Vai ai contenuti. | Spostati sulla navigazione | Spostati sulla ricerca | Vai al menu | Contatti | Accessibilità

| Crea un account

Bianco, Simone (2017) Living the death: death attitudes and representations after a near-death experience. [Tesi di dottorato]

Full text disponibile come:

[img]
Anteprima
Documento PDF (Ph.D. Thesis) - Versione sottomessa
1641Kb

Abstract (inglese)

Over the last 40 years, since Moody’s (1975) seminal work, Near Death experiences (NDEs) have been being at the centre of several academic investigations in in psychology, philosophy and medicine, and the debate on its nature is still in progress (Agrillo, 2011). This topic widely extends the scientists’ and philosophers’ reflections on the relationship between mind and brain, life and death, as well as the entire ontological question (Moody, 1975; Rousseau, 2011; Fenwick 2012).
Until now, a number of authors tried to investigate and propose an interpretation of NDE. In existing literature, we observe a predominance of opinion articles, review articles, and papers, which describe NDE’s features. A recent work, that offers a review of the literature, highlights a lack of empirical studies that test explanatory hypotheses by using original data (Sleutjes et al., 2014). Direct studies of the phenomenon in lab, or at least in a controlled condition, are not possible, given the subjective and extraordinary nature of this experience (see paragraph 1.1 for an extensive description). Thus, the investigation of what NDE produces in people (e.g., memories of the experience or the so-called NDE aftereffects) could represent a more suitable way to explore NDE nature, since if we can assess objectively differences between people who had a NDE and people who had not, we could be able to derive indirectly information about NDE.
In this study, we focus on a widely reported aftereffect, which is not still understood: NDErs’ loss or reduction of fear of death (Tassel-Matamua & Lindsay, 2016). In order to explore the processes underlining the loss of fear of death in people who had a NDE, we apply a mixed methodology, in which explicit and implicit measures are included. The general aim of this study is to investigate conscious and unconscious death anxiety and death representations in people who had a NDE, and to provide insights on the nature of this fascinating phenomenon.
In the first chapter, the theoretical framework of the study is provided. NDE has been described as an intense phenomenon that leads to a variety of psychological and interpersonal aftereffects. In this section, a number of theoretical models are extensively described in order to provide a useful framework to interpret this phenomenon. Moreover, a review on the death anxiety concept and the measures of fear of death is provided, highlighting differences between conscious fear of death, usually assessed with self-report instruments, and unconscious reaction toward death, assessed using implicit measures. Finally, Terror Management Theory (TMT) is introduced, as one of the most relevant models that describe human reactions toward death. In this piece of research, NDE is studied for the first time within a TMT framework, producing interesting implications that are discussed in last chapter.
In the second chapter, the method is presented. In order to test our hypotheses and to integrate different perspectives and methodologies, participants’ death attitude is assessed using self-report scales, open ended questions, and an implicit measure of what is called “Death Thought Accessibility”, that it is an indirect measure of psychologically defensive reactions toward death.
In the third chapter, results are reported, showing differences between people who had a NDE and those who do not. Specifically, people who had a near death experience reported less fear of death, more death acceptance, and a different representation of death with respect to individuals who had not have a NDE.
In the fourth chapter, discussion of results and suggestions for future research are provided.

Abstract (italiano)

