Go to the content. | Move to the navigation | Go to the site search | Go to the menu | Contacts | Accessibility

| Create Account

Virgone, Calogero (2016) Il ruolo dell'analisi morfologica del reticolo intercellulare (the "reticulin algorithm") nel distinguere le forme benigne dalle forme maligne di tumore adrenocorticale in età pediatrica. [Ph.D. thesis]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Preview
PDF Document - Accepted Version
872Kb

Abstract (english)

ABSTRACT
Background. The diagnosis of pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT) is sometimes difficult and it does not always allow to distingush beteween benigna and malignant tumors. Wieneke’s score is useful to classify ACT in benign, indeterminate and malignant tumors but it is based on the evaluation of nine different histological features. The Reticulin Algorithm (RA) has been proved to be reliable and easily reproducible in the classification of adult adrenocortical tumors. Aim of this study is to retrospectively validate the use of RA in a series of pediatric ACT.
Materials e methods. Thirty-seven pediatric ACT treated in 3 different european centers were evaluated: according the Wieneke’s score, they were classified as benign in 46% of cases (17), indeterminate in 22% (8) e malignant 32% (12). All cases were reclassified according the RA (malignant if necrosis, vascular invasion and high mitotic count were found associate to an altered reticulin framework). The mitotic index considered was both the adult one (>5/50 HPF; aRA) and the pediatric one (>15/20 HPF; pRA). The reticulin was considered altered with both qualitative and quantitative alterations. Five pathologists revised independently the sections stained for the reticulin framework and a second round was performed in order to obtain a consensus on discordant cases.
Results. Reticulin framework was intact in 8 cases (22%), all benign according Wieneke’s score as well. The remaining 29 cases (78%) showed an alteration (quantitative in 16 cases, qualitative in 9 and both in 4). Both Wieneke’s score (p<0.0001) and RA (pRA p=0.0005 e aRA p=0.015) showed an association with the overall outcome. All indeterminate cases according to Wieneke had a favourable clinical course, except for 2 who are alive with disease. aRA distributed these case as follows: 4 in the benign group e 4 in the malignant group; pRA classified 5 as benign and 3 as malignant.
Conclusions. RA is a reliable prognostic algorithm to diagnose and stratify pediatric ACT both in its version already described for adult ACT and in the version, described for the first time, here adapted for pediatric ACT.

Abstract (italian)

ABSTRACT
Background e obiettivi. La diagnosi istologica dei tumori adrenocorticali (ACT) in età pediatrica è difficoltosa in alcuni casi e non permette sempre agevolmente la distinzione tra forme benigne e forme maligne. Lo score di Wieneke, che permette di classificarli in tumori benigni, tumori indeterminate e tumori maligni, prevede però la valutazione di ben nove parametri istopatologicici. Nei tumori corticosurrenalici dell'adulto, l'algoritmo della reticolino è stato dimostrato essere un metodo affidabile e facilmente riproducibile per la classificazione dei tumori adrenocorticali. Lo scopo di questo studio è di validare retrospettivamente l'applicazione dell'algoritmo della reticolina (RA) ad una casistica di ACT pediatrici.
Materiali e metodi. Sono stati analizzati 37 casi di ACT pediatrici trattati da 3 diversi centri europei: questi erano stati classificati come benigni nel 46% (17 casi), indeterminati 22% (8) e maligni 32% (12) secondo lo score di Wieneke. Tutti i casi sono stati riclassificati con il RA (maligni se all'alterazione del reticolo si associava necrosi, invasione vascolare o un'alta conta mitotica). Si è provveduto a considerare sia il cut-off degli adulti (>5/50 HPF; aRA) sia quello pediatrico (>15/20 HPF; pRA). L'alterazione del reticolo considerata era sia qualitativa sia quantitativa. Cinque patologi hanno rivisto le sezioni colorate per il reticolo ed un secondo round di revisione è stato effettuato per raggiungere un consensus sui casi discordanti.
Risultati. Il reticolo è risultato intatti in 8 casi (22%) tutti benigni anche secondo il Wieneke index. Gli altri 29 casi (78%) hanno mostrato un'alterazione del network intercellulare (quantitativi in 16 casi, qualitativi in 9 e misti in 4). Sia il Wieneke index (p<0.0001) sia il RA (pRA p=0.0005 e aRA p=0.015) hanno mostrato di associarsi all'outcome clinico. Tutti i casi indeterminati secondo Wieneke sono andati incontro ad un outcome favorevole, tranne 2 casi che risultano vivi con malattia. Il aRA distribuisce questi casi: 4 nel gruppo dei tumori benigni e 4 nel gruppo dei maligni; il pRA li classifica 5 come benigni e 3 come maligni.
Conclusioni. Il RA è un valido algoritmo prognostico per diagnosticare e stratificare gli ACT pediatrici sia nella sua versione descritta per i casi dell'adulto sia nella versione, descritta qui per la prima volta, adattata per i casi pedatrici.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
EPrint type:Ph.D. thesis
Tutor:Gamba, Piergiorgio
Ph.D. course:Ciclo 29 > Corsi 29 > MEDICINA DELLO SVILUPPO E SCIENZE DELLA PROGRAMMAZIONE SANITARIA
Data di deposito della tesi:16 January 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:16 January 2016
Key Words:pediatric adrenocortical tumors; prognostic algorithm; reticulin; pediatric pathology
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/08 Anatomia patologica
Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/20 Chirurgia pediatrica e infantile
Area 06 - Scienze mediche > MED/38 Pediatria generale e specialistica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Salute della Donna e del Bambino
Codice ID:9851
Depositato il:02 Nov 2017 16:43
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

