-in-the world, we articulate a deep interpretation of the recently discovered neural mechanisms, by virtue of which subjectivity processes the active in-formation of objectivity.
The topic of the appendix is constituted by mirror neurons, whose behavior allows for a better understanding of intersubjective experience.

Abstract (italiano)

Nel primo capitolo viene affrontato uno degli interrogativi piu' radicali sorti in ambito neuroscientifico intorno all'esperienza percettiva: come si crea la stabilita' e la continuita' della nostra esperienza temporale a fronte delle distorsioni, che emergono comparando i tempi neurali registrati sperimentalmente e i riferimenti soggettivi sul tempo vissuto? Viene esaminato criticamente il concetto di distorsione, il quale ha senso solo se viene previamente assolutizzata un'esperienza temporale misurata dagli orologi e un'esperienza spaziale misurata dai regoli.
Nel secondo capitolo vengono esaminati gli esperimenti che, a partire dai lavori di Libet, hanno messo in discussione l'esistenza del libero volere, principalmente sulla base dell'esistenza di eventi neurali che, precedendo gli atti motori volontari, consentono di leggere le nostre decisioni future prima che ne diventiamo consapevoli. Qui, un'ermeneutica d'ispirazione kantiana delle decisioni coscienti consente di ritrovare lo spazio della liberta' come ambito essenziale dell'umano.
Il terzo capitolo prosegue la valutazione degli studi sul rapporto tra coscienza, percezione e azione, nonche' sul loro inscindibile intreccio in ogni atto di costituzione dell'esperienza spazio-temporale.
Nel quarto capitolo viene analizzato il problema del binding, ossia del collegamento attivo responsabile dell'unitarieta della nostra esperienza, osservando come esso rimandi ad un processo di sintesi assai affine alla funzione svolta dalle strutture kantiane della soggettivita' quali condizioni trascendentali di possibilita' della costituzione dell'esperienza come un tutto coerente e dotato di senso.
Nel quinto capitolo, riprendendo le interpretazioni neuro quantistiche della coscienza, vengono esaminate le teorie che, detemporalizzando i processi mentali fondamentali, si avvicinano in modo sostanziale alla concezione kantiana dell'unita' trascendentale della coscienza. In particolare, una prospettiva che si richiami allo schematismo trascendentale consente di individuare dei percorsi in grado di riannodare la divaricazione piu'volte emersa nel corso della ricerca tra esperienza soggettiva ed esperienza scientifica.
Nelle conclusioni, viene proposta una visione innovativa dei rapporti tra coscienza, spazio, e, soprattutto, tempo. Prendendo ispirazione non solo dalla prospettiva trascendentale di matrice kantiana, ma anche dalla fenomenologia husserliana e dalla fenomenologia della percezione di Merleau-Ponty, nonche' dal pensiero heideggeriano, si perviene alla formulazione di un'interpretazione profonda degli inediti meccanismi con cui la soggettivita' attua i processi di in-formazione dell'oggettivita', cosi come emergono oggi in ambito neuroscientifico.
Il tema principale dell'appendice e' costituito dai neuroni specchio, il cui comportamento fornisce elementi essenziali per la comprensione dell'esperienza nei suoi caratteri squisitamente intersoggettivi.


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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Illetterati, Luca
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 28 > Scuole 28 > FILOSOFIA
Data di deposito della tesi:19 Luglio 2016
Anno di Pubblicazione:19 Luglio 2016
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):filosofia trascendentale, fenomenologia, neuroscienze, tempo, esperienza, soggettivita'
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-FIL/01 Filosofia teoretica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:9670
Depositato il:02 Nov 2017 17:31
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