Negli ultimi 40 anni le esperienze di pre-morte (Near Death Experiences - NDE) sono state oggetto di studio in psicologia, filosofia e medicina, e un dibattito sulla loro natura è ancora in corso. Questo tema, infatti, ha notevoli implicazioni rispetto la relazione tra mente e corpo, vita e morte, nonché sulla questione ontologica.
Finora, diversi autori hanno proposto un'interpretazione delle esperienze di pre-morte. Nella letteratura accademica esistente, si può osservare una predominanza di opinion article, review article e articoli che descrivono le caratteristiche di questa esperienza. Una recente rassegna segnala una mancanza di studi empirici che mirino a testare delle ipotesi usando dati originali. Esperimenti in laboratorio che mirino a osservare direttamente il fenomeno non sono possibili a causa delle caratteristiche delle esperienze di pre-morte (vedi paragrafo 1.1.1), quindi lo studio dei prodotti di queste esperienza (come i ricordi dell'esperienza o i gli effetti della stessa) può rappresentare un via più indicata per comprendere la natura delle NDE, dato che se fosse possibile stabilire oggettivamente delle differenze tra chi vive una NDE e chi no, potremmo dunque inferire indirettamente delle informazioni sulla natura di questo fenomeno.
In questo studio ci siamo focalizzati sul processo di perdita della paura di morire da parte di chi vive una NDE. Con l’obiettivo di comprendere questo processo abbiamo utilizzato una metodologia mista in cui sono comprese misure esplicite e implicite. L’obiettivo generale di questo studio è quello di investigare l’ansia di morte conscia e inconscia e le rappresentazioni di morte di chi ha vissuto una esperienza di pre-morte, e fornire nuovi insight sulla natura di questo fenomeno.
Nel primo capitolo vengono introdotti i riferimenti teorici su cui si fonda questo studio. Le NDE sono state descritte come un’intensa esperienza che porta ad una varietà di conseguenze psicologiche ed interpersonali. In questo capitolo sono descritti i diversi modelli utilizzati per interpretare questo fenomeno. Inoltre viene riportata anche una rassegna sul costrutto “ansia di morte” e sui modi di misurarlo, evidenziando le differenze tra la paura di morte conscia, valutata con i self-report, e le reazioni inconsce verso la morte, valutate attraverso l’utilizzo di misurazioni implicite. Il modello teorico denominato “terror management theory” è stato introdotto come modello di spicco nella letteratura nella valutazione dei processi inconsci legati alla gestione di contenuti di morte. In questa ricerca, per la prima volta le esperienze di pre-morte vengono studiate sotto la lente della terror management theory, generando interessanti implicazioni che sono discusse nell’ultimo capitolo.
Nel secondo capitolo viene presentato il metodo della ricerca. Con l’obiettivo di testare diverse ipotesi e integrare diverse prospettive teoriche e metodologie, sono stati studiati gli atteggiamenti verso la morte utilizzando strumenti self-report, domande aperte e una misura implicita chiamata “accessibilità ai pensieri di morte”, che è una misura indiretta delle reazioni difensive verso i contenuti di morte.
Nel terzo capitolo vengono riportati i risultati e si evidenziano differenze tra chi ha vissuto una NDE e chi no. Nel dettaglio, le persone che hanno avuto un’esperienza di pre-morte mostrano meno paura di morire, più accettazione della morte e una differente rappresentazione della morte rispetto a chi non ha vissuto tale esperienza.
Nel quarto capitolo è inserita la discussione dei risultati e le indicazioni per la ricerca futura.

Statistiche Download - Aggiungi a RefWorks
Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Sambin, Marco
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 29 > Corsi 29 > SCIENZE SOCIALI: INTERAZIONI, COMUNICAZIONE, COSTRUZIONI CULTURALI
Data di deposito della tesi:17 Gennaio 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:16 Gennaio 2017
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):Near Death Experience; Terror Management Theory, Death Anxiety, death representation, NDE, TMT, Mindfulness, Self-esteem, death thought accessibility
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/05 Psicologia sociale
Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/07 Psicologia dinamica
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Filosofia, Sociologia, Pedagogia e Psicologia Applicata
Codice ID:9855
Depositato il:14 Nov 2017 12:23
Simple Metadata
Full Metadata
EndNote Format

Bibliografia

I riferimenti della bibliografia possono essere cercati con Cerca la citazione di AIRE, copiando il titolo dell'articolo (o del libro) e la rivista (se presente) nei campi appositi di "Cerca la Citazione di AIRE".
Le url contenute in alcuni riferimenti sono raggiungibili cliccando sul link alla fine della citazione (Vai!) e tramite Google (Ricerca con Google). Il risultato dipende dalla formattazione della citazione.

Abdel-Khalek, A. M. (2004). Does war affect death anxiety level? Seven readings of measurements (1988–2002) before and after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 49(4), 287-297. Cerca con Google

Abdel-Khalek, A. M., & Tomas-Sabado, J. (2005). Anxiety and death anxiety in Egyptian and Spanish nursing students. Death Studies, 29(2), 157-169. Cerca con Google

Abramovitch, H. (1988). An Israeli account of a near-death experience: A case study of cultural dissonance. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 6(3), 175-184. Cerca con Google

Adelbratt, S., & Strang, P. (2000). Death anxiety in brain tumour patients and their spouses. Palliative Medicine, 14(6), 499-507. Cerca con Google