BIBLIOGRAFIA Cerca con Google

1. Sandrini R, Ribeiro RC, DeLacerda L. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997; 82(7):2027-2031 Cerca con Google

2. Wieneke JA, Thompson LDR, Heffess CS. Adrenal Cortical Neoplasm in the Pediatric Population. A Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Analysis of 83 Patients Am J Surg Pathol 2003; 27(7):867-881 Cerca con Google

3. Lack EE. Tumors of the Adrenal Gland and Extra Adrenal Paraganglia in: Atlas of Tumor Pathology (vol. 19). Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Washington, 1997, pp 91-168 Cerca con Google

4. Magro G, Esposito G, Cecchetto G, et al. Pediatric adrenocortical tumors: morphological diagnostic criteria and immunohistochemical expression of matrix metalloproteinase type 2 and human leucocyte-associated antigen (HLA) class II antigens. Results from the Italian Pediatric Rare Tumor (TREP) Study project. Hum Pathol 2012;43:31-39 Cerca con Google

5. Volante M, Bollito E, Sperone P, et al. Clinicopathological study of a series of 92 adrenocortical carcinomas: from a proposal of simplified diagnostic algorithm to prognostic stratification. Histopathology. 2009;55:535-543 Cerca con Google

6. Duregon E, Fassina A, Volante M, et al. The reticulin algorithm for adrenocortical tumor diagnosis: a multicentric validation study on 245 unpublished cases. Am J Surg Pathol. 2013;37:1433-1440 Cerca con Google

7. Dall’Igna P, Virgone C, De Salvo GL, et al. Adrenocortical tumors in italian children: analysis of clinical characteristics and p53 status. Data from the national registries. J Pediatr Surg Cerca con Google

8. Ferrari A, Bisogno G, De Salvo GL, et al. The Challenge of Very Rare Tumors in Childhood: The Italian TREP Project Eur J Cancer 2007; 43:654-659 Cerca con Google

9. Sullivan M, Boileau M, Hodges CV. Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma J Urol 1978; 120:660-665 Cerca con Google

10. Ribeiro RC, Figueiredo B. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumours Eur J Cancer 2004; 40:1117-1126 Cerca con Google

11. Sbragia L, Oliveira-Filho AG, Vassallo J, et al. Adrenocortical Tumors in Brazilian Children: Immunohistochemical Markers and Prognostic Factors Arch Pathol Lab Med 2005; 129:1127-1131 Cerca con Google

12. Rodriguez-Galindo C, Figueiredo B, Zambetti G, et al. Biology, Clinical Characteristics, and Management of Adrenocortical Tumors in Children Pediatr Blood Cancer 2005; 45:265-273 Cerca con Google

