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Miconi, Diana (2017) A multimethod study of risk and protective factors for socio-emotional adjustment among early adolescent immigrants in Italy. [Tesi di dottorato]

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Abstract (inglese)

The Italian context, in line with what is happening in many other European countries, is increasingly becoming a multicultural reality. Due to the growing number of immigrants worldwide, migrant youth are at present an integral part of our society. To ensure the successful integration and full realization of the immigrants’ potential, as well as to prevent behavioral risk and educational inequalities, it is fundamental that receiving societies invest in the well-being of immigrant youth.
Early adolescence represents a critical developmental period involving changes and challenges not only at the physical level, but also in the emotional, social and psychological domains. Such developmental processes are even more complicated for immigrant youth, who additionally need to face the challenges linked to having their “feet in two worlds”. Hence, one might think that immigrant preadolescents might generally be at higher risk of socio-emotional difficulties. However, this is not always the case, and mounting evidence suggests that immigrant youngsters manage to move adaptively across their worlds, coping without undue stress with these important developmental issues. Thus, the latest evidence invites researchers to overcome the deficit perspective which dominated past research on immigration in favor of a more positive oriented one, able to shed light on the resources that immigrant minors need as to adjust well to their societies. Indeed, immigrant youths’ adaptation seems to vary according to the unique interaction of different cultural, social and personal aspects.
Which variables could represent risk or protective factors for early adolescent immigrants’ socio-emotional adjustment? This question is the cradle of my doctoral thesis. Providing answers to this question would lay the ground for the development of valid interventions in cross-cultural contexts, needed now more than ever to promote the integration and well-being of immigrant populations.
Such an objective necessarily requires an integrative and multidisciplinary framework, taking into consideration the complexity that arises from different levels and developmental contexts in which immigrants’ adaptation is embedded: the cultural (e.g., ethnicity, receiving society), social (e.g., family, community), and individual levels (e.g., memory, impulsivity). In our studies, we focus on Moroccan, Romanian and Chinese immigrant families as they form the largest ethnic communities in Italy, a country where immigration is a still recent, but nonetheless growing phenomenon.
In Study 1, we assessed whether executive functions (EFs) moderated the association between self-construal and social adjustment among Moroccan, Romanian, and Italian early adolescents. Our results showed that the positive effect of having an interdependent orientation on social competence emerged to be stronger for Moroccan and Romanian immigrants with high levels of cognitive flexibility, as well as for Moroccan immigrants counting on high levels of inhibitory control. Last, working memory was associated with higher social competence, regardless of cultural influences.
In Study 2, we sought to examine whether the discrimination-problem behavior link was moderated by youths’ acculturation orientations and impulse control among Moroccan and Romanian early adolescent immigrants. The findings indicated that the negative effect of discrimination on behavioral adjustment was stronger for immigrants who endorsed separation as acculturation strategy, but only at low levels of impulse control. In contrast, in face of discriminatory experiences, a good impulse control represented a risk for behavioral problems among assimilated immigrants. In addition, discrimination had a detrimental effect on behavioral adjustment especially for Romanian immigrants when they could not count on good levels of impulse control.
In Study 3, we aimed to investigate whether EFs moderated the association between parental practices and emotional-behavioral problems among Chinese immigrant and Italian non-immigrant early adolescents. Our results indicated that a scarce level of inhibitory control represented a risk factor in situations of inadequate parental supervision for both groups. In contrast, a better cognitive flexibility put Chinese immigrant early adolescents at more risk of emotional-behavioral problems when left unsupervised. Last, working memory was associated with better emotional-behavioral adjustment, regardless of cultural and family influences.
Our work highlights the complex processes involved in immigrant youth’s adaptation, which results from an intricate reality made of cultural influences, developmental contexts and personal characteristics. Overall, the findings highlight both commonalities and specificities in patterns of associations among personal, family/social, and cultural variables across groups. The acknowledgment of the complexity of such results paves the way to some potential guidelines for clinical implications and future research. Cognitive flexibility, inhibitory control, and working memory may represent important assets for preadolescent immigrants’ positive adaptation. However, each of these individual abilities can assume different meanings and functions according to ethnic and personal differences which are unique to each single adolescent.
Our hope is for future researchers and professionals to explore subjective meanings attributed to personal experiences, taking into account the individual and cultural specificities of each young immigrant. This is how we can build bridges between different developmental and cultural contexts, as to facilitate adjustment processes in immigration and multicultural contexts.

Abstract (italiano)