Agrillo, C. (2011). Near-death experience: out-of-body and out-of-brain?. Review of General Psychology, 15(1), 1. Cerca con Google

Arndt, J., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., & Simon, L. (1997). Suppression, accessibility of death-related thoughts, and cultural worldview defense: exploring the psychodynamics of terror management. Journal of personality and social psychology, 73(1), 5. Cerca con Google

Baer, R. A., Smith, G. T., Hopkins, J., Krietemeyer, J., & Toney, L. (2006). Using self-report assessment methods to explore facets of mindfulness. Assessment, 13, 27-45. Cerca con Google

Bassett, J. F., & Dabbs, Jr, J. M. (2003). Evaluating explicit and implicit death attitudes in funeral and university students. Mortality, 8(4), 352-371. Cerca con Google

Belanti, J., Perera, M., & Jagadheesan, K. (2008). Phenomenology of near-death experiences: a cross-cultural perspective. Transcultural psychiatry, 45(1), 121-133. Cerca con Google

Becker, E. (1973). The denial of death. New York: The free press. Cerca con Google

Blackmore, S. (1993). Dying to live: Near-death experiences. Buffalo, NY: Prometheus. Cerca con Google

Blackmore, S. J. (1996). Near-death experiences. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 89(2), 73-76. Cerca con Google

Bonenfant, R. J. (2001). A child's encounter with the devil: An unusual near-death experience with both blissful and frightening elements. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20(2), 87-100. Cerca con Google

Braithwaite, J. J. (2008). Towards a cognitive neuroscience of the dying brain. The [UK] Skeptic, 21, 8–16. Cerca con Google

Britton, W. B., & Bootzin, R. R. (2004). Near-death experiences and the temporal lobe. Psychological Science, 15, 254–258. Cerca con Google

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of personality and social psychology, 84(4), 822. Cerca con Google

Brubeck, D., & Beer, J. (1992). Depression, self-esteem, suicide ideation, death anxiety, and GPA in high school students of divorced and nondivorced parents. Psychological Reports, 71(3), 755-763. Cerca con Google

Burke, B. L., Martens, A., & Faucher, E. H. (2010). Two decades of terror management theory: A meta-analysis of mortality salience research. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(2), 155-195. Cerca con Google

Bush, N. E. (1991). Is ten years a life review?. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10(1), 5-9. Cerca con Google

Cella, D. F., & Tross, S. (1987). Death anxiety in cancer survival: a preliminary cross-validation study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 51(3), 451-461. Cerca con Google

Charland-Verville, V., Jourdan, J. P., Thonnard, M., Ledoux, D., Donneau, A. F., Quertemont, E., & Laureys, S. (2014). Near-death experiences in non-life-threatening events and coma of different etiologies. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8. Cerca con Google

Cicirelli, V. G. (1998). Personal meanings of death in relation to fear of death. Death studies, 22(8), 713-733. Cerca con Google

Clements, R., & Rooda, L. A. (2000). Factor structure, reliability, and validity of the death attitude profile-revised. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 40(3), 453-463. Cerca con Google

Conte, H. R., Weiner, M. B., & Plutchik, R. (1982). Measuring death anxiety: conceptual, psychometric, and factor-analytic aspects. Journal of personality and social psychology, 43(4), 775. Cerca con Google

Collett, L. J., & Lester, D. (1969). The fear of death and the fear of dying. The Journal of psychology, 72(2), 179-181. Cerca con Google

Corazza, O. (2008). Near-death experiences: Exploring the mind-body connection. New York: Routledge. Cerca con Google

Cozzolino, P. J., Staples, A. D., Meyers, L. S., & Samboceti, J. (2004). Greed, death, and values: From terror management to transcendence management theory. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(3), 278-292. Cerca con Google

Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative and mixed methods approaches. London and Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. Cerca con Google

Davis, S. F., Bremer, S. A., Anderson, B. J., & Tramill, J. L. (1983). The interrelationships of ego strength, self-esteem, death anxiety, and gender in undergraduate college students. The Journal of general psychology, 108(1), 55-59. Cerca con Google

Dell’Olio, A. J. (2010). Do near-death experiences provide a rational basis for belief in life after death?. Sophia, 49(1), 113-128. Cerca con Google

Facco, E., & Agrillo, C. (2012). Near-death experiences between science and prejudice. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 6, 209. Cerca con Google