13. Parigi GB, Siracusa F, Cecchetto G, et al. Carcinoma Adrenocorticale: dati da uno studio retrospettivo nazionale Rass It Chir Ped 1995; 37:109-115 Cerca con Google

14. Lack EE. Recommendations for the Reporting of Tumors of the Adrenal Cortex and Medulla Virchows Arch 1999; 435:87-91 Cerca con Google

15. Das S, Sengupta M, Islam N, Roy P, et al. Weineke criteria, Ki-67 index and p53 status to study pediatric adrenocortical tumors: Is there a correlation? J Pediatr Surg. 2016;51:1795-1800. Cerca con Google

16. Chatterjee G, DasGupta S, Mukherjee G, et al. Usefulness of Wieneke criteria in assessing morphologic characteristics of adrenocortical tumors in children. Pediatr Surg Int. 2015;31:563-71. Cerca con Google

17. Bornstein P, Sage H. Structurally distinct collagen types. Ann. Rev. Biochem. 1980;48, 957-1003. Cerca con Google

18. von der Mark K. Localization of collagen types in tissue. Connect. Tissue Res. 1981;9, 265-324. Cerca con Google

19. Jackson DS, Williams G. Nature of reticulin. Nature. 1956;178:915–916. Cerca con Google

20. Papotti M, Volante M, Bussolati G. Applied histochemistry in disorders of the endocrine system. In Wick MR ed. Diagnostic histochemistry. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008;280–306 Cerca con Google

21. Jarzembowski J, Lloyd R, McKeever P. Type IV collagen immunostaining is a simple, reliable diagnostic tool for distinguishing between adenomatous and normal pituitary glands. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 2007;131:931–935 Cerca con Google

22. Lefkowitch JH. Special stains in diagnostic liver pathology. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2006 Aug-Nov;23(3-4):190-8. Cerca con Google

23. Kjellman M, Larsson C, Bäckdahl M. Genetic Background of Adrenocortical Tumor Development World J Surg 2001; 25:948-956 Cerca con Google

24. Smith AC, Choufani S, Ferreira JC, et al. Growth Regulation, Imprinted Genes, and Chromosome 11p15.5 Pediatr Res 2007; 61(5):1-5 Cerca con Google

25. Ogita S, Tokiwa K, Takahashi T, et al. Adrenocortical Carcinoma in a Child with Congenital Hemihypertrophy Z Kinderchir 1989; 44:166-168 Cerca con Google

26. Rahman N. Mechanisms predisposing to childhood overgrowth and cancer Curr Opin Gen Develop 2005; 15:227-233 Cerca con Google

27. Boikos SA, Statakis CA. Carney Complex: Pathology and Molecular Genetics Neuroendocrinology 2006; 83:189-199 Cerca con Google

28. Boikos SA, Stratakis CA. Carney complex: the first 20 years Curr Opin Oncol 2007; 19:24-29 Cerca con Google

29. Waldmann J, Bartsch DK, Kann PH, et al. Adrenal involvement in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: results of 7 years prospective screening Langenbeck’s Arch Surg 2007; DOI 10.1007/soo423-006-0124-7 Cerca con Google

30. Varley JM. Germline TP53 Mutations and Li-Fraumeni Syndrome Hum Mutat 2003; 21:313-320 Cerca con Google

31. Cavalier ME, Davis MM, Croop JM. Germline p53 Mutation Presenting as Synchronous Tumors J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2005; 27:441-443 Cerca con Google

32. Ribeiro RC, Sandrini F, Figueiredo B, et al. An inherited p53 mutation that contribute in a tissue-specific manner to pediatric adrenal cortical carcinoma PNAS 2001; 98: 9339-9335 Cerca con Google

33. DiGiammarino EL, Lee AS, Cadwell C, et al. A novel mechanism of tumorigenesis involving pH-dependent destabilization of a mutant p53 tetramer Nature Struct Biol 2002; 9(1):12-16 Cerca con Google

34. Figueiredo B, Sandrini R, Zambetti G, et al. Penetrance of adrenocortical tumors associated with the germline TP53 R337H mutation J Med Genet 2006; 43:91-96 Cerca con Google