Il contesto italiano, in linea con la situazione di molti altri stati europei, si delinea sempre più come una realtà multiculturale. L’aumento del numero di persone immigrate a livello internazionale ha fatto sì che una parte sempre più cospicua della nostra società sia rappresentata da minori stranieri. Per garantire l’integrazione e la piena realizzazione del potenziale degli immigrati, e per prevenire il rischio di disuguaglianze educative e psicologiche, è fondamentale che le società riceventi investano nella promozione del benessere dei ragazzi immigrati.
La preadolescenza è un periodo critico per lo sviluppo, ricco di cambiamenti e di sfide evolutive non solo a livello fisico, ma anche sul piano emotivo, sociale, nonché psicologico. Questi processi evolutivi sono ancora più complicati per i minori immigrati, che si ritrovano in più a dover affrontare anche le sfide legate all’“essere a cavallo tra due mondi”. Verrebbe quindi da pensare che i ragazzi immigrati siano tendenzialmente a maggior rischio di problemi socio-emotivi. Tuttavia non è sempre così e un numero crescente di studi dimostra come questi ragazzi riescano a viaggiare tra un mondo e l’altro in modo adattivo, affrontando senza particolari conseguenze negative questi importanti compiti evolutivi. Così, ricerche recenti invitano a superare la prospettiva deficitaria che ha regnato a lungo nello scenario della ricerca sull’immigrazione, per fare posto a una visione più positiva, che illumini le risorse che questi minori sviluppano per riuscire a vivere bene nella loro società. Infatti, l’adattamento degli immigrati sembra variare a seconda di come diversi aspetti culturali, sociali e personali interagiscono tra loro.
Quali sono le variabili che possono rappresentare dei fattori di rischio o di protezione per l’adattamento socio-emotivo dei preadolescenti immigrati? Questa è la domanda al centro di questa tesi di dottorato. Una risposta anche parziale a questa domanda potrebbe gettare le basi per lo sviluppo di interventi validi in contesti multiculturali, necessari ora più che mai per promuovere l’integrazione e il benessere delle popolazioni immigrate.
Un obiettivo del genere richiede necessariamente una cornice teorica multidisciplinare e integrativa, che riesca a tenere conto della complessità dei diversi livelli e contesti di sviluppo in cui si colloca l’adattamento dei giovani immigrati: il livello culturale (ad es., etnia, società ospite), sociale (ad es., famiglia, comunità) ed individuale (ad es., memoria, impulsività). Nei nostri studi, ci concentriamo sulle famiglie immigrate marocchine, romene e cinesi, che rappresentano le più numerose comunità immigrate in Italia, un paese in cui l’immigrazione è un fenomeno recente, ma in forte crescita.
Nel primo studio abbiamo indagato come le funzioni esecutive (FE) moderassero la relazione tra concetto di sé e adattamento sociale in un campione di preadolescenti marocchini, romeni e italiani. I nostri risultati hanno evidenziato che l’effetto positivo dell’aver un orientamento interdipendente sul livello di competenza sociale è più forte per i ragazzi marocchini e romeni con un alto livello di flessibilità cognitiva, così come per i ragazzi marocchini che possono contare su alti livelli di controllo inibitorio. Infine, la memoria di lavoro è risultata associata ad una migliore competenza sociale indipendentemente dalle influenze ethniche e culturali.
Nel secondo studio abbiamo cercato di capire se l’associazione tra discriminazione e comportamenti problematici fosse moderata dalle strategie di acculturazione e dal livello di controllo degli impulsi in ragazzi marocchini e romeni immigrati. Abbiamo trovato che l’effetto negativo della discriminazione percepita sull’adattamento psicologico sembra essere particolarmente forte per i ragazzi immigrati che scelgono la separazione come strategia di acculturazione, ma solo quando non possono contare su un buon livello di controllo degli impulsi. Al contrario, di fronte ad episodi discriminatori, un buon controllo degli impulsi può rappresentare un rischio di maggiori problematiche comportamentali per i ragazzi assimilati. Inoltre, la discriminazione è risultata avere un effetto dannoso per l’adattamento specialmente per quei ragazzi romeni che non possono contare su buoni livelli di controllo degli impulsi.
Nel terzo studio eravamo invece interessati ad investigare se le FE moderassero l’associazione tra le pratiche genitoriali e i problemi emotivo-comportamentali in preadolescenti cinesi e italiani. I nostri risultati hanno indicato che un livello scarso di controllo inibitorio rappresenta un fattore di rischio in situazioni di inadeguata supervisione genitoriale in entrambi i gruppi. Invece, livelli più alti di flessibilità cognitiva rendono i ragazzi cinesi immigrati più vulnerabili a problematiche emotivo-comportamentali quando lasciati senza supervisione. Infine, la memoria di lavoro è risultata associata ad un migliore adattamento indipendentemente dalle influenze culturali e familiari.
Il nostro lavoro mette in luce la complessità dei processi coinvolti nell’adattamento dei ragazzi immigrati, frutto di un’intricata realtà fatta di influenze culturali, contesti di sviluppo e caratteristiche personali. In generale, i nostri risultati evidenziano sia somiglianze sia specificità nei pattern di associazioni tra variabili personali, familiari/sociali e culturali nei nostri gruppi. Il riconoscimento della complessità di questi risultati ci permette di suggerire alcune implicazioni cliniche e di ricerca per il futuro. Sembra che la flessibilità cognitiva, il controllo inibitorio e la memoria di lavoro possano essere delle importanti risorse per i preadolescenti immigrati, ma sembra anche che ognuna di queste capacità possa assumere significati e ruoli diversi a seconda del background etnico e personale di ciascun ragazzo.
L’invito è quindi ad esplorare i significati soggettivi attribuiti all’esperienza, tenendo conto delle specificità individuali e culturali di ciascun ragazzo immigrato. Solo così sarà possibile promuovere iniziative che sostengano la costruzione di ponti tra i vari contesti culturali e di sviluppo per agevolare i processi di adattamento nei contesti di immigrazione.


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Tipo di EPrint:Tesi di dottorato
Relatore:Moscardino, Ughetta
Correlatore:Di Riso, Daniela
Dottorato (corsi e scuole):Ciclo 29 > Corsi 29 > SCIENZE PSICOLOGICHE
Data di deposito della tesi:27 Gennaio 2017
Anno di Pubblicazione:27 Gennaio 2017
Parole chiave (italiano / inglese):immigration; early adolescence; socio-emotional adjustment; risk and protective factors; executive functions; discrimination; acculturation; parenting; self-construals
Settori scientifico-disciplinari MIUR:Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/05 Psicologia sociale
Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/07 Psicologia dinamica
Area 11 - Scienze storiche, filosofiche, pedagogiche e psicologiche > M-PSI/04 Psicologia dello sviluppo e psicologia dell'educazione
Struttura di riferimento:Dipartimenti > Dipartimento di Psicologia dello Sviluppo e della Socializzazione
Codice ID:9979
Depositato il:14 Nov 2017 15:53
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