Facco, E., & Agrillo, C. (2012). Near-death-like experiences without life-threatening conditions or brain disorders: a hypothesis from a case report. Frontiers in Psychology, 3:490. Cerca con Google

Facco, E., Agrillo, C., & Greyson, B. (2015). Epistemological implications of near-death experiences and other non-ordinary mental expressions: Moving beyond the concept of altered state of consciousness. Medical hypotheses, 85(1), 85-93. Cerca con Google

Fenwick, P. (2012). Can near death experiences contribute to the debate on consciousness?. In Alexander, M.A., Franklin, S. S. (Eds.), Exploring Frontiers of the Mind-Brain Relationship (pp. 143-163). Springer New York. Cerca con Google

Flick, U. (2009). An introduction to qualitative research. Sage. Cerca con Google

Florian, V., & Kravetz, S. (1983). Fear of personal death: Attribution, structure, and relation to religious belief. Journal of personality and social Psychology, 44(3), 600. Cerca con Google

Florian, V., Kravetz, S., & Frankel, J. (1984). Aspects of fear of personal death, levels of awareness, and religious commitment. Journal of Research in Personality, 18, 289-304. Cerca con Google

Flynn, C. P. (1986). After the beyond: Human transformation and the near-death experience. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. Cerca con Google

Fortner, B. V., & Neimeyer, R. A. (1999). Death anxiety in older adults: A quantitative review. Death studies, 23(5), 387-411. Cerca con Google

French, C. C. (2001). Dying to know the truth: visions of a dying brain, or false memories?. The Lancet, 358(9298), 2010-2011. Cerca con Google

Gabbard, G.O., & Twemlow, S.W. (1984). With the eyes of the mind. An empirical analysis of out-of-body states. New York, NY: Praeger. Cerca con Google

Gabbard, G. O., & Twemlow, S. W. (1991). Do “near-death experiences” occur only near death?-revisited. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 10(1), 41-47. Cerca con Google

Gibbs, H. W., & Achterberg-Lawlis, J. (1978). Spiritual values and death anxiety: Implications for counseling with terminal cancer patients. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25(6), 563. Cerca con Google

Gesser, G., Wong, P. T., & Reker, G. T. (1988). Death attitudes across the life-span: The development and validation of the Death Attitude Profile (DAP). Omega-Journal of Death and Dying, 18(2), 113-128. Cerca con Google

Goldenberg, J. L., & Arndt, J. (2008). The implications of death for health: a terror management health model for behavioral health promotion. Psychological review, 115(4), 1032. Cerca con Google

Goldenberg, J. L., Pyszczynski, T., McCoy, S. K., Greenberg, J., & Solomon, S. (1999). Death, sex, love, and neuroticism: Why is sex such a problem?. Journal of personality and social psychology, 77(6), 1173. Cerca con Google

Greenberg, J., & Arndt, J. (2011). Terror management theory. In P. A. M. Van Lange, A. W. Kruglanski, E- T. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of theories of social psychology, (vol. 1, pp. 398-415). London: Sage Publications. Cerca con Google

Greenberg, J., Arndt, J., Schimel, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Solomon, S. (2001). Clarifying the function of mortality salience-induced worldview defense: Renewed suppression or reduced accessibility of death-related thoughts?. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37(1), 70-76. Cerca con Google

Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., & Arndt, J. (2008). A basic but uniquely human motivation. In J. Shah, W. Gardner (Eds.), Handbook of motivation science, (pp. 114-134). New York: Guilford). Cerca con Google

Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., Rosenblatt, A., Burling, J., Lyon, D., ... & Pinel, E. (1992). Why do people need self-esteem? Converging evidence that self-esteem serves an anxiety-buffering function. Journal of personality and social psychology, 63(6), 913. Cerca con Google

Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., & Solomon, S. (1986). The causes and consequences of a need for self-esteem: A terror management theory. In Public self and private self (pp. 189-212). Springer New York. Cerca con Google

Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., Rosenblatt, A., Veeder, M., Kirkland, S., & Lyon, D. (1990). Evidence for terror management theory II: The effects of mortality salience on reactions to those who threaten or bolster the cultural worldview. Journal of personality and social psychology, 58(2), 308. Cerca con Google

Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., Simon, L., & Breus, M. (1994). Role of consciousness and accessibility of death-related thoughts in mortality salience effects. Journal of personality and social psychology, 67(4), 627. Cerca con Google