35. Pinto EM, Billerbeck AE, Villares Fragoso MC, et al. Deletion Mapping of Chromosome 17 in Benign and Malignant Adrenocortical Tumors Associated with the Arg337His Mutation of the p53 Tumor Suppressor Protein J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005; 90:2976-2981 Cerca con Google

36. Letouzé E, Rosati R, Komechen H, et al. SNP array profiling of childhood adrenocortical tumors reveals distinct pathways of tumorigenesis and highlights candidate driver genes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E1284-1293 Cerca con Google

37. Longui CA, Lemos-Marini S, Figueiredo B, et al. Inhibin α-subunit (INHA) gene and locus change in paediatric adrenocortical tumors from TP53 R337H mutation heterozygote carriers J Med Genet 2004;41:354-359 Cerca con Google

38. Zhang PJ, Genega EM, Tomaszewski JE, et al. The Role of Calretinin, Inhibin, Melan-A, BCL-2, and C-kit in Differentiating Adrenal Cortical and Medullary Tumors: A Immunohistochemical Study Mod Pathol 2003;16:591-597 Cerca con Google

39. Orhan D, Kale G, Çağlar M, et al. Histone mRNA in situ Hybridization and Ki 67 Immunohistochemistry in Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumors Virchows Arch 2006;448:591-596 Cerca con Google

40. Gross DJ, Munter G, Bitan M, et al. The Role of Imatinib Mesylate (Glivec) for Treatment of Patients with Malignant Endocrine Tumors Positive for C-kit or PDGF-R Endocrine-Related Cancer 2006;13:535-540 Cerca con Google

41. Koch CA, Gimm O, Vortmeyer A, et al. Does The Expression of c-kit (CD117) in Neuroendocrine Tumors Represent a Target for Therapy? Ann NY Acad Sci 2006;1073:517-526 Cerca con Google

42. Cao D, Antonescu C, Wong G, et al. Positive immunohistochemical staining of KIT in solid-pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas is not associated with KIT/PDGFRA mutations Mod Pathol 2006;19:1157-1163 Cerca con Google

43. Kjellman M, Enberg U, Höög A, et al. Gelatinase A and Membrane-type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase mRNA: Expressed in Adrenocortical Cancers but not in Adenomas World J Surg 1999;23:237-242 Cerca con Google

44. Volante M, Sperone P, Bollito E, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase type 2 expression in malignant adrenocortical tumors: diagnostic and prognostic significance in aseries of 50 adrenocortical carcinomas Mod Pathol 2006;19:1563-1569 Cerca con Google

45. Kamio T, Shigematsu K, Sou H, et al. Immunohistochemical Expression of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptors in Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma Hum Pathol 1990;21:277-282 Cerca con Google

46. Sasano H, Suzuki T, Shizawa S, et al. Transforming Growth Factor α; Epidermal Growth Factor and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor expression in Normal and Diseased human Adrenal Cortex by Immunohistochemistry and In Situ Hybridization Mod Pathol 1994;7:741-746 Cerca con Google

47. Lee J, Jang KT, Ki CS, et al. Impact of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Kinase Mutations, EGFR Gene Amplifications, And KRAS Mutations on Survival of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cancer 2007;109:1561-1569 Cerca con Google

48. Brandt B, Meyer-Staeckling S, Schmidt H, et al. Mechanisms of EGFR Gene Trascription Modulation: Relationship to Cancer Risk and Therapy Response Clin Cancer Res 2006;12:7251-7260 Cerca con Google

49. Nomura M, Shigematsu H, Li L, Suzuki M, et al. Polymorphisms, Mutations, and Amplifications of the EGFR Gene in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer PLoS Med 2007;4:e125 Cerca con Google

50. Pianovsky M, Cavalli L, Figueiredo B, et al. SF-1 overexpression in childhood adrenocortical tumors Eur J Cancer 2006;42:1040-1043 Cerca con Google

51. Luciani P, Ferruzzi P, Arnaldi G, et al. Expression of the novel Adrenocorticotropin– Responsive Gene Selective Alzheimer’s Disease Indicator-1 in the Normal Adrenal Cortex and in Adrenocortical Adenomas and Carcinomas J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1332-1339 Cerca con Google