Greenberg, J., Simon, L., Harmon-Jones, E., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., & Lyon, D. (1995). Testing alternative explanations for mortality salience effects: Terror management, value accessibility, or worrisome thoughts? European Journal of Social Psychology, 25(4), 417–433. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. (1983). The Near-Death Experience Scale: Construction, Reliability, and Validity. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 171(6), 369-375. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. (1992). Reduced death threat in near-death experiencers. Death Studies, 16(6), 523-536. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. (1994). Near-death experiences and satisfaction with life. Journal of Near Death Studies, 13, 103-103. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. (2000). Dissociation in people who have near-death experiences: out of their bodies or out of their minds?. The Lancet, 355(9202), 460-463. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. (2003). Incidence and correlates of near-death experiences in a cardiac care unit. General Hospital Psychiatry, 25(4), 269-276. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. (2007). Consistency of near-death experience accounts over two decades: Are reports embellished over time?. Resuscitation, 73(3), 407-411. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. (2010). Near-Death Experiences. Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology. 1–2. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. (2013). Getting Comfortable With Near Death Experiences. Missouri Medicine, 110(6), 471. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B., & Evans Bush, N. (1992). Distressing near-death experiences. Psychiatry, 55(1), 95-110. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B. & Bush, N. E. (1996). Distressing near-death experiences. In Bailey, L. W. & Yates, J. (Eds.), The Near-Death Experience: A Reader. New York: Routledge. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B., Kelly, E. W., & Kelly, E. F. (2009). Explanatory models for near-death experiences. In J. M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The handbook of near-death experiences: Thirty years of investigation (pp. 213-234). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B., & Khanna, S. (2014). Spiritual transformation after near-death experiences. Spirituality in Clinical Practice, 1(1), 43. Cerca con Google

Greyson, B., & Stevenson, I. (1980). The phenomenology of near-death experiences. The American journal of psychiatry. 137(10), 1193-1196. Cerca con Google

Groth-Marnat, G., & Summers, R. (1998). Altered beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors following near-death experiences. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 38(3), 110-125. Cerca con Google

Harding, S. R., Flannelly, K. J., Weaver, A. J., & Costa, K. G. (2005). The influence of religion on death anxiety and death acceptance. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 8(4), 253-261. Cerca con Google

Harmon-Jones, E., Simon, L., Greenberg, J., Pyszczynski, T., Solomon, S., & McGregor, H. (1997). Terror management theory and self-esteem: Evidence that increased self-esteem reduced mortality salience effects. Journal of personality and social psychology, 72(1), 24. Cerca con Google

Hayes, J., Schimel, J., Arndt, J., & Faucher, E. H. (2010). A theoretical and empirical review of the death-thought accessibility concept in terror management research. Psychological bulletin, 136(5), 699. Cerca con Google

Hoelter, J. W. (1979). Multidimensional treatment of fear of death. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 47(5), 996. Cerca con Google

Holden, J. M., Long, J., & MacLurg, B. J. (2009). Characteristics of Western near-death experiencers. In J. M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The handbook of near-death experiences: Thirty years of investigation (pp. 109-133). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO. Cerca con Google

Iverach, L., Menzies, R. G., & Menzies, R. E. (2014). Death anxiety and its role in psychopathology: Reviewing the status of a transdiagnostic construct. Clinical psychology review, 34(7), 580-593. Cerca con Google

Kellehear, A. (2009). Census of non-western near death experiences to 2005: Observations and critical reflections. In J. M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The handbook of near-death experiences: Thirty years of investigation (pp. 135–158). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO. Cerca con Google

Kelly, G. A. (1955). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. 1). New York: Norton. Cerca con Google

Klemenc-Ketis, Z., Kersnik, J., & Grmec, S. (2010). The effect of carbon dioxide on near-death experiences in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors: a prospective observational study. Crit care, 14(2), R56. Cerca con Google

Knoblauch, H., Schmied, I., & Schnettler, B. (2001). Different kinds of near-death experience: A report on a survey of near-death experiences in Germany. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 20(1), 15-29. Cerca con Google

Kübler-Ross, E. (2002). On death and dying; Questions and answers on death and dying; On life Cerca con Google

after death. New York: Quality Paper Book Club. Cerca con Google

LeDoux, J. (2008). Remembrance of emotions past. In K. Fischer & M. H. Immordino-Yang (Eds.), The Jossey-Bass reader on the brain and learning (pp. 151–179). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Cerca con Google