52. Slater EP, Diehl SM, Langer P, et al. Analysis by cDNA microarrays of gene expression patterns of human adrenocortical tumors Eur J Endocrinol 2006;154:587-598 Cerca con Google

53. Giordano TJ, Thomas D, Kuick R, et al. Distinct Trascriptional Profiles of Adrenocortical Tumors Uncovered by DNA Microarray Analysis Am J Pathol 2003;162:521-531 Cerca con Google

54. West AN, Neale GA, Pounds S, et al. Gene Expression Profiling of Childhood Adrenocortical Tumors Cancer Res 2007;67:600-608 Cerca con Google

55. Marx C, Wolkersdörfer GW, Brown JW, et al. MHC Class II Expression - A New Tool to Assess Dignity in Adrenocortical Tumors J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1996;81:4488-4491 Cerca con Google

56. Marx C, Bornstein S, Wolkersdörfer GW, et al. Relevance of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression as a Hallmark for the Cellular Differentiation in the Human Adrenal Cortex J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1997;82:3136-3140 Cerca con Google

57. Wolkersdörfer GW, Marx C, Brown J, et al. Prevalence of HLA-DRB1 Genotype and Altered Fas/Fas Ligand Expression in Adrenocortical Carcinoma J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2005;90:1768-1774 Cerca con Google

58. Leite FA, Lira RC, Fedatto PF, et al. Low expression of HLA-DRA, HLA-DPA1, and HLA-DPB1 is associated with poor prognosis in pediatric adrenocortical tumors (ACT). Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:1940-8. Cerca con Google

59. Pinto EM, Rodriguez-Galindo C, Choi JK, et al. Prognostic Significance of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Expression in Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumors: A St. Jude and Children's Oncology Group Study. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Jun 15. (epub ahead of print) Cerca con Google

60. Wooten MD, King DK. Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma: Epidemiology and Treatment with Mitotane and a Review of the Literature Cancer 1993;72:3145-3155 Cerca con Google

61. Sabbaga CS, Avilla S, Schulz C, et al. Adrenocortical Carcinoma in Children: Clinical Aspects and Prognosis J Pediatr Surg 1993;28:841-843 Cerca con Google

62. Narasimhan KL, Samujh R, Bhansali A, et al. Adrenocortical Tumors in Childhood Pediatr Surg Int 2003;19:432-435 Cerca con Google

63. Michalkiewicz E, Sandrini R, et al. Clinical and Outcome characteristic of Children with Adrenocortical Tumors: A Report from the International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry J Clin Oncol 2004;22:838-845 Cerca con Google

64. Ambrosi B, Dall’Asta C. Malattie del Coricosurrene in: Malattie del Sistema Endocrino e del Metabolismo. Faglia G eds McGraw-Hill publ Milano, 2002, pp 185-224 Cerca con Google

65. Cordera F, Grant C, van Heerden J, et al. Androgen-secreting adrenal tumors Surgery 2003;134:874-880 Cerca con Google

66. Bonfig W, Bittmann I, Bechtold S, et al. Virilising adrenocortical tumours in children Eur J Pediatr 2003;162:623-628 Cerca con Google

67. Masiakos PT, Flynn Ce, Donahoe PK. Masculinizing and Feminilizing Syndromes Caused by Functioning Tumors Sem Pediatr Surg 1997;6:147-155 Cerca con Google

68. Andreoni B, Beck-Peccoz P, Radice F. Neoplasie del Surrene in: Manuale di Oncologia Chirurgica. Staudacher V, Veronesi U, Andreoni B, Costa A eds Masson publ Milano, 1994, pp 771-784 Cerca con Google

69. Press M. Syndromes of Cortcosteroid Excess in: Surgical Endocrinology. Lynn J, Bloom SR eds Butterworth-Heinemann publ Oxford, 1993, pp.411-425 Cerca con Google

70. Dickson BA, Franks RC. Aldosterone-producing adenoma presenting with hypokaliemic myopathy. Case report and review. Clin Pediatr 1988;27:344-347 Cerca con Google

71. Baranwal AK, Singhi SC, Narshimhan KL, et al. Aldosterone-producing Adrenocortical Adenoma in Childhood: A Case Report J Pediatr Surg 1999;34:1878-1890 Cerca con Google