Lehto, R. H., & Stein, K. F. (2009). Death anxiety: an analysis of an evolving concept. Research and theory for nursing practice, 23(1), 23-41. Cerca con Google

Lempert, T., Bauer, M., & Schmidt, D. (1994). Syncope and near-death experience. The Lancet, 344(8925), 829-830. Cerca con Google

Martz, E., & Livneh, H. (2003). Death anxiety as a predictor of future time orientation among individuals with spinal cord injuries. Disability and Rehabilitation, 25(18), 1024-1032. Cerca con Google

Lifton, R. J. (1973). The sense of immortality: On death and the continuity of life. American journal of psychoanalysis, 33(1), 3-15. Cerca con Google

Masumian, F. (2009). World religions and near-death experiences. In J. M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The handbook of near-death experiences: Thirty years of investigation (pp. 159–183). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO. Cerca con Google

Mazur, A. (2011). Conceptualizations of death. Beyond Philology, 8, 21-54. Cerca con Google

McLaughlin, S. A., & Malony, H. N. (1984). Near-death experiences and religion: A further investigation. Journal of Religion and Health, 23(2), 149-159. Cerca con Google

Meduna, L. J. (1950). Carbon dioxide therapy: A neurophysiological treatment of nervous disorders. Springfield, Ill.: Thomas. Cerca con Google

Mikulincer, M., & Florian, V. (2002). The effects of mortality salience on self-serving attributions-evidence for the function of self-esteem as a terror management mechanism. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 24(4), 261-271. Cerca con Google

Mikulincer, M. & Florian, V. (2007). The complex and multifaceted nature of the fear of personal death: The multidimensional model of Victor Florian. In A. Tomer, G. T. Eliason, P. T. P. Wong (Eds), Existential and spiritual issues in death attitudes, 39-64. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Associates, Inc., Publishers. Cerca con Google

Moody, R. (1975). Life after death. Atlanta: Mockingbird Books. Cerca con Google

Morris, G. J., & McAdie, T. (2009). Are personality, well-being and death anxiety related to religious affiliation?. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 12(2), 115-120. Cerca con Google

Morris, L. L., & Knafl, K. (2003). The nature and meaning of the near-death experience for patients and critical care nurses. Journal of Near-Death Studies, 21(3), 139-167. Cerca con Google

Morse, M., Castillo, P., Venecia, D., Milstein, J., & Tyler, D. C. (1986). Childhood near-death experiences. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 140(11), 1110-1114. Cerca con Google

Morse, M., & Perry, P. (1992). Transformed by the light: The powerful effects of near-death experiences on people’s lives. New York, NY: Villard. Cerca con Google

Neimeyer, R. A. (1994). Death anxiety handbook: Research, instrumentation, and application. Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis. Cerca con Google

Neimeyer, R. A., Prigerson, H. G., & Davies, B. (2002). Mourning and meaning. American Behavioral Scientist, 46(2), 235-251. Cerca con Google

Neimeyer, R. A., Wittkowski, J., & Moser, R. P. (2004). Psychological research on death attitudes: Cerca con Google

An overview and evaluation. Death Studies, 28, 309–340. Cerca con Google

Niemiec, C. P., Brown, K. W., Kashdan, T. B., Cozzolino, P. J., Breen, W. E., Levesque-Bristol, C., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Being present in the face of existential threat: The role of trait mindfulness in reducing defensive responses to mortality salience. Journal of personality and social psychology, 99(2), 344. Cerca con Google

Noyes, R., Fenwick, P., Holden, J. M., & Christian, S. R. (2009). Aftereffects of pleasurable Western adult near-death experiences. In J. M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The handbook of near-death experiences: Thirty years of investigation (pp. 41-62). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO. Cerca con Google

Noyes, R., & Kletti, R. (1976). Depersonalization in the face of life-threatening danger: An interpretation. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 7(2), 103-114. Cerca con Google

Owens, J., Cook, E. W., & Stevenson, I. (1990). Features of" near-death experience" in relation to whether or not patients were near death. The Lancet, 336(8724), 1175-1177. Cerca con Google

Pacciolla, A. (1996). The near-death experience: A study of its validity. Journal of Near Death Studies, 14, 179-186. Cerca con Google

Palmieri, A., Calvo, V., Kleinbub, J. R., Meconi, F., Marangoni, M., Barilaro, P., ... & Sessa, P. (2014). “Reality” of near-death-experience memories: evidence from a psychodynamic and electrophysiological integrated study. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 8. Cerca con Google

Parnia, S., Spearpoint, K., de Vos, G., Fenwick, P., Goldberg, D., Yang, J., ... & Wood, M. (2014). AWARE—AWAreness during REsuscitation—A prospective study. Resuscitation, 85(12), 1799-1805. Cerca con Google

Penfield, W. (1955). The role of the temporal cortex in certain psychical phenomena. Journal of Mental Science, 101, 451–465. Cerca con Google

Pierce Jr, J. D., Cohen, A. B., Chambers, J. A., & Meade, R. M. (2007). Gender differences in death anxiety and religious orientation among US high school and college students. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 10(2), 143-150. Cerca con Google

Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., & Solomon, S. (1999). A dual-process model of defense against conscious and unconscious death-related thoughts: an extension of terror management theory. Psychological review, 106(4), 835. Cerca con Google

Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Arndt, J., & Schimel, J. (2004). Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review. Psychological bulletin, 130(3), 435. Cerca con Google

Reis, H. T., & Judd, C. M. (2014). Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press. Cerca con Google

Ring, K. (1984). Heading toward omega: In search of the meaning of the near-death experience. New York, NY: Coward, McCann and Geoghegan. Cerca con Google

Rommer, B. (2000). Blessing in Disguise: Another side of the near-death experience. St. Paul, MN: Llewellyn. Cerca con Google

Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Cerca con Google

Rosenblatt, A., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., & Lyon, D. (1989). Evidence for terror management theory: I. The effects of mortality salience on reactions to those who violate or uphold cultural values. Journal of personality and social psychology, 57(4), 681. Cerca con Google

Rousseau, D. (2011). Physicalism, Christianity and the near-death experience. An essay review of out-of-body and near-death experiences: brain-state phenomena or glimpses of immortality. Journal of the Society for Psychical Research, 75(4), 225-234. Cerca con Google

Russac, R. J., Gatliff, C., Reece, M., & Spottswood, D. (2007). Death anxiety across the adult years: An examination of age and gender effects. Death studies, 31(6), 549-561. Cerca con Google

Sabom, M. B. (1982). Recollections of death: A medical investigation. New York, Ny: Harper and Row. Cerca con Google

Sauer, S., Walach, H., Schmidt, S., Hinterberger, T., Lynch, S., Büssing, A., & Kohls, N. (2013). Assessment of mindfulness: Review on state of the art. Mindfulness, 4(1), 3-17. Cerca con Google

Schimel, J., Hayes, J., Williams, T., & Jahrig, J. (2007). Is death really the worm at the core? Converging evidence that worldview threat increases death-thought accessibility. Journal of personality and social psychology, 92(5), 789. Cerca con Google

Schmeichel, B. J., & Martens, A. (2005). Self-affirmation and mortality salience: Affirming values reduces worldview defense and death-thought accessibility. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(5), 658-667. Cerca con Google

Schröter-Kunhardt, M. (1993). A review of near death experiences. Journal of scientific exploration, 7(3), 219-239. Cerca con Google

Schumaker, J. F., Barraclough, R. A., & Vagg, L. M. (1988). Death anxiety in Malaysian and Australian university students. The Journal of social psychology, 128(1), 41-47. Cerca con Google

Schumaker, J. F., Warren, W. G., & Groth-Marnat, G. (1991). Death anxiety in Japan and Australia. The Journal of social psychology, 131(4), 511-518. Cerca con Google

Shermer, M. (2013). Proof of Hallucination. Scientific American, 308(4), 86-86. Cerca con Google

Sleutjes, A., Moreira-Almeida, A., & Greyson, B. (2014). Almost 40 Years Investigating Near-Death Experiences: An Overview of Mainstream Scientific Journals. The Journal of nervous and mental disease, 202(11), 833-836. Cerca con Google

Smith, D. K., Nehemkis, A. M., & Charter, R. A. (1983–1984). Fear of death, death attitudes, and religious conviction in the terminally ill. International Journal of Psychiatric Medicine, 13, 221–232. Cerca con Google

Spielberger, C. D. (1983). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI (form Y)(" self-evaluation questionnaire"). Cerca con Google