72. Abasiyanik A, Oran B, Kaymakçi A, et al. Conn Syndrome in a Child, Caused by Adrenal Adenoma J Pediatr Surg 1996;31:430-432 Cerca con Google

73. Lin JT, Shu SG, Chi CS. Aldosterone-secreting adrenal cortical adenoma in an 11-years old child and collective review of the literature Eur J Pediatr 1994;153:715-717 Cerca con Google

74. Hsiao HP, Chao MC, Lin CY, et al. Feminizing adrenocortical adenoma presenting as heterosexual precocious puberty: report of one case Acta Pediatr Taiwan 2005;46:97-100 Cerca con Google

75. Comite F, Schiebinger RJ, Albertson BD, et al. Isosexual precocious puberty secondary to a feminizing adrenal tumor J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1984;58:435-440 Cerca con Google

76. Allolio B, Hanher S, Weismann D, et al. Management of adrenocortical carcinoma Clin Endocrinol 2004;60:273-287 Cerca con Google

77. Federici S, Galli G, Ceccarelli Pl, et al. Adrenocortical Tumors in Children: A Report of 12 Cases Eur J Pediatr Surg 1994;4:21-25 Cerca con Google

78. Ciftci AO, Şenocak ME, Tanyel FC, et al. Adrenocortical Tumors in Children J Pediatr Surg 2001;36:549-554 Cerca con Google

79. Bergadà I, Venara M, Maglio S, et al. Functional Adrenal Cortical Tumors in Pediatric Patients: A Clinicopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study of a Long Term Follow-up Series Cancer 1996;77:771-777 Cerca con Google

80. Mayer Sk, Oligny LL, Deal C, et al. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumors: Case Series and Reevaluation of Prognosis - A 24-Year Experience J Pediatr Surg 1997;32:911-915 Cerca con Google

81. Klein JD, Turner CG, Gray FL, et al. Adrenal cortical tumors in children: factors associated with poor outcome. J Pediatr Surg. 2011;46:1201-1207 Cerca con Google

82. Hanna AM, Pham TH, Askegard-Giesmann JR, et al Outcome of adrenocortical tumors in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2008;43:843-849. Cerca con Google

83. Sakoda A, Mushtaq I, Levitt G, et al. Clinical and histopathological features of adrenocortical neoplasms in children: retrospective review from a single specialist center. J Pediatr Surg. 2014;49:410-415 Cerca con Google

84. Ahmed AA. Adrenocortical neoplasms in young children: age as a prognostic factor. Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2009;39:277-282 Cerca con Google

85. McAteer JP, Huaco JA, Gow KW. Predictors of survival in pediatric adrenocortical carcinoma: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program study. J Pediatr Surg. 2013;48:1025-1031. Cerca con Google

86. DeLellis RA, Lloyd RV, Heitz PV, et al. Tumors of Endocrine Organs in: WHO Classification of Tumors IARC Press publ, Lyon 1994, pp 135-172 Cerca con Google

87. Brennan MF. Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cancer 1987;37:348-365 Cerca con Google

88. Hughes S, Lynn J. Surgical Anatomy and Surgery of the Adrenal Glands in: Surgical Endocrinology. Lynn J, Bloom SR eds Butterworth-Heinemann publ Oxford, 1993, pp 458-467 Cerca con Google

89. Chiche L, Dousset B, Kieffer E, et al. Adrenocortical carcinoma extending into the inferior vena cava: Presentation of a 15-patient series and review of the literature Surgery 2006;139:15-27 Cerca con Google

90. Schulick RD, Brennan MF. Long-term survival after complete resection and repeat resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma Ann Surg Oncol 1999;6:719-726 Cerca con Google

91. Kalady MF, McKinlay R, Olson JA, et al. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for pheocromocytoma: a comparison to aldosteronoma and incidentaloma Surg Endosc 2004;18:621-625 Cerca con Google

92. Pisanu A, Cois A, Montisci A, et al. Current indications for laparoscopic adrenalectomy in the era of minimally invasive surgery Chir Ital 2004;56:313-320 Cerca con Google

93. Bennet IC, Ray M. Hand-assisted laparoscopic adrenalectomy: an alternative minimal invasive surgical technique for the adrenal gland ANZ J Surg 2002;72:801-805 Cerca con Google

94. Palazzo FF, Sebag F, Sierra M, et al. Long-term outcome following laparoscopic adrenalectomy for large solid adrenal cortex tumors World J Surg 2006;30:893-898 Cerca con Google

95. Liao C, Chueh S, Lai M, et al. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy for potentially malignant adrenal tumors greater than 5 centimeters J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:3080-3083 Cerca con Google

96. Walz M, Petersenn S, Koch J, et al. Endoscopic treatment of large primary adrenal tumours Brit J Surg 2005;92:719-723 Cerca con Google

97. Heloury Y, Muthucumaru M, Panabokke G, et al. Minimally invasive adrenalectomy in children. J Pediatr Surg. 2012;47:415-21 Cerca con Google

98. Allolio B, Fassnacht M. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: Clinical Update J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:2027-2037 Cerca con Google

99. Williamson SK, Lew D, Miller G, et al. Phase II evaluation of Cisplatin and etposide followed by Mitotane at disease progression in patients with locally advanced or metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma Cancer 2000;88:1159-1165 Cerca con Google

100. Abiven G, Coste J, Groussin L, et al. Clinical and biological features in the prognosis of adrenocortical cancer: poor outcome of cortisol-secreting tumors in a series of 202 consecutive patients J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2006;91:2650-2655 Cerca con Google

101. Schteingart DE. Adjuvant Mitotane Therapy of Adrenal Cancer - Use and Controversy N Engl J Med 2007;356:2415-2418 Cerca con Google

102. Terzolo M, Angeli A, Fassnacht M, et al. Adjuvant Mitotane Treatment for Adrenocortical Carcinoma N Engl J Med 2007;156:2372-2380 Cerca con Google

103. Berruti A, Terzolo M, Pia A, et al. Mitotane associated with etoposide, doxorubicin and cisplatin in the treatment of advanced adrenocortical carcinoma Cancer 1998;83:2194-2200 Cerca con Google

104. Masiakos P, Gerstle J, Cheang T, et al. Is surgery necessary for incidentally discovered adrenal masses in children? J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:754-758 Cerca con Google

105. Stewart JN, Flageole H, Kavan P. A surgical approach to adrenocortical tumors in children: the mainstay of treatment J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:759-763 Cerca con Google

106. Kadamba P, Hahib Z, Rossi L. Experience with laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children J Pediatr Surg 2004;39:764-767 Cerca con Google

107. Ammoury RF, Heptulla R, Tatevian N, Elenberg E, et al. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy of adrenal adenoma with myelolipoma relieves severe hypertension in a 16-years old patient Pediatr Nephrol 2006;21:433-436 Cerca con Google

108. Tobias-Machado M, Cartum J, Santos-Machado T, et al. Retroperitoneoscopic adrenalectomy in a infant with virilizing adrenocortical tumor Rev Paul Med 2002;120:87-89 Cerca con Google

109. Zancanella P, Pianovski MAD, Oliveira B, et al. Mitotane associated with Cisplatin, Etoposide, and Doxorubicin in advanced childhood adrenocortical carcinoma J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2006;28:513-524 Cerca con Google

110. Bisogno G, Ferrari A, Bien E, et al. Rare cancers in children - The EXPeRT Initiative: a report from the European Cooperative Study Group on Pediatric Rare Tumors. Klin Padiatr. 2012;224:416-20 Cerca con Google

111. Ferrari A, Schneider DT, Bisogno G, EXPeRT Board. The founding of the European Cooperative Study Group on Pediatric Rare Tumors--EXPeRT. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther. 2013;13:1-3 Cerca con Google

112. Redlich A, Boxberger N, Strugala D, et al. Systemic treatment of adrenocortical carcinoma in children: data from the German GPOH-MET 97 trial. Klin Padiatr. 2012;224:366-371 Cerca con Google

113. Hubertus J, Boxberger N, Redlich A, et al. Surgical aspects in the treatment of adrenocortical carcinomas in children: data of the GPOH-MET 97 trial. Klin Padiatr. 2012;224:143-7 Cerca con Google