Solomon, S., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (1991). A terror management theory of social behavior: The psychological functions of self-esteem and cultural worldviews. Advances in experimental social psychology, 24, 93-159. Cerca con Google

Solomon, S., Greenberg, J., & Pyszczynski, T. (2015). The worm at the core: On the role of death in life. Random House. Cerca con Google

Sutherland, C. (1992). Transformed by the light. Life after near-death experiences. New York, NY: Bantam Books. Cerca con Google

Sutherland, C. (2009). Trailing clouds of glory: The near-death experiences of western children and teens. In J. M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The handbook of near-death experiences: Thirty years of investigation (pp. 87-108). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO. Cerca con Google

Tassell-Matamua, N. A., & Lindsay, N. (2016). “I’m not afraid to die”: the loss of the fear of death after a near-death experience. Mortality, 21(1), 71-87. Cerca con Google

Tassell-Matamua, N., Lindsay, N., Bennett, S., Valentine, H., & Pahina, J. (2016). Does Learning About Near-Death Experiences Promote Psycho-Spiritual Benefits in Those Who Have Not Had a Near-Death Experience?. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health, 1-21. Cerca con Google

Templer, D. I. (1970). The construction and validation of a death anxiety scale. Journal of General Psychology, 82, 165-177. Cerca con Google

Testoni, I., Ancona, D., & Ronconi, L. (2015). The Ontological Representation of Death A Scale to Measure the Idea of Annihilation Versus Passage. OMEGA-Journal of death and dying, 71(1), 60-81. Cerca con Google

Thonnard, M., Charland-Verville, V., Brédart, S., Dehon, H., Ledoux, D., Laureys, S., & Vanhaudenhuyse, A. (2013). Characteristics of near-death experiences memories as compared to real and imagined events memories. PloS one, 8(3), e57620. Cerca con Google

Tomer, A. (1992). Death anxiety in adult life, theoretical perspectives . Death Studies, 16, 475–506. Cerca con Google

Tomer, A., & Eliason, G. (1996). Toward a comprehensive model of death anxiety. Death Studies, 20(4), 343-365. Cerca con Google

Vail, K. E., Rothschild, Z. K., Weise, D. R., Solomon, S., Pyszczynski, T., & Greenberg, J. (2010). A terror management analysis of the psychological functions of religion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(1), 84-94. Cerca con Google

van Lommel, P. (2013). Non-local Consciousness A Concept Based on Scientific Research on Near-Death Experiences During Cardiac Arrest. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 20(1-2), 7-48. Cerca con Google

van Lommel, P. (2010). Consciousness beyond life. The Science of the Near-Death Experience. New York: HarperCollins. Cerca con Google

van Lommel, P., van Wees, R., Meyers, V., & Elfferich, I. (2001). Near-death experience in survivors of cardiac arrest: a prospective study in the Netherlands. The Lancet, 358(9298), 2039-2045. Cerca con Google

Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of personality and social psychology, 54(6), 1063. Cerca con Google

Wegner, D. M. (1994). Ironic processes of mental control. Psychological review, 101(1), 34. Cerca con Google

Wilde, D. J., & Murray, C. D. (2009). The evolving self: finding meaning in near-death experiences using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 12(3), 223-239. Cerca con Google

Wittkowski, J. (2001). The construction of the multidimensional orientation toward dying and death inventory (MODDI-F). Death Studies, 25(6), 479-495. Cerca con Google

Wren-Lewis, J. (1994). Aftereffects of near-death experiences: A survival mechanism hypothesis. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 26(2), 107. Cerca con Google

Wong, P. T., Reker, G. T., & Gesser, G. (1994). Death Attitude Profile-Revised: A multidimensional measure of attitudes toward death. In R.A. Neimeyer (Ed.), Death anxiety handbook: Research, instrumentation, and application, (pp. 121-148). Washington, DC: Taylor & Francis. Cerca con Google

Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books. Cerca con Google

Zingrone, N. L., & Alvarado, C. S. (2009). Pleasurable Western adult near-death experiences: Features, circumstances, and incidence. In J. M. Holden, B. Greyson, & D. James (Eds.), The handbook of near-death experiences: Thirty years of investigation (pp. 17-40). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger/ABC-CLIO. Cerca con Google

Download statistics

Solo per lo Staff dell Archivio: Modifica questo record