114. Ribeiro RC, Pinto EM, Zambetti GP, et al. The International Pediatric Adrenocortical Tumor Registry initiative: contributions to clinical, biological, and treatment advances in pediatric adrenocortical tumors. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2012;351:37-43. Cerca con Google

115. Rodriguez-Galindo C. Treatment of childhood adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) with surgery plus retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) and multiagent chemotherapy: Results of the Children’s Oncology Group ARAR0332 protocol. J Clin Oncol 2016;34:suppl; abstr 10515 (ASCO 2016 annual meeting) Cerca con Google

116. Pastore G, De Salvo GL, Bisogno G et al. Evaluating Access to Pediatric Cancer Care Centers of Children and Adolescents with Rare Tumors in Italy: the TREP Project. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:152-155 Cerca con Google

117. Shulick RD, Brennan MF. Long-term survival after complete resection and repeat resection in patients with adrenocortical carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol 1999; 6:719-726 Cerca con Google

118. De León DD, Lange BJ, Walterhouse D, et al. Long-term (15 years) outcome in an infant with metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2002;87:4452-4456 Cerca con Google

119. Tucci A Jr, Martins ACP, Haylton JS et al. The impact of tumor stage on prognosis in children with adrenocortical carcinoma. J Urol 2005;174:2338-2342 Cerca con Google

120. Rescorla FJ. Malignant adrenal tumors. Semin Pediatr Surg 2006;15:48-56 Cerca con Google

121. Weiss LM. Comparative histologic study of 43 metastasizing and nonmetastasizing adrenal cortical tumors. Am J Surg Pathol 1984;8:163-169 Cerca con Google

122. Dehner LP, Hill DA. Adrenal cortical neoplasms in children: why so many carcinomas and yet so many survivors? Pediatr Develop Pathology 2009;12:284-291 Cerca con Google

123. Faria AM, Almeida MQ. Differences in the molecular mechanism of adrenocortical tumorigenesis between children and adults. Mol Cell Endocrinology 2012;351:52-57 Cerca con Google

124. Dehner LP. Pediatric adrenocortical neoplasms. Am J Surg Path 2003;27:1005-1007 Cerca con Google

125. Weiss LM, Medeiros LJ, Vickery AL Jr. Pathologic features of prognostic significance in adrenocortical carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 1989;13:202-206 Cerca con Google

126. Bugg MF, Ribeiro RC, Roberson PK, et al. Correlation of pathologic features with clinical outcome in pediatric adrenocortical neoplasia. A study of a Brazilian population. Brazilian Group for Treatment of Childhood Adrenocortical Tumors. Am J Clin Pathol 1994;101:625-629 Cerca con Google

127. Kvasnicka HM, Beham-Schmid C, Bob R, et al. Problems and pitfalls in grading of bone marrow fibrosis, collagen deposition and osteosclerosis - a consensus-based study. Histopathology. 2016;68:905-15. Cerca con Google

128. Tissier F, Aubert S, Leteurtre E, et al. Adrenocortical tumors: improving the practice of the Weiss system through virtualmicroscopy: a National Program of the French Network INCa-COMETE. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:1194–1201. Cerca con Google

129. Mearini L, Del Sordo R, Costantini E, et al. Adrenal oncocytic neoplasm: a systematic review. Urol Int. 2013;91:125-33. Cerca con Google

130. Duregon E, Volante M, Bollito E, et al. Pitfalls in the diagnosis of adrenocortical tumors: a lesson from 300 consultation cases. Hum Pathol. 2015;46:1799-807. Cerca con Google

131. Almeida MQ, Soares IC, Ribeiro TC, et al. Steroidogenic factor 1 overexpression and gene amplification are more frequent in adrenocortical tumors from children than from adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:1458-62. Cerca con Google

132. Doghman M, Karpova T, Rodrigues GA, et al. Increased steroidogenic factor-1 dosage triggers adrenocortical cell proliferation and cancer. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2968-87. Cerca con Google

133. Doghman M, Arhatte M, Thibout H, et al. Nephroblastoma overexpressed/cysteine-rich protein 61/connective tissue growth factor/nephroblastoma overexpressed gene-3 (NOV/CCN3), a selective adrenocortical cell proapoptotic factor, is down-regulated in childhood adrenocortical tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:3253-60. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record